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On the 26tli of Jaiuiary 1857, the Master of the Rolls 
submitted to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Romans to the Reign of Henry VIII. 

Tlie Master of the Rolls suggested that tliese materials 
should be selected for publication under competent 
editors without reference to periodical or chronological 
arrangement, without mutilation or abridgment, prefer- 
ence being given, in the first instance, to such materials 
as were most scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical docu- 
ment to be edited should be treated in the same way as 
if the editor were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and 
for this purpose the most correct text should be formed 
from an accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 

of the Rolls suggested that the editor should give an 

accoimt of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 

their peculiarities; that he should add to the work a 

brief account of the life and times of the author, and any 

remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but no 

other note or comment was to be allowed, except what 

might be necessary to establish the correctness of the 


a 2 


The works to be published in octavo, separately, as 
they were finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the Eolls with the sanction of the Treasury. 

The Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the HoUs '' was well 
calculated for the accomplislmient of this important 
national object, in an effectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention 
be paid to economy, in making the detailed arrange- 
ments, without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each chronicle and liistorical document .should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent mth all possible cor- 
rectness the text of each writer, derived from a collation 
of the best MSS., and that no notes should be added, 
except such as were illustrative of the various readings. 
They suggested, however, that the preface to each work 
should contain, in addition to the particulars proposed 
by tlie Master of the Rolls, a biographical account of 
the author, so far as authentic materials existed for that 
purpose, and an estimate of his historical credibility and 

Bolls House, 

Deremher IHoT. 

ixy U ftLil yvAi'elpfc Voti xtvecp -j p' jrav ■S-p eft 
"T if l^^'^^^^^^' |^oTi-mxe&''iic vipHe--^IIf<fr][ve-' 
-]p-yp^lwlo'^>on|>a hot-cu j^'uchoman 'Tip 

IftiP-arv Ha^ onprtjii?- "itf-Wmi^ njiKnucl n lol'o 

e _ ^ ^ 

lortvvn '^^|iiipe-^n"li'a TO&^Toyonmt- m.\K. -ipic 

ir,rnwciii¥-^ Wile Urn ^nim nii^lnnimciA.^cnil'lim 
\ -1 ncvne roftcu) • ^ip-hti ptfem Tmvro o bjvfn i^va. 

MS. RE<3. 12. D.XYIX. fol .'53d 








i;y TIIK 









V. 2 

, Trill ted by 

EiKli and Spottiswoode, Her Majesty's Prinlefj 
For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. 



Preface - - - - - - vii 

Leech Book. Book I. - - - - 1 

Book II. ...... 158 

Book III. - - - - 300 

Glossaky - - - - - -361 

Index of Pkoper Names - - - - 415 



No historical records are complete without the usual 
chapter on Manners and Customs ; and the true scholar 
never feels himself well in possession of the I'equisite 
knowledge of the past age, till he has so learnt its 
time honoured tale, as to apprehend in a human and 
practical sense those feelings which made its super- 
stitions plausible, its heathenism social, its public 
institutions tend, in the end, to the general welfare. 

The Saxons have not been more fortunate than others 
in their appreciation by us, self satisfied moderns. They 
have been, and still .are, I believe, commonly regarded 
as mangy dogs, whose success against the Keltic race 
in this country was owing chiefly to their starved 
condition and ravening hunger. The children protest 
that, positively, as they know from their most reUable 
handbooks, these roving savages stuffed their bellies 
mth acorns, and the enlightened literati and dilettanti 
begrudge them any feeling of respect for their queens 
and ladies, or any arts such as befit our " Albion's 
" glorious isle " under an Encflish kino-. 

The work now published for the first time, and 
from a unique manuscript, will, if duly studied, afford 
a large store of information to a very difierent effect, 
and show us that the inhabitants of this land in 
Saxon times were able to extract a very fair sliaie 
of comfortable food, and healing medicines, and savoury 
drinks directly or indirectly from it. Many readers 


will be glad to see drawn together into one the scat- 
tered notices which occur most plentifully here, and 
occasionally elsewhere, upon this matter. 

At his noon meat or dinner, at the Itova nona, or 
ninth hour of the day,^ for the word noon has now 
changed its sense, the Saxon spread his table duly 
and suitably with a table cloth.^ He could place on 
it for the entertainment of his family and household, 
the flesh of neat cattle,*' now Normanized, as Sir Walter 
Scott has made familiar to all, into beef, the flesh of 
sheep,* now called mutton, of pig, of goat,*" of calf,^ of 
deer, especially the noble hart,*^ of wild boar," the pea- 
cock, swan, duck,' culver or pigeon,^ waterfowl, barn- 
door fowl,'^ geese, '° and a great variety of wild fowl, 
which the fowler caught with net, noose, birdlime, 
birdcalls, hawks, and traps ;'^ salmon, eels, hake, pil- 
chards, eelpouts,^- trout, lampreys, herrings, sturgeon, 
oysters, crabs, periwinkles, plaice, lobsters, sprats,^^ 
and so on.^* 

The cookery of these viands was not wholly contemp- 
tible. It was entrusted to professors of that admired 
art,^'^ who could, though their accomplishments have 
been neglected by the annalists, put on the board 
oyster patties, ^*^ and fowls stuffed with bread and such 
worts as parsley.''^ Weaker stomachs could have light 

' Horn. II. 256. Also Seo vunne 
aJjyjTjiobe.vpam mibbaej;^' o'iS non, 
JI.II. 158 a, The mm was darkened 
from midday tdl noon. Even here 
our dictionaries blunder. 

- Beobcla'5, vE.G. 8,lincol. Myj'c 
hjiBegel, I>ye. 

* Lb. II. vii., etc. 

' Coll. Monasticon, p. •!{). 

■- Lb. II. xvi. 

" Coll. Mon. p. ±1. 

■ Lb. IL xvi. 

"■■ Lb, II. XXX. 2. 

' DD. 504 ; Lb. II. xvi. 2, 

'" Lb. II. xvi. 2, 

" Coll. Mon. p. 25. 

'- Young eels (Kersey). 

'■' Sppoccas not in the dictionaries. 
JJcsides two passages in which it 
occurs, reserved for reasons which 
readers of the Shrine will under- 
stand, it occurs Coll. Mon. p. 23. 
See French Celerin, Selerin ; the 
MS. has Salin. 

' ' Coll. Mon. pp. 23, 24. 

'' Coll. Mon. p. 29. 

'" Lb. II. xxiii. 

"Lb. HLxii. 



food, chickens,' giblets, pigs trotters,^ eggs, broth, 
various preparations of milk, some of the nature of 

From some of their drawings, their cookery of meat 
seems to have been more Homeric^ than Roman or 
modern English, for we see portions of meat brought 
up on small spits, all hot, to the table. All food that 
required it was sweetened with honey, before men had 
betaken themselves to sugar. For fruits, we know 
they had sweet apples,''' which are not indigenous to 
England, pears, peaches,*^ medlars, plums, and cherries. 

Saxons, thus well provided with eatables, could 
satisfy thirst with not a few good and savoury drinks ; 
with beer, with strong beer, with ale, with strong ale, 
with clear ale, with foreign ale, and with what they 
called twybrowen, that is, double brewed ale, a luxury, 
now rare, and rare too then probably.'' These ales 
and beers were, of course, to deserve the name, and 
as wo learn from many passages of the present publi- 
cation, made of malt, and some of them, not all pro- 
l>ably, were hopped.^ I have sufficiently, in the Glos- 
sary,^ established that tlie hop plant and its use were 
known to the Saxons, and that they called it by a 
name, after which I have inquired in vain among 
hop growers and hop pickers in Worcestershire and 
Kent, the Hymele.'" The hop grows wild in our hedges, 
male and female, and the Saxons in this state called 
it the hedge hj^mele ; a good valid presumption that they 
knew it in its fertility. Three of the Saxon legal deeds 

' As before. 
- Lb. II. i. 
^ Gl. ylecan. 

•• Kai a./x(p' o^eXoKTiv tQrjKav. 
' Mylsee asppla, Lb. II. xvi. 
" Persocas, Lb. p. 176 ; Lacn. 89 ; 
AiSa|. .31. 

• Lb. T. xlvii. .1. 

^ Hb, Ixviii. 

" See also Preface, Vol. I. p. Iv. 

'" I find Ymele, fem., gen -an, for 
a roll, scroll, volumen. The Ilymele 
is in glossaries frequently Voliihilis ; 
and the two suggest a derivation for 
either from Ymbe = 'Aficpi, so that 
Ilvmele means coiler. 


extant refer ^ to a liide of land at Hymel-tim in Wor- 
cestershire, tlie land of the garden hop, and as tun 
means an enclosure, there can he not much doubt that 
this was a hop farm. The bounds of it ran down to 
the hymel brook, or hop plant brook, a name which 
occurs about the Severn and the Worcestershire Avon 
in other deeds. One of the unpublished glossaries 
affords the Saxon word Hopu, Hojos,^ and Hopwood in 
Worcestershire doubtless is thence named. Perhaps, 
to explain some testimonies to a more recent impor- 
tation of hops, it may be suggested that, as land or 
sea carriage of pockets of hops from Worcestershire to 
London or the southern ports was difficult, the use of 
the hop was long confined to that their natural soil, 
while the Kentish hops may be a gift from Germany. 

A table is well enough furnished where the flagons 
are filled with good malt liquor ; it is flat heresy, they 
say, to discover mischief in University " particular :" 
but, notwithstanding, the Saxons drank also mead, an 
exhilarating beverage, which from its sweetness must 
have been better suited to the palates of the ladies, 
and which was of an antiquity far anterior to written 
or legendary history. They had also great store of 
wines, which they distinguished by their qualities, as 
clear, austere, sweet, rather than by their provinces or 
birth. They made up also artificial diinks, oxymel, 
hydromel, mulled wines, and a Clear drink, or Claret/"^ 
of the nature of those beverages which are now called 

Salt, which is an indispensable condiment to civilized 
man, they obtained from Cheshire and Worcestershire, 
where they had furnaces for the evaporation of the 

' CD. 209, 080, lOGG. 1 lleve them to be the hloKSoms of 

- " Lygistra hopu," Gl. Cleop. privet. 
f. 57 a. Ligustra, though known to ^ See the Glossary in jMuttoji 
every ear, by the line Alba ligustra bpenc. 
caduut, were long doubtful ; we be- I 



brine.^ Salt fm* salted meats,- which also were quite 
familiar to them, might be got from the saltpans on 
the sea shore. 

The dishes, on which their meats were served, were 
sometimes of silver,^ nor was this esteemed a high 
distinction.'^ The vessels from which they drank were 
sometimes of glass f and those they had also transpa- 
rent in quality.'^' The supply upon the tables of a chief- 
tain, who had many retainers, was abundant, and not 
over studious of luxury and refinement.' When not 
engaged in war or hunting, the princes thought a good 
deal of their gormandize.^ Festive assemblies were more 
frequent than among other races of men ; they were 
duly ordered, and attended by gleemen, from whose 
lips the honeysweets of song flowed readily and freely, 
and whose reward came from the munificence of the 
prince. The feasts not rarely lasted through the 

In the monastic colloquy, an exercise for students, 
who were to be "bilingues," capable of conversing in 
their own language and in that of Rome, which is, 
therefore, quite destitute of artifice or ambition, a boy 
is asked what he has to eat. His reply i^^, worts (that 
is, kitchen herbs), fish, cheese, butter, beans, and flesh 
meats. He drinks ale, and, if he cannot get that, water, 
for he cannot afford wine. This is the daily diet of 
a boy under education in a monastery. 

Altogether, if the comfortable prejudices of modernism 
do not shut out trustworthy and contemporary testi- 

' CD. 451. 

- Lb. p. 234, etc. 

^ Discus argenteus regalibus 
epulis refertus, Becla, III. vi. 

* Est videre apud illos argentese 
vasa, legatis et pi'incipibus eorum 
muneri datse, non in alia vilitate 
quam qua; bumo finguntur. Tacitus, 
Germ. 5. 

■' Calicem is translated slsej-yaer, 
Beda, p. 618, line 12. 

« C.E. 78, ult. 

■ Epiilffi et, quanquam incompti, 
largi tamen adparatus, Tacit. Germ. 

* Dediti somno ciboque. Tacit. 
Germ. 15. 

'■' Tacit. Germ. 22. 



mony the Saxons must be concluded to be very far 
removed from that pasturage upon the lierb of the 
field whicli was the regale of human innocence, and 
that feeding upon grass which was the doom of an 
arrogant Oriental king. They seem to dine like Eng- 

The Saxon imported purple palls, and silk, precious 
gems, gold, rare vestments, drugs, wine, oil, ivory, ori- 
chalclium (a very fine mixed metal of gold and silver), 
brass, brimstone, glass, and many more such articles.^ 
Tin came by water from Cornwall. Their enterprise by 
sea was distinguished ; the}^ pursued the dangerous 
whale, and were known for their adventurous hostile 
landings upon the Gallic coasts before they had settled 
in this country.^ 

When the Saxons got possession of Britain, they 
found it, not such as Julius C?esar describes it, but 
cultivated and improved by all that the Romans knew 
of agriculture and gardening. Hence rue, hyssop, fennel, 
mustard, elecampane, southernwood, celandine, radish, 
cummin, onion, '"' lupin, chervil, flower de luce, flax 
probably, rosemary, savory, lovage, parsley, coriander, 
olusatrum, savine, were found in their gardens and 
available for their medicines. Among the foreign drugs, 
or the like, which are mentioned in this volume, we find 
mastich, pepper, galbanum, scamony, gutta ammoniaca, 
cinnamon, vermilion, aloes, pumice, quicksilver, brim- 
stone, myrrh, frankincense, petroleum,'* ginger. 

The Saxons and Engie for the supply of their tables, 
thus, as we have seen, abundantly supplied, kept herds 
of cattle. The agriculture was in great measure, with 
alterations adapted to the moister climate, and with 
improvements from lapse of time and from other coun- 

' Col. Mon. p. 27. 

■-' Ainmianiis Marcellinus, xxviii. 

^ Ynneleac has for its first ele- 
ment a Latinism, unionem, onion. 

'Lb. pp. 53, .'iT, 01, 101, 125 



tries, Roman. Among them arable land was excellently 
cared for, much on the same method as we observe on 
the downs of Kent, the garden of England. By throw- 
ing a thousand small allotments into one great field, 
they were well rid of the encumbrance, the weeds, the 
birds, the boys going a birdnesting, and the repair of 
hedges or other fences. But the pasture land was not 
so well managed. The Romans, who had an elaborate 
machinery of aqueducts and irrigation, grew hay in their 
prata, or meadows, which were artificially supplied with 
water, and to get two crops a year, or three or four,' 
gave a large flow of that element to the soil. This, 
of course, had its inconveniences, herbs that thrive in 
wet came up stronger than the grass, especially horse- 
tail, and a " nummulus " with pods. They had an awk- 
ward inefiicient way of cutting the grass with a hook, 
held in the right hand only, and this was followed 
by a second operation, called sickling,^ to cut what the 
hooks had left. They tedded the hay, as is done now, 
by hand, with forks, ^ took care it should be dry enough 
not to ferment, leaving it in cocks,* and when ready 
carried it off to the farm,^ and stored it in a loft.^ 

Our forefathers here were able, from the frequent Hay. 
rains, to dispense for the most part with irrigation. 
They cut the hay with sithes,' the pattern of which 
was probably borrowed from the continental Kelts, '^ and, 
most naturally, by the subdued British before the settle- 
ment of the English, since they were relatives, spoke 

' Interamnse in Umbria quater 
anno secantur etiam non rigua, 
Plin. xviii. 67=2S. 

2 Sicilire ; Plin. as above, Varro, 
E.R. i. 19. 

8 Furcillis. 

* Meta;. 

* Villa. 

" In tabulate. Sub tecto, Colu- 
mella, II. xix. 


' Horn. II. p. 162. Also a Saxon 
drawing in MS. Cott. Tiber. B. v., 
where the painter has given straight 
handles to the sithes ; and has cer- 
tainly committed an error in draw- 
ing haymaking for August, and 
reaping for June. 

** Galliarum latifundia maioris 
compendii, Plin. as above. 



tlie language, and were in frequent communication with 
Gaul. They stored the hay in ricks ^ and mows,- where 
it was less likely to get mouldy than in the half close 
lofts of the Romans. 

But according to the Roman system little hay was 
prepared thus, there were legal impediments to ex- 
tending widely the formation of inclosed pasturage^, and 
we read often enough of feeding the cattle upon leaves, 
or rather on foliage.^ The man employed in procuring 
small boughs for his cattle was called Frondator.^ The 
greater part, by far, of Italian pasture land was common, 
overspread by bushes and trees, where the employment 
of herdsmen and shepherds was indispensable, and im- 
provement was almost impossible. 
Cattle thieves. In the same way, in early England, a grass fiekP is 
rarely heard of, while the law books are full of pre- 
cautions against cattle thieves, whose bad business was 
made easy by the threadmg commons and wide moors, 
along which a stolen herd could be driven, j)icking up 
subsistence on its way, and evading observation by 
keeping off the great roads. So much were the farmers 
pestered with cattle thefts, that the legislature required 
responsible witnesses to the transfer of such property, 
and would have it transacted in open market; it also 
invented a team ; that is to say, when Z, who has lost 
his oxen, found them and identified them in possession 
of A, the said A was bound by trustworthy witnesses 
to show that he had them lawfully from B ; B was 
then compelled to go through the same process, and to 

' This word is not in the Saxon 
dictionaries, and I will not at pre- 
sent indicate the passage where it is 

to he found. Sa^ l^jL^juie^ eicXia. 
•-.x.'J / ...'I. /> ^ . hre^c , Oi^t^d. £ 

■"^'Mugan, Exodus xxii. 6 

" Quid maiora sequar ? Salices 
" humilesque genistae 

" Aiit ilia; pecori frondem aut 

" pastoribus umbram 
" SufEciunt." 

Virgil. Georgic. II. 434. 
" Hie ubi densas agricola; strin- 
" gunt frondes." 

Id. Eel. ix. 60. 
' Virgil. Eel. I. 57. 
^ Gaejjj^un. 


sliow that lie gave honest money for them to C ; thus 
a team or row of successive owners was unravelled till 
it ended in P, who had neglected to secure credible 
witnesses to his bargain ; or in Q, who bought them 
at a risky price from the actual thief Then Z recovered 
his cattle or their value.^ Under this legislation the 
chief difficulty of a loser was to trace the direction in 
which his cattle had been driven off, and the skill of 
the hunter in tracking the slot of the deer, helped to 
follow the foot prints of horse or sheep or ox.^ The 
less fertile parts of England are still patched by strips 
of common, or ways with grassy wastes skirting them, 
and the wanderer may often ramble by hedgerow elms 
mid hillocks green, among the primroses and violets, 
by ups and downs, through quagmires and over gates, 
from his furthest point for the day, till he nears the 
town and his inn. Elwes, the famous miser, could ride 
seventy miles out of London without paying turnpike. 
The Saxon herdsman watched the livelono- nie^ht.^ 

The Saxons also, like the Romans, fed their cattle, Cattle fed on 
sometimes, so as to make the notion familiar, with the ^^aves. 
foliage of trees. In his life of St. Cu6berht, the venerable 
Beda gives an account of a worthy Hadwald (Eadwald), 
a faithful servant of ^Iflced, abbess of Whitby, who was 
killed by falling from a tree.^ ^Ifric three hundred 
years afterwards telling the same story, gives us either 
from some collateral tradition, by writing may be, may 
be by word, or from his judgment of what was naturally 
the mans business at tree climbing, an account that this 
tree was an oak, and that he was feeding the cattle 
with the foliage, so that he was killed in discharge 
of his duty as herdsman.-'^ In the summer of 18G4< this 

' DD. in many passages. 

^ Ho^pec, Focppop. 

3 Coll. Mon. p. 20. Tota nocte 
sto super eos vigilando propter 

■* Incautius in arborem ascen- 
dens deciderat deorsiun, Beda, 256, 

5 Horn. II. 150. 

b 2 



poor resource is said to have been used in some counties 
of England, notwithstanding the " great strides science 
" has made." 

Sheep. Sheep were driven to pasture by their shepherd with 

his dosrs. and at nis^ht were taken back home and fokled.' 
With goats, sheep provided most part of the milk and 
cheese consumed in early times ; cow butter is fre- 
quently named in this volume by way of distinction ; 
these smaller beasts were robbed of their milk from the 
teats between the hind legs. A Saxon calendar heads 
the month of May with a painting representing sheep and 
goats under the shepherds care. 

Swine. Swine w^ere entrusted to the swineherd, who pastured 

them in his masters woods, or on a customary per- 
centage of the stock,- in the woods of some other pro-. 
prietor. He had a perquisite, a sty pig out of the farrow, 
with another for his comrade or deputy, besides the 
usual dues of servitors.^ 

Boar hunting. A drawing of a purely Saxon type, in a Saxon manu- 
script, represents the hunting of the wild boar ; a thane, 
or as we say gentleman, on foot, has some wild pigs, 
bristly and yellowish brown, in view ; he carries a long 
boar spear, and his left hand rests on the hilt of his 
sword, which is to save his life, if the boar charges ; 
he is followed by an unarmed attendant, with a pair 
of dogs in a leash, and a hunting horn. The painter 
has probably assigned this drawing to the wrong 

Ilawliing. The same artist has drawn a Saxon gentleman out 

a hawking on horseback, with an attendant on foot, 
each provided with a haAvk; the wild fowl, ducks or 
teal, are in the picture, these the hawk dispatched 

' Coll. :\ron. 20. 

- One tliirrl of very fat ones, one 
fourth, and one fifth of less fat. 
DD. p. 58. 

'DD. p. 187. 

■• September. To say this painting 
represents herding swine is a strange 
inaccuracy. No hand is raised to 
shake down mast. 


quicldy, splitting their skulls with a stroke of his beak, 
A large bird, perhaps a heron, is introduced into the 

Feather beds, with bolsters and pillows, were in use 
in Saxon times. ^ 

It seemed necessary to pave the way for an examina- England 
tion of the work now published by some such remarks ^^^' ^^^ ' 
as these, which are not all trite or matters of course ; 
in order that the minds of readers not very familiar 
with these early times might give the rest of our facts 
a readier acceptance. The entire scope and tenor of 
all that we possess in the way of home literature, laws, 
deeds, histories, poems, regarding these Angles and 
Saxons, implies a tolerable degree of civilization ; and 
many modem writers have persistently misrepresented 
their customs, and pretended to unloose the very bonds 
of society among them. I take leave to touch on one 
or two points, tending still to prepare us for the facts 
on the face of the present volume. 

Tacitus says that the German races were well pleased Coins, 
with Roman money, and that such coins as were of 
approved value, the milled edged, and the pair horse 
chariot stamped,^ had currency among them. In Eng- 
land the kings, great and small, learned to imitate on 
their own account the currency of Eome. Writers on 
the subject dwell upon this, and we are, in our mended 
age, ourselves guilty of this want of originality. Saxon 
pennies are common enough, but the numismatists say 
that they coined no gold, because no gold coins have 
been turned up. Saxon gold mancuses are mentioned 
in twenty different passages of manuscripts : they were 
not money of account, for we read of mancuses by 
weight ; and a will, nov/ in the hands of a zealous 
editor, settles the question by the following words : 
" Then let twenty hundred mancuses of gold be taken 

' Gl. Soiun. p. 60 b, line 40. | - Serratos bigatosque. 




" and coined into mancuses ;" ^ that is, there was a gold 
coin of a determinate weight called a mancus, and coined 
in England. Suppose when the document is fairly be- 
fore us that this will turn out suspect ; suppose it be 
pronounced a forgery ; still we have Saxon authority 
for coininof wold mancuses, and at home. All works 
that touch the subject, know that there were in those 
times royal mints and royal moneyers. 

The Glossary appended to this work exhibits, from 
among a still wider list, a large number of names of 
herbs ; and materials exist for determining most of these 
to full conviction. The change of residence produced 
doubtless some confusion, by depriving the Saxons of spe- 
cimens of the trees and plants answering to their names. 
The Germanic races had not before their arrival here 
pushed down upon the Mediterranean ^hores, but we 
all know historically that they had not been confined 
to cold climates, and one very curious proof exists 
that in some instances the name they fixed on a plant 
was appropriate only to its aspect in warmer countries.^ 
It is true that the oak, beech, birch, hawthorn, sloe- 
thorn, bore native names, but elm,^ walnut, maple, 
holly,* are equally native names ; and, except the 
walnut, native trees. The cherry was brought to Italy 
by Lucullus, from Kspatrouj, Cerasus, a city of Cappadocia, 
where it was plentiful, and it has ever borne the 
same name. The students of nature learn that many 
species of its Fauna, and also, though less so, of its Flora, 
can be traced to a single spot. Thus the peach, peppoc, 

' panne mmpe (read nime) man 
tpencij; hunb mancufa golbep -] 
gemynerige to mancujan, HID. fol. 
21 a. The transcript is not by any 
means cotemporary. 

2 1 regret I cannot here explain 
this fully. 

^ Not a Latinism. 

* Holen, which is originally an 

adjective, Hole5n,HoleSen, and even 
now so applied to Holn Wood on 
the banks of the Dart, near Ash- 
burton. Holej, Holly, is the ori- 
ginal substantive, C.E. 437, line 
19. The old Latin name is Aqui- 
folius : the Ilex was glandiferous, 
the evergreen^ oak. 

PREFACE. ' xis 

Malum Persicum, was from Persia ; there is no other 
name for it but " the Persian apple/' For such as these 
it was impossible to have any other name ; they were 
fruit trees foreign to all but their own countrymen. 
The plum is a better sloe ; can be raised only by graft- 
ing, for seedlings are found to degenerate; which is 
also the case with the pear, having its native equivalent 
in the Pirus domestica, of Bewdley Forest. The syca- 
more, which has been alleged to prove the Latinism 
of the Saxons, is merely a maple. Yet the great 
influence which a Latin education, and scarce any in- 
struction in old English, has upon ourselves, is trace- 
able even among the Saxons : the true signification of 
some native names was passing away, and the plants 
supposed once to have borne them began to be known 
by some Roman denomination. For so common a plant 
as mint, seen in every running ditch, on every watery 
marge, there seems to be no name but that which is 
Hellenic, and Latin. The Germanic races, on the con- 
trary, were the original patrons of hemp ' and flax,^ 
as against wool. It is, however, with their reach over 
the material world, and their proficiency in the arts 
which turn it to mans convenience, after, and not 
before, their arrival in England, that we are now deal- 
ing ; and we maintain that a great part of what the 
Roman could teach, the Saxons, their successors, had 

The most cursory examination of the work now Book learning, 
before us will show that we are reading of a civiliza- 
tion such as the above details would lead us to ex- 
pect. Here a leech calmly sits down to compose a 
not unlearned book, treating of many serious diseases, 
and assigning for them something he hopes will cure 
them. In the Preface to the first volume it was ad- 

* Vol. I. p. X. note. 

^Feminae saepius lineis amictibus utuntur. Tacitus, Germ. 17. 



The maau- 

mitted that Saxon leeches fell short of the daring skill of 
Hellas, or the wondrous success of the leading medical 
men of either branch in London or Paris. Notwith- 
standing that this is a learned book, it sometimes sinks 
to mere driveling, The author almost always rejects 
the Greek recipes, and doctors as an herborist. It 
will give any one who has the heart of a man in him 
a thrill of horror to compare the Saxon dose of brook- 
lime and pennyi'oyal twice a day, for a mother whose 
child is dead -within her,^ with the chapter in Celsus 
devoted to this subject, in which we read, as in his 
inmost soul, an anxious courageous care, and a sense 
of responsibility mixed with determination to do his 
utmost, which is, even to a reader, agitating.^ 

The volume consists of two parts ; a treatise on 
medicine in two books, with its proper colophon at 
the end, and a third of a somewhat more monkish 
character. The book itself probably once belonged to 
the abbey of Glastonbury, for a catalogue of the books 
of that foundation, cited by Wanley,^ contains the entry 
" Medicinale Anglicum," which is rightly interpreted, 
" Saxonice scriptum ;" and this book, rebound in 1757, 
has preserved on one of the fly leaves an old almost 
illegible inscription, " Medicinale Anglicum." Search 
has been made for any record of the books, Avhich, on 
the dissolution of the monasteries, might have found 
their way from Glastonbury to the Royal Library, but 
in vain. 

An earlier, the first, owner is pointed out in the 

Bald habet hunc librum, Gild quem conscribere iussit. 

' Lb. p. 331. 

* Adhibenda curatio est, quce 
numerari inter difficillimas potest. 
Nam et summam prudentiam mo- 
derationemque desiderat, et maxi- 

mum periculum affert. Celsus, VII. 

=* Hickes, Tliesaur. Vol. II. Pra;f. 
ad Catalogum. 

* P. 298. 


In this doggrel, Bald is the owner of the book ; we 
have no right to improve him into iESelbald ; Cild is, 
probably, the scribe ; some will contend, the author. 
In classical Latin no doubt would exist, conscribere 
would at once denote the composing of the work : 
but in these later dciys, when millions of foreigners 
learnt the Latin language as a means of interchange of 
thoughts, occasionally intruding their own "Gothic words, 
all such niceties of the ear went for nothing ; Cild 
might well be the mere penman. But then the mar- 
ginal tokens, and private memoranda, show that the 
work so written had passed either through the hands 
of the author, which from the use of private marks 
is probable, or through those of another leech, who was 
able to discover the sources of the authors information. 
Bald anywise may have been the author himself 

Let us give a few touches to the, as yet, bare outline q[\^_ 
of the penman Cild. The famous Durham book is a 
charming work of ancient Saxon art ; those who cannot 
inspect the original may see a copy of a piece of the 
ornamentation in the Gospel of St. Matthew, edited 
by the Rev. Joseph Stevenson, and published by the 
Surtees society. According to an entry of a later age 
in the book itself, not of doubtful authenticity, this 
exquisite piece of pattern work, which is a part of 
the writing, was the performance of EadfriS, bishop 
of Lindisfarne, who occupied that see from 698 to 721. 
It is of Irish tone, and like many other dignitaries this 
prelate had, very likely, completed his Christian educa- 
tion in the Isle of Saints. Cild was certainly not of the 
make and metal of a bishop, for the words " conscribere 
" iussit " forbid it ; Dunstan forefend ! It would be 
somewhat speculative to say, that in JSTorthumbria, 
A.D. 700, the art of writing was at a higher premium 
than afterwards. I will not venture to say it, but 
proceed upon surer data. One of the poems in the 
Exeter book, of uncertain date, but before the end 

xxii PREFACE. 

of the tenth century, mentions as a valued accomplish- 
ment the art of writing in fair characters.^ 

One can cunningly 

word speech write. 

w^lfric also himself in a sermon on Midlent Sunday, — 
" Oft one seeth fair letters awritten ; then extoUeth he 
" the writer and the letters, and wotteth not what they 
" mean. He who kenneth the diflference of the letters, 
" he extolleth the fairness, and readeth the letters, 
" and understandeth what they mean." Tlie honour 
remained to beautiful writing, but the writer did not 
stalk in so lofty a station. On the top margin of a 
page ^ of the Oxford copy of the Herd Book, or Liber 
Pastoralis, of King Alfred may be read these words, — 

piUimoc ppio ]?uf ob^e bet, 

that is, Willimot, lurite thus or hetter. A little further 

ppic ]?uf o^Se bet oS8e ];me hybe poplet, 

Write thus or hetter, or hid good hye to thy hide, that 
is, get a good hiding. In an Harleian MS.^ there is 
a bit of nonsense, but the same idea of a hiding is 
uppermost ; 

ppit ]?uf o'S^e bet pibe apeg. 

seljinseppattap ox ]>u Jjilc ppmjan selppic cilb ; 

Write tlius or hetter; ride away; ^Ifiiwrpattafox; thou 
wilt siuinge child uElfric. From these marginal 
scribblings it is plain that the penman had descended 
from his episcopal throne, to be a tipsy drudge, kept 
in order by the whip. Gild, " quem Bald conscribere 
" iussit," was nearer the whip than the crooked staff. 
^^^^- The owner of the book, Bald, may be fairly presumed 

to have been a medical practicioner, for to no other 

• " Summse^ j-eapolice, 
" \>0]\b Cj'ibe jijiican." 


2 Fol. 53 a. 

3 Fol. 55 b. 

' Harl. 55, fol. 4 b. 

PREFACE. xxiii 

could such a book as this have had, at that time, much 
interest. We see then a Saxon leech here at his studies; 
the book, in a literary sense, is learned ; in a professional 
view not so, for it does not really advance mans know- 
ledge of disease or of cures. It may have seemed by 
the solemn elaboration of its diagnoses to do so, but I 
dare not assert there is real substance in it. Bald, 
however, may have got some good out of it, he may 
have learned to think, have begun to discriminate, to 
take less for granted. Thus we see him in his study, 
among his books becoming, for his day, a more ac- 
complished physician ; and he speaks with a genuine 
philosophs zeal about those his books. " nulla mihi tam 
" cara est optima gaza Quam cari libri :" fees and stored 
wealth he loved not so well as his precious volumes. 
If Bald was at once a physician and a reader of learned 
books on therapeutics, his example implies a school of 
medicine among the Saxons. And the volume itself 
bears out the presumption. We read in two cases ^ that 
" Oxa taught this leechdom ;" in another ^ that " Dun 
" taught it ;" in another " some teach us ;" ^ in another 
an impossible prescription being quoted ;^ the author, or 
possibly Cild, the reedsman, indulges in a little facetious 
comment, that compliance was not easy. I assume that 
Oxa and Dun were natives, either of this country or 
of some land inhabited by a kindred people. Any way, 
we make out, undoubtedly, a bookish study of medicine; 
the Saxon writers, who directly from the Greek, or 
through the medium of a Latin translation studied 
Trallianus, Paulus of ^gina, and Philagrios, were men 
of learning not contemptible, in letters, that is, not to 
say in pathology. Some of the simpler treatment is 
reasonable enough ; the cure of hair lip^ contains a true 

> Lb. p. 120. 
2 Lb. p. 292. 
^Lb. p. 114. 

* Ibid. 

* Lb. L xiii. 

xxiv PREFACE. 

element; the application of vinegar with prussic acid^ for 
head ache is practical ; the great fondness for elecampane, 
Inula lieleniiiin, is parallel to the frequent employment, 
at the present day, of Arnica. But it would be vain to 
defend the prescriptions, some are altogether blunders, 
and the fashion of medical treatment changes so much 
that the prescriptions of Meade and Radcliffe are now- 
condemned as absurd. It suffices that Saxon leeches 
endeavoured by searching the medical records of foreign 
languages to qualify themselves for their profession. 

Age. The character of the writing fixes, as far as I venture 

on an opinion, this copy of the work to the former half 
of the tenth century ; some learned in MSS., who have 
favoured me v/ith an opinion, say the latter half, 960 
to 980. My own judgment is chiefly based upon com- 
parison with books we know to have been written about 

KingiElfred. The inquisitiveness of men at that period about the 
methods in medicine pursued in foreign countries is 
illustrated by the very curious and interesting citation 
from Helias, patriarch of Jerusalem.^ The account given 
has strong marks of genuineness. We will assume that 
King iElfred had sent to Jerusalem requesting from 
the patriarch some good recipes ; for it would be not 
in the manner of mens ordinary dealings for the head 
of the church in the Holy Land to obtrude upon a 
distant king any drugs or advice of the kind. He 
returns then a recommendation of scamony, which is the 
juice of a Syrian convolvulus, of gutta ammoniaca, a 
sort of liquid volatile salts, of spices, of gum dragon, 
of aloes, of galbanum, of balsam, of petroleum, of the 
famous Greek compound preparation called S>jpajt»j, and 
of the magic virtues of alabaster.^ These drugs are good 
in themselves, and such as a resident in Syria would 
naturally recommend to others. The present author 

> Lb. I. i. 10 and 12. I » On the Phoenician origin of this 

2 Lb. p. 290. I -(vord, see SSpp. p. 285. 



drew his information, we may fairly suppose, from that 
handbook which tlie king himself kept, in which were 
entered '• flowers, culled from what masters soever," 
" without method/'^ "according as opportunity^- arose/' 
and which at length grew to the size of a psalter; whence 
also most likely came in due time the voj^age of 0th- 
here. It is very much the custom of the jiresent swarm 
of critics to drag up every old author to their modern 
standard of truth, to peer into dates, to sift, and weigh, 
and measure, and in short, to put an old tale teller into 
the witness box of a modern court of justice, and there 
teaze and browbeat him because they cannot half under- 
stand his simple talk, nor apprehend how small mat- 
ters, in a truthful story, the exact day of the week 
and the twentieth part of a mile become. When one 
writer of the Middle Ages copies another there com- 
monly arises a want of clearness in marking the tran- 
sitions from the text of the old author to the words 
of him who cites him. But in this case all seems smooth ; 
the man named was patriarch of Jerusalem ; he was 
contemporaneous with King Alfred, and the drugs he 
recommended were sold in the Syrian drug shops, or 
apothek^. I am, therefore, well pleased to claim for 
this volume the publication in type of a new fact 
about the inquiring watchfulness of that illustrious 

Thus, Oxa, Dun, perhaps some others of the same Many sources, 
sort, and Helias, patriarch of Jerusalem, are sources 
of some of the teaching in this book. To these we 
may add a mixture of the Hibernian,'- and of the 
Scandinavian.^ Some of the recipes occur again in the 
Lacnunga and in Plinius Valerianus, who, from his 
motion* of the physician Constantinus, was later than 

' Flosculos undecunque collectos 
a quibuslibet magitris, et in corpore 
unius libelli, mixiim quamvis, sicut 
tunc suppetebat recligerc,Asser. p. 57. 

- Lb. p. 10, 1, xlv. .5. 
3 Lb. L xlvi., J. Ixx. Ixxi., IIL 

•Fol. 14 b. 1.5 a. 


this work. Larsfe extracts and selections are made 
from the Greek writers. It is not to be expected that 
many will soon travel over the field of research which 
the present edition required, and it will be but fair to 
those who are examining the facts, to present them with, 
at least one passage as a specimen. 

Hep] Xvyi/.Sv. 'O \vyf/.o<; ylvtrai v; Zia. irX'/j pec a- ii/^ '/j 5*a Kevuo'iv, '/j 
^pt[A,euv y^vjAuv ^aKvovroiv tov (TTOjWaj^ov. dii/ e'ji^efievTwy navercci. 'KOAA.ot Se 
Kot TO ^icc rZv Tpiuv neitepeuv /aovov Xa/3ovTe?, iav evOeat; iirnvici)(7iv 
olvov Xvtfivcnv. oti Se /cat iiacjiOeipovTei; Tjve? rpo(priv Xv'CiOvutv ruv 
yivuaKOfjiiveov io-Ti. kou piyuaravTeq Ze itoXXo) Xv^oticrjy. tjOteTov f^ev ovv 
evp'/i<ro[A€v ainapKii; ia/xa tSv Sta ttX^So^ vj S^gtv Xv^ovrav. OepyMciacv 
8e Tuv Ztcc, ^pv^iv. orav te ^tito wXy^pwerew? iiypuv yeuyjrai Xvy[j.oi;, 
^ixia(; ZeTrai Kiviaeuq. toZto Se o TnapiAoi; ipyaX^eTui. tovi; 8e iiu 
K€i/uer€i XvyfAOvq ovk Icctooi iirccpjj.oq. AtZovcci Se t&^j Xv'^ova'iv Tir^yavov 
[a€t' ctvov vj vixpov eV i^eXiKpaiaj vj o"eo"£?it '/j OavKOV vj kv[a,iv(iV vj 
"^lyytSep v; KaXa.i/.ii/O'rjv vj vdpCiov KeXriK-^v. TOvTce, tuv ewt Ziac^Oopa 
aniuv 75 iiii ^pv^ea-iv ')} eVi itXyjpuuei /So'jj^vjjMaTa. To7q 8e viio ntX-^Oovi; 
Xv'^ov(7ty iiii xf/vy^^polq koi yXi<Ty^poii y^vfAoT^; Kacnopiov Tpiu^oXov S/Soii 

Ttiveiv S' o^vKodrov, k.t.X. Paulus -^gin. lib. ii. cap. 56. 

Of hiccupings. Hiccup comes on either by reason of re- 
pletion, or of emptiness, or of austere juices biting upon tlie 
stomach, and when these are vomited forth it ceases. Many 
also by only taking the medicine called " by the three 
" peppers," if immediately on that they swallow wine, hiccup. 
It is also a recognized fact, that some turning their food sour, 
hiccup ; and many also hiccup after shivering. We shall find 
then that a vomit is a sufficient cure for those who liiccui^ 
from repletion or irritation ; and the application of warmth 
for those that do so from chill. But when the hiccup comes 
on by fulness of moistures, it needs a violent evacuation ; 
and this sneezing produces ; but sneezing does not cure the 
hiccups which depend on emptiness. Give the sufferer from 
hiccup rue with wine, or nitre in sweetened wine, or seseli, or 
carrot, or cummin, or ginger, or calamintha, or Keltic valerian. 
These arc proper for the cases in which food turns sour on 
the stomach, or for chill, or for emptiness. But for those that 
suffi^r by repletion Avith cold and viscid humours, give cas- 
toreum, three obols worth, and to drink some oxymel, etc. 



This is to be compared with Lb. I. xviii. The cor- 
respondence is so close as to leave no doubt but that 
the work before us drew from Paulus, or from one 
of the Greek authors, from whom he compiled his 
work. The number of passages the Saxon thus draws 
from the Greek is great ; they would make perhaps one 
fourth of the first two books, and the question of course 
occurs strongly to the mind whether they came direct 
from the study of Greek manuscripts. 

At first sight a passage ^ which says that the ficus Internal 
in the eyes is called *' on Iseben" chymosis, may seem *^^''^°^°°^' 
to resolve the question as that this author copied Latin 
works. So it may have been ; but the place is not 
conclusive, those words may come from Oxa, Dun, or 
other writers of the native school of medicine ; or Iseben, 
leben, may be used as it often is in a loose sense for 
language,^ foreign language. It is not at this point, 
that it will repay our trouble to stay for consideration : 
we shall much more profitably form an opinion whether 
the Saxon leeches in general had access to the sense 
of the Greek authors, than whether in particular the 
author of these books knew anytliing of them. If the 
best men among our leeches of the tenth century could 
avail themselves of what Paulus of /Egina, Alexander 
of Tralles, and Philagrios wrote, that will suffice to 
raise our estimate of that day into approbation. 

M. Brecliillet Jourdain ^ has shewn that in those Greek 
early days, before the invention of printing, the wise beaming, 
men of the middle ages possessed Latin translations of 
Aristoteles. There was therefore no reason for their not 
possessing other authors. Some them were able 
to translate, some to speak Greek. The Byzantine 
authors in our own hands come down to a late date. 

' Lb. p. 38. 

- Ealle his rpjieca'S an lyben, 
Genesis xi. 6. 

' Recherches critiques sur Page 
et origine des traductions Latines. 
d'Aristote. Paris. 1819. 

XXVI] 1 


Now if an Italian or a Frenchman could acquire Greek, 
and translate into Latin, a Saxon might do the same. 
Beda' tells of Theodorus the archbishop, and abbot 
Hadrianus, that they collected pupils, taught them ver- 
sification, astronomy, and the ecclesiastical arithmetic 
of the computus, and some remained while Beda wrote 
who were acquainted with the Greek and Latin lan- 
sruaeres as well as with their own.^ Further on ^ Beda 
gives an example of one of these disciples, Albinus, 
who understood Latin not less than his own language, 
English, with not a little Greek. Of Tobias, bishop of 
Rochester, another of these pupils, he saj^s * that he 
knew the Greek and Latin languages as familiarly as 
his own. 

King /Elfred and .zElfric both lament the decay of 
learning consequent upon the invasions of the Danes. 
Of the works translated from the Latin, by order of 
Alfred and by his confidential servants or by himself, 
some are, in scattered passages, turned rather literally 
than correctly ; some are executed with great spirit, and 
even improved in the version. ^Elfric himself is a very 
pleasing translator, he kept his own faculties alive in 
the execution of his tasks ; thus he translates dactyli, 
dates, as finger apples, plainly shewing that Greek words 
were known to him ; it is also striking to find him cor- 
recting Bedas error, "lutr?e,"^ otters, the quadrupeds 
out of the sea, which came and warmed St. Cu"Sberhts 
feet with their breath, into " seals." ^ 

I have shown, by the curious pieces published in the 
preface to the first volume of the Leechdoms, that in 

• Beda, Hist. Eccl. IV. ii. 

* Latinam Grcccamque linguam 
aeque ut propriam in qua nati sunt 
norunt. The Saxon interpreter 
gives a full emphasis to seque ut ; 
that ■will bear softening down in this 
late Latin. 

^ Beda, V. xx., p. 209, line 11. 

* Beda V. xxiii. Ita Grsecam 
quoque cum Latina didicit linguam, 
ut tarn notas ac familiares sibi eas, 
quam nativitatis suje loquelam 

* Beda, p. 237. 
« Hom. I. 138. 


a fair practical sense, for tlie purpose they had in view, 
pupils in old England receive! instruction in Greek, 
and though learning decayed in times of distress, still 
there existed some who wished to acquire this know- 
ledge, and some who were willing to give it. Some day 
the monstrous compounds, and the absurd spellings of 
our scientific nomenclature, pretending to be Greek, and 
a dozen other weak points of the day on this subject, 
will be regarded as proofs of barbarism. 

It appears, therefore, that the leeches of the Angles 
and Saxons had the means, by personal industry or by 
the aid of others, of arriving at a competent knowledge 
of the contents of the works of the Greek medical 
writers. Here, in this volume, the results are visible. 
They keep, for the most part, to the diagnosis and 
the theory ; they go back in the prescriptions to the 
easier remedies ; for whether in Galenos or others 
three was a chapter on the svTrogio-Ta, the "parabilia," 
the resources of country practitioners, and of course, 
even now, expensive medicines are not prescribed for 
poor patients. 

On the margin of the pages are some private marks, I'rivate marks, 
such as may be observed on the facsimile page. The 
pm'port of these marks is evident at fol. 56 a., chap. 
Ixxv., which has something near a H with " totum " ; 
again, at Ixxvi. with " totum," at fol. 5Q b., chap. Ixxx., 
the figure in the middle of the facsimile margin with 
" uotum," fol. 57 a., top line of Ixxxiii. an I. nearly, 
with " corum." These were plainly memoranda secretly 
indicating the author from whom the passages so 
marked were taken, and " totum " means that the whole 
article was taken from that source. The token nearly 
an I. occurs at fol. 9 b., at the beginning of ii. ; again 
at fol. 31 a., at the end of the folio ; again at I. Ixxxiii. 
with " totum " and the Roman numeral xviii. twice ; 
again at fol. 94 b., line 8, eye to milre feocum men ; 
again at fol. 126 b., to chapter Ixvii. These references 
VOL. IT. c 


contain a problem, which, in our imperfect knowledge 
of the works of the physicians of the lower empire, is, 
it seems, beyond solution. If the prescription of celan- 
dine for the eyes, Lb. I. ii. be supposed to have been 
derived from Marcellus 272 g., then the other passages 
cannot, as far as, after repeated examination I see, be 
discovered in that author. A mark which comes near 
to F. is set, in the MS., over against the words pi^ 
eajna mifre, fol. 10 b., line 3, and it does not occur 
again ; compare Marcellus 272 b. It adds to the diffi- 
culty of the investigation, that recipes became a tradi- 
tion passing from one author to another. A cypher 
rather differing from H., which I will call h., occurs at 
fol. 10 b. at the words 6j:t piS 'Son ilcan cele]?onian : 
nearly the same on the same folio, towards the end, at 
Gyt finolej'. That this prescription is found in Plinius 
Valerianus does not help us. Another like a plummet 
line, sometimes as in the facsimile, and at fol. 30 b. 
for angnail, with a ring at top, sometimes with a cross 
line, as at fol. 30 b., line 4. Tip nsejl fie, is so much 
like that called I., that it may be meant for the same 
name. There is another like F. reversed, occurring at 
ol. 11 a. 6]:t pyj-laj', also at fol. 32 a., towards the 
end of the leaf, J^onne Ipu j:yp, at fol. 55 b. as in the 
facsimile, twice with a shght difference, at fol 56 b. top 
line, with another small variation, at fol. 57 b. at last 
line but one ; at fol. 94 a., ejzt jenim ipiep leap ; at fol. 
125 b., by the third line of chapter Ixiiii., with these 
words, " quia omni potu et omni medicinfe maleficia- 
" torum et demoniacoi-um a[d]miscenda est aqua bene- 
" dicta, et psalmis et orationibus vacandum est, sicut 
" in hoc capitulo plene docetur." At fol 31 b. by the 
word eallunja is a mark with a blot, meant probably 
for I. At fol. 55 h. jip ]7u pdle, at 55 b., as in fac- 
simile, at 56 a., chapter Ixxv. Ixxvi, is a sign like H., 
with legs of varied length, thus running into re- 
versed F. At folio 5G b., chapter Ixxxii,, is an orna- 


mented cross ; this occurs but once. At fol, 94 a., chapter 
xli., the mark I. is three times repeated III. The 
marginal bimitce, fol. 108 b,, means that the scribe was 
gettingf his task done : he was not aware of the ad- 
ditional book III. If these signs refer to native treatises, 
unknown to us, and now irrecoverable, they go to illus- 
trate the existence of an English school of teaching 
medicines ; as do the expressions " as leeches ken," not 
of rare occurrence. 

Besides these marks and signs as given above, we More cypher, 

find at fol. 30 b. by the end of the sentence, bo plytan 

ro, etc., in chapter xxxiv., some writing in cypher, 
thus : — 

and again at fol. 89 b., chapter xxxiv., thus : — 

■l.fM pJMIf'- 

! /- 

The key to writing of this sort has never been pub- 
lished, and now for those who are skilled in such 
matters an account of it shall be given, 

The letters were divided into groups, and these, of The^iaw of this 
course, were at the discretion of every man severally, 
as regarded their number and how many letters they 
miglit contain. The groups, first, second, third, and so 
on were commonly denoted by dots ; the upstrokes 
shewed by their number what place in the group each 
letter held. Thus, to spell Oxa, if the first gi-oup 
began at A, and contained six letters, then the second 
would begin at H, and if it contained eight letters, 
omitting J as not ancient, then the third gToup would 
begin at Q, and might go on, combining U and V, to 
the end ; so that Oxa would be thus spelt : — 

.'/////// -••//////■/ 


and ]Juii would he, thus : — 

•//// //////. 7///// 

Some of the first letters in the specimens before us 
have no dot, and may perhaps be reckoned from the 
beginning;, A. 

Another method employed a line of dots instead of 
upstrokes, so that Oxa appeared, if the groups of 
letters remained the same, thus : — 

and Dun thus 

In his Thesaurus, Hickes and his associate Wanley give 
other methods employed by the Saxons, of which a 
common one was to employ the next following letter 
to that meant, so that Oxa would be Pyb, and Dun, 
Evvo. These devices, which have in them something 
of the quality of riddles and conundrums, were as 
amusing to the idle mind in old times as they are 
now. When among the varied accomplishments with 
which men are gifted, we read in the Codex Exoniensis, 

yum bi]? life lienbij to apjiitanne popb jejij^no, 
(hie is cunning handy to awrite ivord mysteries, 

we have an allusion to this art of secret writinsr, or 
to its kindred riddle puzzles. 

There is but little encouragement to unravel these 
marginal marks of the Leechbook, since the two speci- 
mens afford us but a very scant basis for inductive 
reasoning. But, doubtless, when laid before the inqui- 
sitive eyes of restless men, they may naturally give 
rise to some unhappy conjectures. 

Norse clement. Perhaps in dissecting the curious mosaic work of 
this Leechbook, we may be as much struck by the 
Old Dansk, or as people now sa^'^, Norse element in 
the words Torbegete, Rudniolin, 0ns woi'm, and the 

PREFACE. xxxiii 

herb .Foniots palui, as by its Irish admixture, or its 
Greek and Latin basis, or its fran'raents from Kinji" 
iElfreds handbook. 

The third book of tlie volume is a separate produc- Third book, 
tion from the two former. This is evident by the 
colophon at the end of the second, declaring who owned, 
and who wrote the book, and by the word " dimitte " in 
the margin of the last section, indicating the approach 
of a close. This other l)Ook, then, is generally of the 
same tone as the preceding ; a marginal mark, as men- 
tioned above, is the same as stands by the side of some 
recipes given earlier, and the monkish habit of saying 
some good words over the sick is as ready to show 
itself. We may therefore conclude it to be, at least, of 
the same age ; possibly by the same hand as the other 

On the whole, this work brings into a clear strong light, 
the plentiful supply of good English food for the brave 
appetites of the AngulSeaxe, the large importation of 
foreign wine and ale and plenteous brew of potent homo 
beer and ale and mead, the mulled and honeyed drinks 
for weaker palates ; the colleges of leechcraft, the Greek 
and Latin medical studies of the most eminent teachers, 
the wide and far back traceable herboristic traditions, 
the far and wide inquiries of King ..Alfred and men 
of his time like him, and it will prove every way a 
most valuable work to the student of English an- 

In the preface to Vol. I. a few pages were devoted 
to an examination of some points of grammar ; these 
were, of course, to some extent a precaution against 
idle cavils and ignorant criticism of the translation. 
The same considerations make it desirable to set forth 
a few more simple observations and to support them 
by examples. 

It seems clear enough that the modern system of Long vowels, 
marking long vowels by an accent is not in harmony 



with ancient authorities ; a long syllable often gets the 
accent, Ijut a short vowel also is frequently found to 
take one.^ The manuscripts have a method unexcep- 
tionable, and discriminative, of showing that a vowel 
is long by writing that vowel twice, and in some words 
that mode of spelling prevails now. They give us, oc- 
casionally, 300b, good, boom, doom, " aam, cautere,"^ 
(whence we may conclude that the cognate Oman, will 
have O long,^) aac, oal; pus, ^vise,'^ and so forth. The 
information contained in this device of our forefathers 
has not yet attracted a due share of notice ; for example, 
tlie word Si8, a fcdli, deriving itself probably from the 
same source as Semita, becomes in the Moesogothic 
Sinjj-, and has been supposed to exhibit a vowel 
necessarily, as before two consonants, short by nature ; 
thus producing a short I in the old English. But Si5 
we know to have a long vowel by the spelling SiiS.^ 
It is not true that a Teutonic or Old English vowel 
before two consonants is necessarily short. Some glos- 
saries throw the alphabet into confusion for the sake 
of giving short A first, then long A. Mislead by 
accentual marks, the compilers presume that the prefix 
A must be long, whereas the tradition of our language, 
as in Afraid, Abroad, Abased, and the short vowel of 
the particles which it generally represents, prove that 
in those instances it is short. Where A represents An, 
one, as in Ajiaeb for Anjiseb, constant, the case may be 
different. In the parallel case of Un- the prefix, the 
Greek Av-, the Latin In-, the vowel is undoubtedly 
short, but in pronunciation it has an accent, as in 
Unknown, and it is frequently found accented in the 
MSS. Nothing but a notion that the language of 

• Vol. I. pp. xciv., xcv. 

2 Gl. C. 

' See also the Glossary. 

•" Beda, .547. 16. 

''Beda, 571. 34. See Layamon, 

25836, 25837. In Bir, Moritz, 
Heyne has marked the vowel long, 
rightly. We have also Gesii'S, but 


iElfric and Alfred is dead could encourage a foreigner 
to such experiments. 

It is said by those who had opportunities of know- Accents, 
ing, that the painful accentual system devised by the 
late J. M. Kemble was abandoned by him before his 
death. It was, indeed, opposed to the elementary laws 
of vocalization ; for it is known to all, who have gone 
fully into the subject, that a prefix, if accented itself, 
affects the accentuation and the vocalization of any 
word with which it is compounded. The subject might 
be largely illustrated and its essential laws developed 
from the Oriental languages ; but I will confine my- 
self to that which is now before us. There can be no 
reasonable doubt but that 'pilbe, wild, and Deep, deer, 
were pronounced with the vowels long, and the ridiculous 
theory that a vowel before two consonants is short 
by nature, can mislead but few ; it amounts to this, 
that we never could say Beast, Least, but must pro- 
nounce those words, Best, Lest. These two words pdbe, 
Deop, being compounded and formed into one, retained 
the accent and full sound on the syllable most impor- 
tant to the sense, and may be found in the genitive 
singular under the form pilbpey.^ Thus the aflix Deoji 
lost its proper accent because a more powerful claim- 
ant had become it close neighbour. Another example 
is found in pitan, to vepvoacli, which, as appears from 
Layamon," had its vowel by nature long. This word 
is often compounded with the preposition Mc, which 
by defect of grammatical knowledge among the old 
penmen commonly appears as eb- ; Layamon ^ exhibits 
the compound still retaining the long vowel ; but the 
Paris Psalter ^ spells ebpitt:, where, according to the 

CE, 258, line 10. 
Layamon, 21311. 

* Ofte heo heom on smiten, 
Ofte heo heom atwiten. 

Layamon, 2G584. 
' Psalm cxviii. 39. 





Gorman way of talking, the second t is " inorganic," 
and serves only to mark the shortness of the vowel. 
Under this form the word is our Twit. 

Enough has been said to show that the length of 
the vowels in Saxon English is a very wide subject, 
and to justify the postponement of any decisions in 
the Glossary. 

In our oldest manuscripts jwjin often occurs where 
it is the custom to print T. Rejp'S, led, rest, Luj-^, 
'pleasure, lust, and a hundred others are examples : 
the superlatives end in J^orn, as ^ ag^eley^e mseben, 
the very noble maiden, the participles also. In the 
Codex Exoniensis the editor removed these features 
of antiquity ; they offended him ; and wore not ac- 
cording to Rask.^ If any such occur in the present 
volume they are preserved ; they are not dialectic, 
but archaic. 

In genders the glossaries are untrustwortliy ; thus, 
the most recent is found, as regards the few words 
common to both, much wrong, when compared with 
the citations in that at the end of this volume. It 
is unsafe to trust compounds with je-, for the gen- 
ders of the simples, for Ge- being a form of Con- and 
collective, its com])ounds are found to have a tendency 
to run into the neuter." Simples cannot always be relied 
on for the gender of the compound ; all moderns take 
poppyjib for a feminine, after pyj^^, but in a wide scope 
of unpublished materials I have always found it neuter.^ 
Occasionally a new principle comes in, and by attrac- 
tion the article agrees with the former element in the 
compound, instead of the latter ; hence pserejieebpe 

' For example, Gebiej-jaS, Gepel- 1 •' Tja cncoj>holen, Lb. I. xlvii. .3, 

Sa'S, p. .358; I'cob', p. 3.57. Ahpe- 
ol'eS, p. :r.)7 ; Blse'S, p. .",10. 

- Thus Sp)i£ec is feminine, fJe- 
I'ppxc, neuter. 

perliaps makes kneeholly neuter ; 
or else Tpa, is tivo parts. This 
remark slioukl have appeared in the 


appears as neuter ; Sibpsejic,' feminine. Hence the 
Codex Exoniensis prefers to write J? jrlsej'cliojib.- 

Numorals admit of a substantive in the sino-ular, so Numerals with 
tliat our traditional expressions, Twelvemonth, a Six '' ^'°''" ^'"" 
foot rule, he weighs Twelve stone, are correct accord- 
ing to ancient usage."' Distinction must be drawn be- 
tween masculineSj which had a plural in s, and 
feminines, as Night in Fortnight, or neuters, as in 
Five pound note. Twelve horse power, for these had in 
ancient time no s in the plural. Thus xii. mona];,'* 
]?pie cuclep;' did not require remark : similarly rpejen 
fsetel]" yull ealaS,*"' nijantyne pmreji "j cjwjen mona]?," 
iv. mona]),^ and the MS. reading in Beowulf, 4342," 
may stand. 

Examples are not very rare in other works beside Idiomatic 
this Leeclibook, when of a set of words under one opposition, 
regimen, those that come last in order appear in the 
nominative, that is, in no regimen at all. Thus 
fopSpepbum Deuj'bebit; j-e Ajicebij'ceop, defuncto Deus- 
dedit archieiyiscopo}'^ Fejibe |>a fi^San • -j jejretce 
senne mpej'j'eppeoj'C policajipup jehaten • halij peji -j 
jfnocop,^^ which would be literally, Deinde 'pTofectus 
attulit 'pmshyterii')n, 'policarpus appellatus, vIt sanctus 
atque prudens. ba seteopbe j-ebaj-tianup on ypgepne 
anjie pubepan • lucma jecijeb ppi^e jepjzsefc man,'- which 
would ])e equivalent to, Tvmc apparuU Sehastianus 
in somnio viduro cuidam, Lucina nominata, homo 
valde ndigiosa. This, when it comes to be acknow- 
ledged generally, may be called Idiomatic ap])Osition. 

Harsh transitions in pronouns from plurals to sin- 
gulars, and back again, are not peculiar to this work ; 

' Lb. p. 260, line 1. " OT, 256. 

- CE, 373, line 3. 
■' So in Gemian. 
' Lib. ni. xviii. 

' Lb, I. xvi. 2. Tpybsel, Lb. T. 
i. 3, viii. 2, is a compound. 

Beda, 539. 23. 
■* Beda, 564. 13. 
■' Thorpe, 4355. 
'" Beda, p. 503. line 6, 
" MFT. 32 a. 

VOT-. Tf. d 


tliey are found in others of an earlier date, bearing 
episcopal names for their authors. 

I desire again to acknowledge many courtesies and 
kindnesses at Cambridge, Oxford, the Corpus Library, 
and that of the British Museum. 

0. C. 

December, 180 4. 


*' Page 60, sect, xviii., line 2. for cican read cilian. 

Page 130, sect. Ix., line l.for fealye read j-ealj-e. 

Page 1 74, line 24. for momse read momse. 

Page 194, line W.for Taen read Tacn. 
' Page 210, line 18. >• blobejj read blobej-. ' (^^^i^^■•'' i£B^ $y^-\c^r^ ; «?& a^^^-^^ ye^ia.... 
' Page 224, sect, xxviii., line \.for ugepjie read uj-ejijie. 

Page 292, note 2. add, " they are possibly a corrupt representation of 
•' i€pa fioravt]." 

Page 324, sect, xxx., line 4. pubupeaxaii is one word. 

Page 349, line 29. 07401. 

Page 391, glossary, v. IJeaji. Cf. |^elanb gepojic ne sefjuccS monna 
aenigum Sajia '5e mimmins can heapne gehealban. (Fragments printed 
by Prof. Stephens.) The Wieland work will fad no man, who kennelh 
to wield biting Mimming, where the editor reads heapne as hoar. 



[L^CE BOC.]^ 

fol. 1 a. .1. L^EE DOMAS - piD eallum untjiymnej-j-um 

heapbef "j hpanan ealley je liealfej' heajrbef ece cume • 
•j clsepnunja -j fpilmj pi 5 hjium -j jillifejium to heapbej' 
heelo • -j liu mon pcyle jebpocenep heapbey tihgean "j 
jip 'past bpsejen ut fie. :• 

.II. Lsecebomaj' piS eallum tiebejinej'j'um eajena • piS 
eajna mifce je ealbey je jeonjep mannep "j hpanan f 
cume -j pi]? pile "j piS eajna teapum -j pi8 pemme on 
eajum • pi5 repmselum • -j pp mon fupeje pie • pi^ 
poccef on eajum 'j piS jepijom -j pij? pyjvmum on 
eajum -j eajpealpa selcef cynnep. 

.ni. Lsecebomaf piS eallum eapena ece -j fape • yip 
eapena beape • "j piS ypelpe^ hlyfre • ^ jip pyjimap on 
eapan pyn -j pi]? eajiptcjan^ "j jip eajian bynien -j ea]i 
pealpe asleep cyimep. 
fol. 1 b. .nil. Lsececpseptap pi]? healpjunbe -j hu J7U meaht 

jecunman hp?e]?eji hit liealpjunb fie -j f fio abl ip 
tpejea cynna oj^ep on ]?am ^eajle o]?ep on ]?8e]ie Spotan 
pyptbpenc -j pealp pi}? ]?on • 'j ]n]? ceacena fpyle -j pi^ 
fpeojico]?e -j jeajlep fpyle. 

' See II. xlii. contents. | ' Wanley reads eappicgaj-. The 

- This first page of the MS. has I text seems to my eyes to be as I 

suffered somewhat fi-om time and use. have given it; picsjan occurs I. 

^ This reading makes hlyfc femi • I Ixi, 2. 

nine. See the text. ' 

MS. Reg. 12. I), xvii. 


i. Leeclidoms against all infii-mlties of the head, and Contents. 
whence comes ache of all or of the half" head,^ and 
cleansings and swilling against filth and ratten to the 
health of the head ; and how one must tend a broken 
head, and liov) if the brain be out. 

ii. Leechdoms against all tendernesses of the eyes, 
against mist of the eyes, either of an old or of a young 
man, and whence that comes, and against white spot 
and against tears of eyes, and against speck on 
eyes, against imminutions, and if a man be blear- 
eyed, against pocks on eyes, and against "figs/'* and 
against w^orms, or insects; and eye salves of every kind. 

iii. Leechdoms against all ache and sore of ears, 
against deafness of ears, and against ill hearing, and if 
worms be in the ears, and against earwigs, and if the 
ears din, and ear salves of every kind. 

iv. Leechcrafts against neck ratten,^ and how thou 
mayest ascertain whether it be neck ratten, and that 
the disease is of two sorts, either in. the jowl or in the 
throat, and a wort drink and a salve for that, and for 
swellings of the jaws and for quinsy, and for swelling 
of the jowl. 

' See II. xlii. contents. I ' A disease so called, sties, wisps. 

■ Or megrim (piniKpavia). i ' Probably from scrofula. 


A 2 


.V. Lsecebomaj" 5 if mannej' mu8 ]"a]i jne je tybjieb 
"j pi]? jeblejnabpe tunjan mu]> fealj: pi|> ]?oii ilcan. 
Pi8 fultim opoSe • III. l?ecebomap. 

.VI. Liecebomal" piS toj^psepce • "j ^'ly pypni to]? ete 
-j to]>pealpa • ept pi8 ]?ain iipejian ro]? ece -j piS ]7am 
ni]jeppan. :• 

.VII. Lsecebom jip mon blob lipsece. :• 

.VIII. Lsecebomap piS bloBce on -jphtan •j bpip pi]? 
j7on ilcan -j pealp ealpa peopep. :• 

.vim. Lsecebomap jip men ypne blob op nebbe ept 
blobpetena je on to bmbanne je on eape to bonne je 
liopfe je men ealpa* X. :• 

.X. Lfecebom pi]? jefnote • 'j yip jepoftim. 

.XI. Lsecebomap pi]? pajium peolopum. :• 

.XII. Lsecebom piS peam^ mu]?e -j piS ceolan fpyle* 
fol. 2 a. ]7py Isecebomap. :• 

.XIII. Lsecebom pi]? hseppceapbe. 

[XIV.] Lsecebom pi]? j-eaban.^ :■ 

[xv.] Lsecebomap piS lipol'ran hu he mi]"penlice on 
man becymS -j hu hip man tilian fcyle ^j pyptbpencaf 
pij? hpofran -j jn]? anjbpeofce *j bpyjum hpofcan enb- 
lepan C]ise}:tap. :• 

[xvi.] .xiiii. Lsecebomaf pi6 bpeof-c psepce • iiii. 

[xvii.] .XV. Lsecebomap pi]? heoptpsepce • v. cpaep- 
taf. :• 

[xviii.] .XVI. Lsecebomap pi]? ]?am miclan 5ic]?an -j hu 
he cymS op acolobum majan o]?]?e to fpi"Se hatum o^Se 
op to micelpe pylle o]?}?e Isepnepj-e o]?]?e op ypelpe 
psetan plitenbpe -j hu hif mon tilian pcyle piS selc 
]?apa. :• 

' In text jjouum, for jiohum. [ - j-ea'San ; text. 


V. Leechdoms if a mans moutli be sore or made Contents. 
tender, and for a blained tongue, a mouth salve for 
tlie same. For foul breath ; three leechdoms. 

vi. Leechdoms for tooth ache, and if a worm eat the 
tooth, and tooth salves. Again for tlie upper tootli 
ache and for the nether. 

vii. Leechdom if a man break up blood. 

viii. Leechdoms for a blotch on the face, and brewit' 
for the same, and a salve. Four in all. 

ix. Leechdoms if blood run from a mans nose. Again 
blood stoppings, either to bind on or to put on the 
ear ; either for horse or man. Ten in all. 

X. Leechdom for snot and for poses.^ 

xi. Leechdoms for sore lips. 

xii. Leechdom for wry mouth and for swelling of 
tlie gullet. Three leechdoms. 

xiii. A leechdom for hair lip. 

[xiv.] A leechdom for xx6dcuv;c, watery fluctuations.'^ 

[xv.] Leechdoms against host ;* how it variously 
comes on man, and how a man shall treat it ; and 
wort drinks for host and for oppression on the chest 
and dry cough. Eleven receipts. 

[xvi.] xiv. Leechdoms for breast wark.^ Four re- 

[xvii.] XV. Leechdoms for heart wark. Five re- 

[xviii.] xvi. Leechdoms for the great hicket, and how 
it arises from a chilled stomach, or a much too hot 
one, or of too much fullness, or of leerness,^ or of evil 
wet ' wounding, and how a man shall treat it ; against 
each of them. 

' The lomeiituin of the Roman 
women, a paste of pulse, generally 
of lentils ; women used it to im- 
prove their complexions, and it was 
eatable though unsavoury. 

^ See II. xxxix. 

' Host, couyh. pronounced with o 

• Wark is pain. 
" Einpline-is. 

- Colds in the head. i ' Humour^ 


[xix.] .XVII. Lfeceboma)- ]>ij; pla3tan -pejen sejjele. :• 
.XX. Lsecebomaj' yip j'culboji psepce • iii. cpreftaf. 

.XXI. LaBcebomaf pi^ j^sejie fpiSpan )'iban fape -j Jjsepe 
pmefrjian pyx cjiseptaj". :■ 

.XXII. La3cebomap pi8 lenbenece peopep. :• 

.XXIII. Lsecebomaf pi]? ]7eoliece tpejen -j an pi]? ]?on 
■^ly ]?eoli plapan. 
fol. 2 b. . xxiiii. Lsecebomap pi]? cneop psepce *j jip cneop fap 

lie. r. 

.XXV. Lseceboma)' pi]> fcancena j-ape -j jip fcancan 
popabe fynb o]?]?e o]>ep I'lm peopep cp^eptaf 'j hu mon 
fpelcean pcyle. :• 

^Eeadfino. .XXVI. LsBcebomaf pp fma pcpmce -j septep J»am fie 

pap oSSe fpelle oSSe jip monnep pot ro hommum 
fcpimme "j fcpmce "j jip fmo clseppette -j cpacije eallep 
peopep cpfepraf. :• 

.XXVII. Lsecebomaf pi]? potece o}?]?e o]?pep limep o]?]?e 
pota jefpelle pop miclan janje • VI. cpa3p[ta]']. :• 

.XXVIII. Lac?eboma]' pi]? ban ece "j pealp "j bpenc }?py 
cpseptap }?8ep pynb. :• 

.xxviiii. Lsecebomaf jip mannej' jerapa beo]? fape 
o]?]?e a}>unbene ]?py cpseptap. :• 

.XXX. Lsecebomaf pi}> secelman -j pi]? Son Se men 
acale ]?se'c pel op ]?am pottim. :• 

.XXXI. Lsecebomap pi}? selcum lieajibum J'lnje o})]?e 
fpyle o]?]?e jefpelle -j pi]? selcpe ypelpe fpellenbpe psetan 
■j pi]?innan jepyjifmebum jefpelle ]?am ]?e pyp'S op pylle 
oSSe op pleje o]?]?e op hpypca^ hpilcum -j pi]> fpiSe 
fol. 3 a. pseplicum fpylurn 'j pi]? beabum fpyliim "j pealpse -j 

bpencaf -j fpe\>m^e -j bse}? pi}? eallum lichoman fpylum 
ealpa Iseceboma tpam Isep ]?piti3. :• 

' Text hpicj-ca : read hpicj-a ? 


[xix.] xvii. Leechdoms against nausea. Two noble Contents. 

XX. Leechdoms against shoulder wark. Three re- 

xxi. Leechdoms for sore of the right side and of the 
left. Six receipts. 

xxii. Leechdoms for loin ache. Four. 

xxiii. Leechdoms for thigh ache, two ; and one in 
case the thighs be benumbed.^ 

xxiv. Leechdoms for knee wark, and if the knee be 

XXV. Leechdoms for sore of shanks, and if shanks be 
broken, or another limb. Four receipts, and how a man 
shall apply splints to it. 

xxvi. Leechdoms if a sinew shrink, and after that be 
sore or swell, or if a mans foot shram ^ to the hams 
and shrink, and if a sinew have pulsation and quake. 
In all four receipts. 

xxvii. Leechdoms for foot ache or swelling of another 
limb or of the feet, by reason of much travel. Six 

xxviii. Leechdoms for leg ache, and a salve, and a 
drink. There are three receipts for it. 

xxix. Leechdoms if a mans tools be sore or swollen. 
Three receipts. 

XXX. Leechdoms against chillblain, and in case that 
for a man the skin of the feet be chilly. 

xxxi. Leechdoms for every hard thing or swelling 
or tumour, and for every evil swelling humour and 
tumour purulent within, such as groweth of a fall or 
of a blow or of any crick, and for very sudden swellings 
and for dead swellings without sensation, and salves 
and drinks and swathings and baths for all swellings 
of the body. Of all these leechdoms thirty less by two 

' Exactly, incapable of rmiscular ] '■' Be drmvn up. 
actiov. I 

8 L^CE BOC. 

.XXXII. Lsecebomaf picS J;am yj-'lan blaece hu man ]?a 
fealjra -j ba})u ^j bpencay pi]; Son pypcean pcyle -j pij; 
hpeopum lice *j piS abeabebum lice bpej? "j fealpa pi J? 
]jon • btej? -j pealpa "j bpencaf pi)? I^am miclan lice -j 
fpile eallep piptyne Isecebomaf. 

.XXXIII. LEecebomap ^ bjiencaf -j yealpa *j [onjlejua 
pi]? fppmje je abeabebum je unbeabebum • viii. cptep- 

.XXXIV. Lsecebom jip nsejl fy op lianba -j pi]? an^- 
nsejle -j pi]? peapjbjiseban. :• 

.XXXV. Lsecebomap micle *j sepele be afpeajitebum "j 
abeabebum lice "j hpanan fio abl cume *j bu hi]'^ mon 
rilian pcyle jTp f lie to ]?on lpi]?e abeabije f ]?8e]i 
jepelnep on ne fy • -j liu mon ]? beabe blob apej 
penian pcyle • -j jip litm mon Itm opceojipan fcyle oSSe 
pyji onpecran hu f mon bon scyle • bjupaj- ^j bpenceaj' 
■j pealpa pi]? ]?8e]ie able. :• 

. XXXVI. Lsecebomap piS ]?8ejxe able ]?e mon hast cipcul 

fol. 3 h. bpip "j bjiencaf *j pealpa ]>8et ip fpi]?e pjieonu" abl *j 

hep pej]? hpilcne mete oJ?]?e bjiincan mon fcyle on 

]?8epe able popjan. :• 

.XXXVII. LtEcebomap pi]? Son jtp mon ne mseje hip 
micjean jehealban -j ]??epe ^epealb naje 'j jip he ^e- 
mijan ne mseje *j jip he blobe vai-i^e • -j jlp ptp on ]?on 
tebpe fie • Xllll. Isecebomaf :• 

.XXXVIII. Lsececpgeptap -j boljpealpa -j bpencaf pi]? 
eallum punbum -j clfenfunjura on telce pipan je piS 
ealbpe punbe tobpocenpe *j jip ban bpyce on heapobe 
fie • "j piS liunbep j'lite • "j boljfealp piS lunjen able -j 
pi]? mnan punbe pealp • -j pealp jip ]?u paSe piUe lytle 
punbe lacnian -j jtp mon mib ipene jepunbob fie • oJ?J?e 
inib tjieope jeplejen • o]?pe inib frane -j ept fealpa jTp 

' 111]- refers to lie. | - Read ipecnii. 



xxxii. Leeclidoms against the evil lilotcli, how a man Contents. 
shall work salves and baths and drinks against it, and 
for a leprous body and for a deadened body, a bath 
and salves for them. Baths and salves and drinks for 
the mickle body, elephantiasis, and swelling. In all 
fifteen loechdoms. 

xxxiii. Leeclidoms and drinks and salves and ap- 
plications for pustules, either deadened or undeadened. 
Eight receipts. 

xxxiv. A leechdom if a nail be off a hand, and against 
angnails, and against warty eruptions. 

XXXV. Leeclidoms mickle and excellent for a swarth- 
ened and a deadened body, and whence the disease 
Cometh, and how a man shall treat it, if the body be 
deadened to that decjree that there be not feelinsf in 
it ; and how a man shall wean the dead blood away, 
and if it be desired to cut off a limb from the sick 
man or apply fire,^ how it shall be performed. Brewits'- 
and drinks and salves for the disease. 

xxxvi. Leechdoms for the disease which is called 
circle addle or shmgles ; brewit and drinks and salves. 
This is a very troublesome disease, and here saith 
(our book) what meat or drink a man shall in this 
disease forego. 

xxxvii. Leechdoms in case a man may not retain his 
mie,* and have not command of it, and if he may not ^ Urine, 
mie, and if he mie blood ; and if a wife (woman) be 
tender in that respect. Fourteen leechdoms. 

xxxviii. Leechcrafts and wound salves and drinks 
for all wounds and all cleansings {discharges) in every 
wise, and for an old broken wound, and if there be 
bone breach on the head, and for a tear by a dog ; 
and a wound salve for disease of the lungs, and 
a salve for an inward wound ; and a salve if thou 
wilt cure a little wound quickly, and if a man be 
wounded with iron, or struck with wood, or with 

The cautery. 

I - See viii 

10 L^CE BOC. 

men ym lim oj: lime opaylejen finjeji o]j]7e j:6r o]>\)e 
hanb • oSSe j'l}: meaph ' u~e fie "j jij: bolh fulije ealpa 
}:]iam pjiuman yeopep 'j J'pi'ciS Iteceboma. 

.xxxvilll. Lsecebomaf piS selcep cynnej- omum "j 

fol. 4 a. onpeallum -j banco]?um • pi]> ur ablejnebum omum ^j 

pi]? omena jebepfce • "j piS omum o]:ep hatum -j piv3 

peonbum omum f ly pc • bpencaf "j pealpa pi]? eallum 

omum ealpa trpani Itep J'pi'ciS- :• 

.XL. Lsecebomaf *j bpencaf -j pealpa pi]? poc able ealpa 
lyxe. :■ 

.XLI. Lsecebomap })py 9e]?ele pi]? mnan onpealle "j 
omum. :■ 

.XLii. Lfecebomaf pi]? 'Stepe jeolpan able "j franbse]? 
•j pi}? jeal able fio cymiS op )?{epe jeolpan able • fio bi}? 
abla picufc abirepaS pe liclioma eall 'j ajeolpa}? fpa 
50b jeolo feoluc. :■ 

.XLiii. Lsecebomaf pi]? p?etep bollan. :• 

.XLilil. Lsecebomaf pi'^ cancep able ]>gst: ip bice "j 

fmepenej'pa -j j"ealp peopep cpsepca]'. :• 

.XLV. Lsecebomaf -j bpencaf pi]? selcum attpe pi^ 

nsebpan j'leje -j bite 'j plire • -j pi]> ]?on jtp mon attep 

3e]?iC5e • "j \)SdY baljan cpifrep ]?e5nej' lohannej- jebeb 

-j jealbop "j eac o}?ep fcyctifc jecofc jealbo-^ jehpsej^eji 

])i]? selcum attpe • pi]? pleoi;enbum attjie 'j fp3^1e -j 

beopum boljum • jip lipa jebpmce pypm on psetepe 

fol. 4 b. pij? J'on lsecebomaf • -j pp mon po-^bopen fie callep • 

XX. cjisepta piS attpe. :• 

.XLVI. Lsecebomaf jip ana pypm on men peaxe fealp 
bpenc -j clam pij? ]?on • v. lsecebomaf J?8ep fint. :• 

' meah, MS. 


stone ; and further salves if for a man a limb be Coxtexts. 
struck off from a limb, finger or foot or hand, or if 
the marrow be out, and if a wound get foul. Of all 
from the beginning four and thirty leeclidoms. 

xxxix. Leechdoms against erysipelas of every kind 
and fellons, and bone diseases, for erysipelatous affec- 
tions accompanied by external blains, and for the 
bursting of erysipelatous cysts, and for excessively hot 
erysipelatous attacks, and for running erysipelas, that 
is the disease called "fig.' Drinks and salves for all 
sorts of erysipelatous affections. Thirty less by two. 

xl. Leechdoms and drinks and salves for pock disease. 
In all six. 

xli. Three excellent leechdoms for inward tubercles 
and erysipelas. 

xlii, Leechdoms for the yellow disease,* and a stone ''•T^''i""'l'<^f- 
bath,* and for the gall disease which cometh of the 
yellow disease. This is of diseases the most powerful, 
the body becometh quite bitter and turnetli yellow, as 
good yellow silk. 

xliii. Leechdoms for dropsy. 

xliv. Leechdoms for the disease cancer, that is, " bite," 
and smearings and a salve. Four receipts. 

xlv. Leechdoms and drinks against every poison, 
against stroke and bite and rend of snake ; and in 
case a man swallow poison, and a prayer of the holy 
thane of Christ, lohannes, and an incantation and 
also another Scottish approved incantation, in Gaelic 
or Erse, either of them against eveiy poison, against 
flying poison and swelling and deep gashes. If any 
one drink a worm^ in water, leechdoms against that ; 
and if a man be tied with a magic knot. In all 
twenty receipts against poison. 

xlvi. Leechdoms if King 0ns worm wax on a man, 
a salve, a drink, and a plaster for that. There are five 
leechdoms of it. 

* A stone bath was a vapour bath, water being thrown on heated stones. 
- Reptile. 

12 l.MCE EOC. 

.XLVII. Lascebomaf *j bjiencaf -j yealjra pi]? }>eopablum 
momjej' cynnej" pa becfcan pi]:* j^eoppypme on pet • 
XII. ealpa pi]> peoji ablum. :• 

.XLVIII. Lsecebomaf pi]? J^am pyjimum ]?e mnan ejlaS 
monnum • "j pi}> pypmum ]7e on cilba mnojje beoj? *j 
]>iS cilba mnoS pape ealjia cjifepta • XII. pi]:* J>am. :• 

.XLVIIII. L?scebom on funbpon anlipij pi]? ]?am fmalan 
pyjime. :■ 

.L. Lsecebomaf pij> lianb pypmum -j heap pyjimum ^ 
;^iy I'yjim hanb ete • peaxpealp pi]? hanb pypme fyx 
cjiseptap ealpa • nil. pifan. :• 

• LI. Lsecebomaf pi]? pyjimum ]?e monnej- pltepc eta]?. :• 
.Lil. Lsecebomap tpejen pi]? lufum. :• 
.Liii. Lseceboma]' tpeten pi]? fmoeja pypmum. :• 
.Lliii. Lpecebomaj' piS pyjimsetum lice -j cpelbehtum. :• 

.LV. Lsecebom pi]? aj-lejeniim lice. :• 

.LVI, Lfecebomaf pij? aplapentim' lice -j bne]? fealp, :• 

.LVii. Lfecebomaf 'j bpencaf ^ j-ealpa pi]? pice. :• 

• LVill. Lsecebomaj' to pen pealpe • "j to pen bylum. :• 
fol. 5 a. .LViill. Lsecebomaj- pi^S papalifm ]? ij- on enjlipc 

lypt abl "j pi]? neujiij-ne ]?piy. : 

.LX. Lsecebomaj- pi^ bpyne ^j fealpa • Vlii. ealpa. :• 

.LXi. Lsecebomap pi]? liS paepce 'j piS lij?peape *j jip 

li]?feap fio^ "j lio]?ole titpypne ealpa cpaepta peopep- 

tyne. :• 

.LXii. Lrecebomai' pi]? pepepable to haelanne bpencaj* 
pi^ j?an • pi}? ]?pibban bsejef psepe -j peop}?an bsejef psepe 
•j pi^ ji'lcep bsejel" pepe -j pi]? lencten able f ip pepep * 
•j liu man fceal pi]? ]??epe able on liuj-1 bipce pone haljan 

' The passage of the text lias i - For fiohe, subjunctive. 
arlej;enuin. | 


xlvii. Leechdoms and drinks and salves lor " dry OoMEMt 
diseases " ' of many a kind, the best ones for " dry " 
worm on the feet. Twelve in all against " dry " 

xlviii. Leechdoms for the worms which vex men 
inwardly, and against worms which be in the inwards 
of children, and children s inwards sore. In all twelve 
receipts against them. 

xlix. A leechdom, single, separately, against the small 

1. Leechdoms again hand worms and dew worms, 
and if a worm eat the head ; a wax salve against the 
hand worm. Six receipts ; four sorts in all. 

li. Leechdoms against worms which eat mans Hesh. 

Hi. Two leechdoms against lice. 

liii. Two leechdoms against penetrating worms. 

liv. Leechdoms for a worm eaten body and a 

Iv. A leechdom. for a stricken body. 

Ivi. Leechdoms for a paralyzed body, and a bath 

Ivii. Leechdoms and drinks and salves against tlic 
disease called " fig." 

Iviii. Leechdoms for a wen salve and for wen boils. 

lix. Leechdoms for paralysis, that is in English, lyft 
addle, and for " neurisn." ^ Three. 

Ix. Leechdom for a burn ; and salves. Eight in all. 

Ixi. Leechdoms for a pain in the joints, and for the 
lubricating secretion at the joints, called^ synovia, and 
if the synovia leak and the joint oil run out. Of all 
(these) receipts fourteen. 

Ixii. Leechdoms for fever, to heal it ; drinks for that ; 
against a tertain fever, and a quartan fever, and a 
quotidian fever ; and against lent disease, that is 
{typhus) fever, and how against the disorder a man 

' A sort of dry rot : see the glos- I ' Possibly vevpuv vipfffis ; a kind 

sary. Vlapa<Tn6s. \ of irapiXvais. 

14 LiECE BOC. 

"j ]7one iniclan jobejp naman ppitan --j on J;one bpenc 
mib halijpajtjie Spean -j halij jebeb on upan linjan -j 
cpebo -j pateji noptep • x. Isecebomap. 

.LXIIL LcTScebomap piS peonb j-eocum men bpencaf to 
Jpon *j hii moil fcyle mppj-pan -j jebebu -j pealmaf opeji 
l^one bjienc j-injan -j op cijucbellum bjimcan • y yip 
bjisecfeocum men • "j pij? peben heojite -j pi8 ]7on eal- 
lum fax cpseptaj-. :• 

.LXilii. L^cebomap pi]? aelcjie leobnunan -j selpfibenne 

ol. 5 b. J? !]■ pepejicynnep jealboji 'j bufc -j bpiencap *j pealp -j 

jip pto abl netnum fie • -j jip fio abl pypibe mannan 

o^Se mape pibe -j pypbe feopon eallep cpsepta. :• 

.LXV. Lsecebomaj' ept piS lencten able -j j^apa peopep 
jobfpellepa naman • *j jeppitu "j jebebu -j fpijenbe 
Iceal mon fum ^eppit ppitan • v. cpteptaf. :• 

.LXVI. Lsecebomap unjemynbe *j pi]? byfijum. :■ 

.LXVii, Lsecebomap -j bpencap pi^ jenumenum mete 
•j jtp eala pie apepb o]>\>e meolcen mete |;py cp?eptas. :■ 

.LXViii. Lsecebomap pi]> ]7on jip liunta jebite man- 
nan f fpiSjie o]?pe^ naman janjelpeppa pex bujenbe 

.LXVIIII. Ljecebomap pi]? pebe hunbep plite ^ yi^ 
liiinbe]- bolje • VII. Isecebomaj-. :• 

.LXX. Lsecebomaj* jip mon fie to pjisene o]>])e to 
unppsene. : 

.Lxxi. Lseceboma)- pij? jiseje peofau fajie -j jip lioh 
fmo popob pie, :• 

.LXXI. Lsecebomap on lipilce tib blob pie to pojijanne 

fol. 6 a. on hpilce to poplsetenne -j hu fie attpej- pul fio 

lypt on hlapm^eppe tih • -j be bpenctim -j utpojium 

on ]?am monj^e -j ■JJte pypta on J)am monSe fmb to 

pyjicanne. :• 

' C!ompare the chapter, and read ^ ij- i'yi^]^: -j oJ?e]i. 


shall write vipoii the eucharistic paton the holy and Contunts. 
the great name of God, and wasli it witli lioly water in 
to the drink, and sing a holy prayer over it and the 
Credo and the Paternoster. Ten leechdoms. 

Ixiii. Leechdoms for a fiendsick man {or demoniac), 
drinks for that, and how a man shall sing masses and 
prayers and psalms over the drink, and drink out of 
church bells, and for a lunatic man, and for the wood 
heart or frenzy, and for them all ; six receipts. 

Ixiv. Leechdoms against every pagan charm and for 
a man with elvish tricks ; that is to say, an enchant- 
ment for a sort of fever, and powder and drinks and 
salve, and if the disease be on neat cattle ; and if the 
disease harm a man, or if a mare ride him and hurt 
him. In aU seven crafts. 

Ixv. Leechdoms again for typhus, and the names of 
the four gospellers and writings and prayers ; and in 
silence shall one write some writing. Five receipts. 

ixvi. Leechdoms for- the idiot and the silly. 

Ixvii. Leechdoms and drinks for meat taken, and if 
ale be spoilt or milken food. Three receipts. 

Ixviii. Leechdoms in case a hunting spider^ bite a 
man, that is, the stronger sort, and if another by name 
gangweaver,^ bite Jdm. Six capital receipts. 

Ixix. Leechdoms for a rent of a mad dog and for 
wound of hound. Seven leechdoms, 

Ixx. Leechdoms if a man be too lustful or too un- 

Ixxi. Leechdoms for sore of the dorsal muscles, and 
if the heel sinew be broken. 

Ixxii. Leechdoms declaring at what time blood is to 
be foregone, and at what to be let ; and how the air 
is full of venom at Lammas'^ time, and of drinks and 
evacuations on that month, and that worts on that 
month are to be worked. 

' Now Salticus scenicus. Aranea | - Aranea viatica. 
venatoria is American. But here ^ August 1. 

the tarantula was meaut. 

16 L/ECE BOC. 

Romane -j eall luS yolc pojihron htm eopJ> 1ml" pi8 
|?8epe uiil3''}:ce • -j hu mon pcyle blobl?efe on jjsejia j-ex 
pijra selcon on J^pej- monan elho popjan on l^pit^jum' 
nihta -j hponne betfc to la^tanne • 'j jip blob bolj 
yjrelije • "j jip J?u pille on fnibe blob p ojilsetan oJ>]je on 
cBbpe . o^^e jip J»u ne mseje blob bolj appi]?an • o]>]>e 
^ly })u ne mseje jeotenb eebpe appiSan o5Se jip mon 
on fmpe beplea a^t blobl?etan. :• 

,j .LXXIII. Lsecebom jip men hpilc Inn cme, :• 

.LXXllii. Lsecebom pi5 peajitum -j peappum on lime. :• 

.Lxxv. Lsecebom pi}? pcujipebum naejle. :• 

• LXXYI. Lsecebom piS jicj^an. :• 

.LXXVii. Lsecebom jip |?n pille f ypel Ipyle -j jetepno 

psere ut bejifce. :• 

.LXXVIll. Lsecebom jip men unlnfc lie jetenje. :• 

.LXXVIIII. Lsecebom jip mon on lanjiim peje teojnje. :• 

foi. 6 b. .Lxxx. Lsecebom pi6 ];on ]?e mon lime popbjimce. :■ 

.Lxxxi. Lsecebom piS miclum cyle. :• 

. Lxxxii. Lsecebom -^ip men fie psepmja to micel psecEO 


.Lxxxili. Lgecebom to mannep ftemne. 
.Lxxxilil. Lsecebom piS ];on jip mon j^unj ete. 

.LXXXV. Lsecebom piS )7on ]?e mon punbije piS hif 
peonb to 5epeolitaime. 

.'XXXVI. Lsecebom pi]? miclum janje opep lanb J>y 
Ivey he teopije. :• 

.Lxxxvii. Ltecebom jip mannep peax pealle fealp pi]? 
]?on "j jtp man calu fie. 

.Lxxxvili. Lsecebomaf pi]? hojipep hjieople -j jip hopf 
^eallebe fie • -j jip hopf fie opfcoten o]>]>e o]>e]\ neat. 

' h)iicij;um was written ; now partly erased. 


The Romans and all the people of the south Contents. 
wrought for themselves houses of earth against the ill 
air ; and how a man shall forego bloodletting on each 
of the six fives ^ of the moons age in the thirty nights, 
and when best to let blood, and if the incision for 
bloodletting take an ill turn, and if thou will let 
blood on an incision or on a vein, or if thou may not 
staunch the bleeding incision, or if thou may not bind 
up the flowing vein, or if one, in bloodletting, cut 
down on a sinew. 

Ixxiii. A leechdom if any limb of a man be chapped. 

Ixxiv. A leechdom against warts and callosities on a 

Ixxv. A leechdom for a scurfy nail. 

Ixxvi. A leechdom for itch. 

Ixxvii. A leechdom if thou will that an ill swelling 
and the venomous humour should burst out. 

Ixxviii. A leechdom if loss of appetite befall a man. 

Ixxix. A leechdom if a man tire on a long journey. 

Ixxx. A leechdom in case a man overdrink himself. 

Ixxxi. A leechdom against much cold. 

Ixxxii. A leechdom if suddenly too much watching 
befall a man. 

Ixxxiii. A leechdom for a mans voice. 

Ixxxiv. A leechdom in case a man eat something- 

Ixxxv. A leechdom in case a man try to fight with 
his enemy. 

Ixxxvi. A leechdom for much travel over land lest 
he tire. 

Ixxxvii. A leechdom if a mans hair fall oft', a salve 
for that, and if a man be bald. 

Ixxxviii. Leechdom for swelled legs in a horse, and 
if a horse be galled, and if a horse or other neat 
cattle be elf shot. 

' Though a sidereal revolution of I the moon often attains the thirtieth 
the moon be but 27*321 days, yet | day of her age. 


18 LiECE BOC. 

Alex. Trail. On ]n]')nim fBjiefran laececjireftum jepjiitene fint Itece- 

"^•'" bomai' piS eallum heapbej' untjiymnepj^uni. 

ClDuppa hattre pypt jejiiib on moptepe fve penmj 

jepeje • bo fceap pulne pmep to pofe fmype Jjonne f 
fol. 7 a. heapob mib -j bpiince on nilit neptij. PI'S heapob psepce 

Cf. Galen. jentm puban -j pejimob jecnupa 'j menj pi]? eceb -j ele 
^o'-^ij;P'^°0'afeoli jniph claS fmipe mib ^ heapob- o^5e clam op 
K(ct:a\a\yia. |?am ilcau pjpc leje on ^ heapob 'j befpej^e pel jjonne ]>u 

to jiefte pille. 

Lacn. 1. pj^ j^Qj^ ilcan jentm betomcan -j pipop je^mb fpi"Se 

tojsebepe laet ane niht hanjian on claSe fmipe mib. 

» Plinius Vale- pi-S heapob pfepce^- betan pypttpuman jecnupa piS 
rianus, de re i < v y ■> ^ n 

Medicafol.i4b hunij appmj bo p peap on neb *j onjean lunnan up- 

for clearing peapb licje • -j J>8et heapob ho op bune f ye^ peap mseje 

J, „ . " f heapob jeonb ypnan • heebbe him sep on mu|7e ele 

o])]>e butepan "j ]7onne uplanj afitte hnijie popS laete 

plopan op J?am nebbe J7a jilliftpan bo fpa ^elome ojjjjset 

hit clsene fie. :• 

PI'S heapob psepce jenim hampypt ni)>epeapbe je- 
cnupa leje on cealb psetep jnib fpiSe o]>f eall jelej^peb 
fie bejpe mib j5 heapob. :• 

Lacn. 1. ipip heapob pjepce jemm heah heoloJ?an -j jpunbe 

fpeljean -j pencepfan -j jitpipan pel on psetepe Iset 
peocan on ];a eajan ]?onne hit hat fie "j ymb ^a eajan 
jnib mib Jjsem pyptum fpa hatum. :• 

Pi^ heapob ece jemm pealh -j ele bo ahfan ^epypc 
J?onne to plypan bo to hymlican "j eopop ]?potan -j 
"Sa peaban netlan jecnupa bo J;onne on ]?one plipan 

fol. 7 b. 

LEECH BOOK. r. 19 

1. In these first leechcrafts are written leechdoms for Book I. 
all infirmities of the head. 

2. A wort has been named mnrra,* rub it in a mortar "" Scaiidix 
as much as may make a pennyweight, add to the ooze 

a stoup full of wine, then smear the head with that 
and let the patient drink this at night fasting. For 
head wark, take rue and wormwood, pound them and 
mingle with vinegar and oil, strain through a cloth, 
smear the head with it ; or work a paste of the same, 
lay it on the head and swathe it up well, when thou 
will to bed. 

3. For the same, take betony and pepper, rub them 
thoroughly together, let them hang one night in a 
cloth, smear with theon. For head wark, pound some 
roots of beet with honey, wring them, apply the juice 
to the face, and let the patient lie supine against the 
sun, and hang the head adown that the juice may run 
all over the head. Let him hold before that in his 
mouth oil or butter, and then sit up and lean forward 
and let the matter flow off" the face. Let him so do 
often till it be clean. 

4. For head wark, take the lower part of homewort,'' '• Sempen-iimm 
pound it, lay it in cold water, rub it hard till it be ''^^^o''"'"- 

all in a lather, bathe the head with it. 

5. For head wark, take elecampane ° and groundsel*' '' /«M?a //e/e- 
and fen cress ^ and gitrife,^ boil them in water, T^^^QTseneciovul- 
them steam upon the eyes, when it is hot, and rubi/ar/s. 
about the eyes with the worts, so hot. 

6. For head ache, take willow^ and oil, reduce to 
ashes, work to a viscid substance, add to this hem- 
lock^ and carline^ and the red nettle," pound them, 

' Nasturtium officinale. I ■• Conium maculatum. 

- Agrostemma githago. ^ Carlina acaulis.. 

^ Saliz. I " Lamium purpureum. 

B 2 



' HfUKpai'ia. 

fol. 8 a. 

be];e mib, pij? heajrob ece hunbe]' lieajrob jebsepn Co 
alij'an -j fniS ^ lieafob le^e on. 

Pi5 heayob psepce jemm ejielafcan jecnua on cealb 
poetrep jnib betrpeoh hanbimi -j jecnupa clupjpunj bo 
]7sep'co be|;e mib. pi]? heapob ece jenim hopan *j p'Tn 
•j eceb ^efpet mib ]iuni;j;e -j fmipe mib. :• 

' Pi]? heapob ece jentm bilep blofcman feo5 on ele 
fmipe J?a Jjunpanjan mib. -pi}> J?on ilcan jemm heojiocep 
liopnep ahpan menj piS eceb -j pofan feap bmb on ■^ 
pgenje. pij; ]?on ilcan jemm pset; pul jpenpe puban 
leapa "j penepep piebep cuclep puhie ^ejnib tojsebepe 
bo sejef f hpire to cucleji pulne • f fio pealp pie 
|?icce fmipe nub pej^ejie on ]7a liealpe J^e pap ne fie. :• 

Pi]> healpep heapbep^ ece jemm J?a peaban netlan 
anfcelebe jerpipula menj piS eceb -j fejef p lipite bo 
eall tojsebepe fmipe mib. :• 

Pi]; healpep heapbep ece laupep cpoppan jetpipula on 
eceb mib ele fmype mib \)y J^aet; pen;«;e. :• 

Pi^ ];on ilcan ^ernin jiuban peaj' pjiinj on f nsep- 
})ypel ];e on J^a papan^ healpe bi8. :■ 

Pi]? healpep heapbep ece • jemm laujiep cpoppan biifc 
•j lenep men^ cojsebejie ^eot; eceb on fmipe mib ];a 
papan healpe mib ]7y • o]>])e menje piS p'Tn J>8ep laupep 
cpoppan • o]>])e puban fseb jnib on eceb bo beja empela 
jnib Son* hneccan mib ]>y. 

" Tacnu J^sepe able • fio abl cymS op ypelpe psetan upan 
plopenbpe oppe te]?me oJ»]?e op bam • ponne pceal mon a^pefc 

' Plinius, XX, 73. 
- Galenus, vol. xiv. p. ,".98, ed. 
^ mapan, MS. 

* Read «one. 
^Alex. Trail, lib. 
partly word for word. 

i. cap. 12, 


put tliein then on the viscid stutt', bathe therewith. Book I. 
Against head ache ; burn a dogs head ' to ashes, snip ^^* *• 
the head ; lay on. 

7. For a head wark, talce everlasting,- }jound it in 
cold water, rub it between the hands, and pound 
cloffing,^ Ji^pply it thereto, bathe therewith. For head 
ache, take hove ^ and wine and vinegar ; sweeten with 
honey, and smear therewith. 

8. For head ache, take blossoms of dill,^ seethe in 
oil, smear the temples therewith. For the same, take 
ashes of harts horn, mingle with vinegar and juice of 
rose, bind on the cheek. For the same, take a vessel 
full of leaves of green rue, and a spoon full of mus- 
tard seed, rul> together, add the white of an egg, a 
spoon full, that the salve may be thick ; smear with a 
feather on the side which is not sore. 

9. For ache of half the head," take the red nettle 
of one stalk, bruise it, mingle with vinegar and the 
white of an egg, put all together, anoint therewith. 

10. For a half heads ache, bruise in vinegar with 
oil the clusters of the laurus, smear the cheek with 

11. For the same, take juice of rue, wring on the 
nostril which is on the sore side. 

12. For a half heads tiche, take dust of the clusters 
of laurel, and mustard, mingle them together, pour 
vinegar upon them, smear with that the sore side. 
Or mix Avith wine the clusters of laurel. Or vubjine 
in vinegar the seed of rue,'' put equal quantities of 
both, rub the back of the neck with that. 

13. Tokens of the disease. The disease cometh of 
evil humour flowing'^ or evil vapour, or of both. Then 

' That the plant called " hounds- | " Megrim. 

head " in Herb. Ixxxviii. is meant, ' ' liuta graveolens. 

1 do not think. " I hesitate to believe that njan, 

- GnaphuUmn. can mean^'/-o»i beloiv upwards; yet 

^ Ranunculus scelenitufi. Alexandros says Kara av/j.-Tradeiw 

'- Glcchoma hederacea. rod ffrofj-ix""- U)"an means from 

^ Anethum qraoeolens. above. 

22 L^CE BOC. 

on "Sa able pojiepeapbjie blob Isetan oj: sebjie • sefteji 
J)on pceal man pyjit bpenc pellan -j lacnian pijjj^an ]?a 
j'ajian fropa • jijr feo abl fie cumen op micelpe liseto 
)7onne pceal man mib cealbum Isecebomum lacnian • 
jip liio op cealbum Intmjan cym^ • J>onne pceal mon 
mib hatum Isecebomum lacnian jehpgej^ejiep pceal mon 
nyttian -j mifcian f J>one Kchoman hsele -j eepep msejen 
hsebbe • Mm beah f him mon on eape bpype jeplsec- 
cebne ele mib o]?pum jobum pyjitum. :• 

fol. 8 b. jentm pi]? tobpocenum heapbe betonican jetpipula 

•j leje on f heapob upan j^onne pamna^ hio ]?a punbe 
-j hselS. Gpc pij> ]?on ilcan ^emm tuncepfan fio j^e pelp 
peaxeS -j mon ne psep'S bo In ]?a nofu f pe fcenc maeje 
on f heapob 'j pset peap. :• 

Pi]? J»on ilcan ept jenim banpypt -j attopla}?an -j 
bolhjiunan • -j pubumejice "j bpiinpypt "j betonican • bo 
ealle J^a pypta to pyjit bpence 'j menje ]?8eji pi^S J?a 
fmalan clipan -j centaupian -j pe^bjiseban • ealpa fpi]7uft 
betonican -j jip ^ bpsejen litpije gemm sejep ]3 jeo- 
lupe "j menj lythpon^ piS hunij -j apyl Sa punbe • -j 
mib acumban befpeSe "j pojilset fpa ];onne • "j ept ymb 
jjpy bajap jefp^t ]7a punbe • *j jip pe hala pep]7e pille 
habban peabne hpmj ymb ]7a punbe pite ])u J^onne 
f ]>n hie ne meaht jehaslan. piS ]7on ilcan jernm 
pubupopan *j pubu mepce "j hopan ^j pel on butejian -j 

' Lyhjion, MS. 



shall one first in the early disease let blood from a 
vein ; after that shall be administered a wort drink, 
and the sore places shall be cm-ed. If the disease be 
caused by mickle heat, then shall one cure it with 
cold leechdoms ; if it cometh of cold causes, then shall 
one cure it with hot leechdoms, of either shall advan- 
tage be taken, and they shall be mixed, into a imAxturc 
that may heal the body and have an austere efficacy 
in it. It is well for him that one should drip for him 
in his ear oil made lukewarm with " other " good 

14. For broken head, take betony,' bruise it and lay 
it on the head above, then it unites the wound and 
healeth it. Again for the same, take garden cress,^ 
that which waxeth of itself and is not sown,'^ intro- 
duce it into the nose^ that the smell and the juice 
may get to the head. 

15. For the same again, take wallflower'^ and 
attorlothe'' and pellitory and wood marche^ and 
brownwort^ and betony, form all the worts into a 
wort drink, and mix therewith the small cleaver^ and 
centaury^'' and waybroad,^^ of all most especially 
betony, and if the brain be exposed, take the yolk 
of an egg and mix a little with honey and fill the 
wound and swathe up with tow, and so let it alone ; 
and again after about three days syringe the wound, 
and if the hale sound part^~ will have a red ring- 
about the wound, know thou then that thou mayest 
not heal it. For the same, take woodrofie and wood- 

Book I. 
Ch. i. 

' Betonica officinalis. 

- Lepidium sativum. 

^ Self sown ; but a garden cress 

' "Eppivov, therefore ; but these 
were used like cephalic snuff ; and 
never for broken head. See Nicolaos 
Myreps. xv. 

* Cheiranthus cheiri. 

" See Herbarium, xlv., to which 
assent is not easily given. 

' Apium graveolena. 

* Scrophularia aquatica: see Herb. 

" Galium aparine. 

'" Erythrma centaureum. 

" Plantago maior. 

'- The sense of )e]i|je is doubtful ; 
but see glossary. 

24i L^CE BOC. 

j-eoh ]7Ujih ha3penne ' cla^ bo on ^ heapob Jionne ^anja]? 
}?a ban tic. 

fol. 9 a. Pi]? Ian5um j-ape |;a3}' heafbe)- o]?]7e Sapa eapena oS8e 

=» \>a, MS., but j?apa to]?a J^a^ ]m]ili hoph oSSe ]7uph ynofl tir ateo ^ 
erase it. y^^ ejle]^ • jefeo}* ceppillan on pserepe pele bpmcan 

j7onne aCihS f ]?a yjrelan pietan ut o]?]?e ]7uph muS 
o-SSe )7uph nofu. Opt: J)up ]?u pcealc J?a ypelan opfe- 
tenan pgetan utabon j^ujih fpatl *j hpaiicean menj pipop 
pi]) hpir cpubu fele to ceopanne • 'j pypc him co fpil- 
lanne pione jeajl -^ jemin eceb -j pserep -j fenep "j hunij 
pyl t058ebepe lifcmn • "j apeoh bonne Isec colian yele 
]70nne jelome f jeajl ro fpillanne f he ]7y pel mseje 
^ ypel utahpseeean. 

Pypc ]>u]' fpihn^e to heapbep clsenfunje jentm ept 
lenepep pgebep bsel *j nsepfaebep -j cepfan psebep • fume men 
hataS lambep cejij-an -j mejicep fseb -j . XX. pipopcopna • 
jefamna eall mib ecebe -j mib hunije • jehget on psetepe 
^ -j habbe on muj^e lanje ]7onne ypnS f jiUiftep lit. 

•^6pt o})pu fpihnj on I'umepe C£e]ienep jobne bollan pulne • 
fol, Ob. "j ecebep mebmicelne -j ypopum hatte pypt hipe leap -j 

blofcman menj tojfebepe -j laet ftanban neahtepne *j 
on mopjen on cpoccan opeppylle -j fupe plsec "j ]3 jeajl 
Ipile "j \)yea htp mnS. * To ]?on ilcan on pmtpa fenepef 
bultep cuclep pulne 'j hunijef healpne cuclep jebo on 
calic menje J>onne j^ptep ])on pi5 paetep -j htete -j peoh 
]7uph Imenne claS -j fpile mi8 f jeajl • septep ]7am 
kecebome jelome mib ele IpiUe ])a hpacan. ^ Gpt pi]? lf>on 
ilcan jentm mealpan jejnib on phiec pm pele to fpil- 
lanne ]3 jeajl. piS tobpoeenum heapbe "j fapum jiube 

' haejienne suggests itself. 
- seasl below is neuter. 
^ Plinius Valerianus, de re Med., 
fol. 14 a. 

^ Ibid. 

■' Plin. Val., fol. 13 b. 


marche and liovo, and boil in butter and strain tlirouirli ^^""'^ ^• 

. Ch i. 

a coloured cloth, apply it to the head, then the bones 

come out. 

16. For chronic disorder of the head or of the ears 
or of the teeth through foulness or through mucus, ex- 
tract that which aileth there, seethe chervil in water, 
give it to drink, then that drawetli out the evil 
humours either through mouth or through nose. Again, 
thus thou shalt remove the evil misplaced humours by 
spittle and breaking ; mingle pepper with mastic, give 
it the 'patient to chew, and work him a gargle to 
swill his jowl ; take vinegar and water and mustard 
and honey, boil together cleverly, and strain, then let 
cool, then give it him frequently to swill his jowl, 
that he by that may comfortably break out the ill 

17. AVork thus a swilling or lotion for cleansing of 
the head, take again a portion of mustard seed and of 
navew seed and of cress seed, some men call it lambs 
cress, and of marche seed, and twenty pepper corns, 
gather them all with vinegar and with honey, heat 
them in water and have them long in the mouth, then 
the fiegm runneth out. Again, another swilling in 
summer ; mingle together a good bowl full of wine 
boiled down with herbs and a moderate one of vine- 
gar, and hyssop, so the wort hight, its leaves and 
blossoms, and let the mixture stand for a night, and in 
the morning boil it over again in a crock (or earthen 
pot), and let him sup it lukewarm and swill his jowl 
and wash his mouth. For the same in winter, put i]i 
a chalice a spoon full of the dust of mustard and 
half a spoon full of honey, then after that mingle this 
with water, and heat it and strain it through a linen 
cloth and swill the jowl with it; after that leechdom 
frequently swill the throat with oil. Again for the 
same ; take mallows, rub them into lukewarm wine, 
give it the 'patient to swill the jowl. For a broken 


jetjiijzelabu miS pealte -j mib hunije fmijie ^ heajrob 
pojiepeajib mib ]7y fe cuj^ej'ta Igecebom bi]? J^am Jje heajrob 
pylm -j lap j^popiaS. pi]? J^on ilcan eye jejiiib jiuban 
on pm j-ele bpmcan *j gemenj eceb pij> puban -j ele 
bpype on f heapob -j fmipe mib. 

.1. {read .ii.) 

Alex, Trail. Lsecebomaf pij) eajna milbe jenim celej^enian yeap 

oy\>e blofcman jemenj piS bopena liuni;^ ^e^o on sepen 

fol. 10 a. F^"^ piece lifcum on peapmum jlebum o]>f hit jefoben 

fie • ]7ip biS job Isecebom pi]? eajna bimneppe. piJ? 

Cf. Marcell. Jjon ilcan ept pilbpe puban jebeappe -j jetpipulabpe 
leap • jemenj piS afeopnef humjef em micel fmype 
mib ]7a eajan. ]}!]> eajna mifre monije men ]?y Isep 
liiopa eajan ]?a able p>popian lociaS on cealb paetep • 
•j ]?onne majon pyp jefeon ne pypt f ]?a peon • ac 
micel pm jebjiinc -j o))pe jefpette bpmcan 'j mettap • 
•j J?a fpipopt pa Se on Saepe upepan pambe jepunia^ -j 
ne majon melt an • ac jjsep ypele psetan pypceaS -j 
)?icce. Pop "j capel 'j eal ])a ]>e fyn fpa apeji fmb to 
fleojanne 'j ^ }>e mon on bebbe basjep uppeapb ne 
licje -j cyle -j pmb -j pec -j biij-t • J^aj- J^inj -j Jpifum 
jelic selce bseje fce)?]?a'S Jjam eajtim. ^ pi]? eajna mifce 
jenim jpenne pmul jebo on psetep .xxx. nihta on 
?enne cpoccan ]7one J^e fie jepicob utan jepylle ]?onne 
mib pen psetepe • septep jjon apeoppe op ]?one pmul -j 
mib J>y psetepe selce bseje ]?peaL ]>a, eajan "j ontyne. 

fol. 10 b. -6ft op homena sejjme "j ftieme *j op plsetan cym5 

' Cf. Galen, vol. xiv. p. 499, ed. | - Plinius Valerianus, fol. 20 b. for 
1827. fourteen lii^es. 



and sore head ; bruised rue ^ with salt and honey ; 
smear the forehead with it, the most approved leech- 
dom is this for ]dm whose head hath burning and 
paiuful throes. For the same again ; rub rue in wine, 
give it to drink to the sufferer, and mingle vinegar 
with rue and oil ; drip it on the head and smear 

Book 1. 
Ch. i. 


1. Leechdoms for mistiness of the eyes ; take juice or 
blossoms of celandine, mingle \vith honey of dumljle- 
dores,* introduce it into a brazen vessel, half warm it ^ Melle Attico, 
neatly on warm gledes, till it be sodden. This is a 
good leechdom for dimness of eyes. For the same, 
mingle the juice of wild rue,^ dewy and bruised, mingle 
with equally much of filtered honey, smear the eyes 
with that. For mistiness of eyes many men, lest their 
eyes should suffer the disease, look into cold water 
and then are able to see far ; that harmeth not the 
vision, but much wine drinking and other sweetened 
drinks and meats, and those especially which remain 
in the upper region of the wamb and cannot digest, 
but there form evil humours and thick ones ; leek and 
colewort and all that are so austere are to be avoided, 
and care must he had that a man lie not in bed in 
day time supine ; and cold and wind and reek and 
dust, these things and the like to these every day are 
injurious to the eyes. For mistiness of eyes, take green 
fennel, put it into water for thirty days in a crock 
{or earthen vessel), one that is pitched on the outside, 
fill it then with rain water ; after that throw off" 
the fennel and with the water every day wash the 
eyes and open them. Again, from the vapour and 

' The verbs are often suppressed. 

- Wild rue is a Hellenism, Tri)ya- 

vov &ypiov, Dioskor. iii. 59, op/udfei 

Trpus oi/xfi\va>irias, or ruta silvestris; 
Plinius, XX. 51. These are pega- 
iium harmala. 

28 L^CE BOC. 

eajna imlr: -j fio yceajipnep *j jfojoj^a ]? be]? pi|? J>on ij* 
])\Y tro bonne. pr6 eajna milte jenim cile|7onian j'eapey 
cucleji fulne oj^ejine pmolef • jjpibban appotanan j^eapep • 
■j hunijep reapep tu cuclep mail menj to jtebejie • "j 
|7onne mib pepepe jebo In ]>aj eajan on mopjenne *j 
jjonne mibbsej fie • "j ept on a^pen a'pteji |?on ponne f 
abjiujob pie -j "cojoten poji ];9Bpe pealpe fceappnej-pe • 
jentm pipep meoluc ]>sey ]>e cilb haebbe bo on |>a 
eajan. :• 

6ft: ?e]7ele cp^pt gennn balpami -j liunijep treajief 
em micel jemenj to5a?be]ie -j fmijie mib ]7y. 

Gpt piS j;on ilcan cele];onian j-eap "j fepsetep fmijie 
mib J)a eajan -j beSe. bi]? ]?onne j-elefc f pu nime 
jjsefie cele]7onian peap "j mucjpypte 'j jiuban ealpa em 
pela bo liunij to "j balbfamiim ^tp ]?u hsebbe • jebo on 
f pset pe ])n hit mseje on mib jepoje jefeoj^an -j nytta 
pel ]?£et bet. 

^Pi]? eajna mifte gebsepneb j-eait -j jejmben -j yi]) 
bojiena hunij jemenjeb fmipe mib. :• 

fol- 11 a. 2 6 ft pmolep "j pol'an "j jiuban peap "j bojian liunij -j 

ticceiiep jeallan tojtebepe j^emenjeb fmijie mib Jni 
eajan. ''Gft jpene cellenbpe jejniben -j pi]) pipej' 
meoluc jemenjeb aleje opeji ]7a eajan. :• 

» Quad. a^Qy-c hapaii jeallaii jenirae '-j Imijie mib. :• 

'' Marcellus, '* 6pt cpice^ pme pmclan ^ebtejinbe to ahpan "j ]>a 

-'^' ^- alipan jemenje piS bopena Imnij. : 

' Pliu. Val. fol. 20 b. i ^ Por veras our author read 

- Plin. Val. fol, 21 b. ! vivas. Or Plinius Valerianus, fol. 

- Plin. Valerianus, fol. 19 b. , 21 b, whei'c y/c read " Cochlese 
' Also riinius Valerianus, fol. I vivae." 

20 b., 21b. I 

LEECH ?,00K. T. 


steam of ill juices and from nausea cometli mist of r,ook l. 
eyes, and the sharpness and corrupt lunnour causes that, 
against which this is to be done. For mist of eyes, 
take of celandines juice a spoon full, another of fennels, 
a third of southernwoods juice, and two spoon measures 
of the tear of honey (^virgin honey that drops without 
"pressure), mingle tliem together, and then with a 
feather put soms into the eyes in the morning and 
when it be midday*, and again at evening after that, 
when it is dried up and spent; for sharpness of the 
salve, take milk of a woman who hath a child, apply 
it to the eyes. 

2. Again, a noble craft. Take equal ({uantities of- 
balsam and of virgin honey, mix together and smear 
with that. 

3. Again for the same, juice of celandine and sea Cf. Nicol. 
water ; smear and bathe the eyes therewith. It is then xx^xvni i '>'> 
most advisable that thou take juice of the celandine from an older 
and of mugwort^ and of rue, of all equal quantities, add ^" "''•P*''' ^^P^- 
honey to it, and balsam, if thou have it, put it then 

into such a vessel that thou may seethe it with glue- 
aud make use of it. It does much good. 

4. For mist of eyes, salt burnt and rubbed fine and 
mixed with dumbledores honey f smear therewith. 

5. Again, juice of fennel and of rose and of rue, and 
dumbledores honey,^ and kids gall, mixed together ; 
smear the eyes with this. Again, lay upon the eyes 
green coriander rubbed fine and mixed with womans 

6. Again, let him take a liares gall and smear with it. 

7. Again, live perriwinkles burnt to ashes ; and let 
liim mix the ashes with dumbledores^ honey. 

' Artemisia vulyarlf;. 

- Or some cement ; the original 
author perhaps meant a covered 
vessel sealed up with cement. 

^ Doubtless from " melle Attico," 
read as melle attaci ; the dumble- 
dore is apis bomhinatrix. 



" Plinius, 

xxxii. 24. 
272, g. 

' IMarcellus 
>72, b. 

fol. 11 b. 

^Gfx: jiyj-laf ealjia ea fifca on fiinnan jemylce -j 
piS huiii;^ jemenjbe fmipe mib. 

PiS eajna mifce efc betonican j'eap jebeatenjie mib 
liijie pypttjiuman -j appunjenpe -j jeappan peap -j cele- 
]?onian em micel ealjia menj trojsebejie bo on eaje. 
''6pt pmolef pypttpum^n jecnuabne jemenj pi's hu- 
nijep ]-eap^ feoS Jjonne set; leohtum pyjie lifrelice oj; 
liiim^ep ])icneppe • jebo ]7onne on sejiene ampullan -j 
]?onne j^eapp pie fmijie mib J)ip robjiip]? ]?a eahmifcaj* 
]:>eali ]?e liie J^icce fynb. :• 

PiJ? eajna mifce ept celej'oman peap o])]>e ]>ajm blofc- 
mena jepjimj "j jemenj piS bopena hunij jebo on sejien 
pffit: piece jponne lifcum on peajimum jlebum opj^e on 
ahpan o]? f hit jebon pie • f biS anfpilbe lyb pi]? eajena 
bimneppe. :• 

<= Marcellus, 
272, a. 

■' Marcellus, 
272, c. 

Sume jjsep ]*eapep anlipijef nyttiab -j J>a eajan raib 
J)y fmijiiaS. Pi]? eajena mifce ept eopSipies feap -j 
pmolep j'eap ^ebo bejea em pela on ampullan bpije 
]?onne on hatjie funnan -j ]?a eajan mnepeapb mib ]>y 
fmipe. ^Pi]> eajena mifre ept: eojiSjeallan^ peap ]? ip 
hypbepypt fmipe on ]?a eajan fio pyn bi}? ]>y pceapppe • 
jip ]?u humj to befc ]? beah • jemm^^ ]?onne ]?8e]ie ilcan 
pypte jobne jelm jebo on ceac pulne pmef -j jepeo]? 
opnete tep ]?]iy bajaf • -j ]>onne hio jepoben fie appm^ 
]?a pypt op 'j ]?8ep popep jefpettep mib hunije jebpmc 
?elce baeje neaht neptij bollan pulne. :• 

^ Cf. Celsus, e Salbep mannep eajan beo]? unfceappfyno }?onne pceal 

29* '■ he ]?a eajan peccan mib jnibmjum mib jonjum • mib 

jiabum o]>]?e mib ]>y ]?e hme mon bepe o]?]?e on p?ene 

pepije • -j hy j-culan nyttian lytlum 'j pophtlictim metum 

-j hiopa heapob cemban -j pepmob bpmcan sep ]?on J^e 

' " Tantundem mellis optimi de- 
spumati " is turned " juice of 

- Cf. Alex. Trail, p. 46, line 31, 
ed. 1548. 


8. Again, the fatty parts of all river fishes melted Book I 
in the sun and mingled with honey ; smear with that. ' '" "' 

9. For mist of eyes again, juice of betony beaten 
with its roots and wrung, and juice of yarrow^ and of 
celandine, equally much of all, mingle together, apply 
to the eye. Again, mingle pounded root of fennel with 
the purest honey, then seethe at a light fire cleverly 
to the thickness of honey. Then put it into a brazen 
ampulla, and when need be, smear with it, this drive th 
away the eye mists, though they be thick. 

10. For mist of aj'^es again, wring out juice of celan- 
dine or of the blossoms of it, and mingle with 
dumbledores honey, put it into a brazen vessel, then 
make it lukewarm cleverly on warm gledes, or on 
ashes, till it be done. That is a unique medicine for 
dimness of eyes. 

11. Some avail themselves of the juice singly, and 
anoint the eyes with that. For mist of eyes again ; 
juice of ground ivy and juice of fennel; set equal 
quantities of both in an ampulla, then dry in the hot 
sun, and smear the inward part of the eyes with that. 
For mist of eyes again, smear earthgalls ^ juice, that 
is herdwort,^ on the eyes, the vision will be by it 
sharper. If thou addest honey thereto, that is of good 
effect. Further take a good bundle of the same wort, 
introduce it into a jug full of wine, and seethe three 
days in a close vessel; and when it is sodden, wring- 
out the wort, and drink of the ooze sweetened with 
honey every day, after a nights fasting, a bowl full. 

12. The eyes of an old man are not sharp of sight ; 
than shall he wake up his eyes with rubbings, with 
walkings, with ridings, either so that a man bear 
him^ or convey him in a wain. And they shall use 
little and careful meats, and comb their heads and 

' Achillea millefoliu7n. I ^ In a litter. 

ErythrcRa centaureum. I 

32 L^CE BOC. 

liie mete Jncjean. pay mon j'ceal unj'ceajipfynum fealjre 
fol. 12 a. pyjicean ro eaT;um • jeniin pipoji --j ^ebeat: "j fpejlej- 

redte^ ^Tsppel -j lipon ]-ea]~a ^ ptn f h\]) job ]-ealp. :• 

pi]) miclum eajeee manij man h?ef]) micelne ece 

on hif eajura. pypc Mm ]7onne jjiunbe fpeljean -j 

Ijij'ceop yy]^^ "j pmol pyl })a pyjita ealle on j'serjie • 

meoluc bi5 j-elpe Ifet f peocan on J^a eajan. Gpc 

cele|)onian -j pububmbelf^ leap jeacep fupe prS pin 

jemenje. :• 

Gp- to miclum eajece cpopleac nio];opeapb -j pit- 

mpepep pypt nioj^opeapb cnua on pme Ijetr fcanban tpa 

" Gr. ap76^a ; iiilit:. pi8 pile'' eajpcalp jeuim bpomef ahl'anc -j boUan 

Lat. Albugo. yi^iJQg hatep pmef jeoi: J?jiipa lytlum on hate ]?a ahfan 

'■ anfiin, MS. ^ ^^ Jjonne on pejien past oS5e ej^pepen bo liiini;^ef 

li])on to -j menj tojsebepe bo on J^sep untpnman man- 

nef eajan • -j a];peah ept J?a eajaii on cleenum pylle. 

J^i]) pile liajian geallan bo peapmne on ymb tpa nilit 

'' Slab, MS. not phhS op ];am ea^um. pi]> plie jemm onpsepe plali'^ 

' ■ ]> peap -j ppmj ]7uph elaS on p eaje pona jse'S on 

])pim bajum op [^ip fio plali bi]? jpene. pij? plie eceb 

•j jebsepneb fealt -j bepen mela jemenj tojsebejie bo 

on ]5 eaje hapa lanje lipile jjine lianb on. :• 

^Readol>l>e p^j^ j-lie eahj'ealp cele];onian I'seb jenmi on pam ^ 

fol 12 b pypttjmman ;^nib on ealb ptn -j on hunij bo pipop to 

l?et fcanban neahtepne be pype nytta Jjonne jju j'lapan 

piUe. pi]7 pile oxan plyppan nipepeajibe -j aloji pmbe 

pylle on butejian. :• 

Xv/xua-is, pi]? ])on Se eajan typen puban feap -j jate jeallan -j 


Read -binbef. 


drink ■wormwood before they take food. Then shall Book i, 
a salve be wrought for nnsharpsighted eyes ; take 
pepper and beat it, and beetle nut^ and a somewhat 
of salt, and wine ; that will be a good salve. 

13. For much eye ache. Many a man hath mickle 
ache in his eyes. Work him then groundsel and 
bishopwort^ and fennel, boil all the worts in water, 
milk is better, make that throw up a reek on the 
eyes. Again, let him mingle with wine celandine and 
woodbines leaves and the herh cuckoosour.'^ 

14. Again, for much eye ache, pound in wine the 
nether part of cropleek ^ and the nether part of 
Wihtmars wort,^ let it stand two days. For pearl, an 
eye salve ; take ashes of broom and a bowl full of hot 
wine, pour tlds by a little at a time thrice on the hot 
ashes, and put that then into a brass or a copper vessel, 
add somewhat of honey and mix together, apply to 
the infirm mans eyes, and again wash the eyes in a 
clean wyll spring. For pearl on the eye, apply the gall 
of a hare, warm, for about two days, it flieth from the 
eyes. Against white spot, take an unripe sloe, and 
wring the juice of it through a cloth on the eye, soon, 
in three days the spot will disappear, if the sloe be 
green. Against white spot, mingle together vinegar 

and burnt salt^ and barley meal, apply it to the eye, " A substitute 
hold thine hand a long while on it. moniaclim'/' 

15. For pearl, an eye salve ; take seed of celandine 
or the root of it, rub it into old wine and into honey, 
add pepper, let it stand for a night by the fire, use it 
when thou wilt sleep. Against white spot, boil in 
butter the nether part of ox-slip'^ and alder'' rind. 

16. In case the eyes be tearful, juice of rue, and 

' The evidence, such as it is, for 
this rendering will be given in the 

- Herbar. i. Betonica officinalis. 

^ Oxalis Acetosella. 


Allium sativum, probably. 
Cochlearia anylica, perhaps. 
Primula veris elatior. 
Aliius glutinosa. 

34 LiECE BOC. 

bopan humj ealjia em yeln. ^tp eajan^ typen heopotey 
liopnep alij-an bo on ^efpet ptn. P^J^c eajj'ealjie pij; 
psenne jemm cjiopleac -j jajileac bejea em pela jecnupa 
pel tofomne jemm ptn -j j:eaji]ief jeallan bejea em 
pela jemen^ pi]? |>y leace bo ]7onne on appset Iset fcan- 
ban nijon nilit on ]?am appate appmj ]?uph cla]? -j 
jehlyttpe pel bo on liojm • 'j ymb mlit bo mib pej^epe 
on f eaje fe betfca Irecebom. 

ipip penne^ on eajon jentm |?a holan cejifan jebpseb 
bo on f eaje fpa he harofr mjeje. :■ 

yip eajece jepypce htm jjiunbfpeljean *j bifceop pypt 
-j beopypt -j pmul pyl ]^a pyjita ealle on psetepe meoluc 
hip betepe. : 

fol. 13 a. Pij? eajna ece jenim pa, peaban hopan apyl on fujmra 

fpatum o|)]?e on fupurn eala5 'j be];e J^a eajan on }>am 
ba|je betepe fpa optop. :• 

]?\p eajece jenim pijjopmban Tpiju jecnupa apylle 
on butepan^ bo on pa, eajan. :• 

Pypc eajpealpe jemm hnurcypnla -j hpsete cojin jnib 
cojsebepe bo pm to afeoh }»uph claS bo ]7onne on pa, 
eajan. pi]? eajna paepce -j ece hpitep hlapej- cpuman 
•j pipop -j eceb menj pel leje on cla5 bmb on |;a eajan 
nihtepne. puj- mon pceal eajj'ealpe pyjicean • jentm 
ftpeapbepian pifan mo]?opeapbe -j pipop jecnupa pel bo 
on cla]? bebmb pjefte leje on jefpet ptn l?et jebjieopan 
on J)a eajan senne bpopan, Pyjic eajfealpe pububmbej- 
leap pubumepce ftpeapbepian pifan fu]?epne pepmob 
oxna lyb cele]7onian jecnupa pa pypte fjnSe menj pi J? 

• Galen, vol. xii> p. 335, ed. 1826. I '^ TvXos. 
Sextus, cap. i. 1, Lat. | ^ The MS. has bicepan. 

LEECH BOOK. ]. 35 

goats gall and dumbledor(»s honey, of all equal quan- Book I. 

titles. If eyes be tearful, add to sweetened wine ashes 

of harts horn. Work an eye salve for a wen, take 

cropleek and garlic,^ of both equal quantities, pound 

them well together, take wine and bullocks gall, of 

both equal quantities, mix with the leek, put this 

then into a brazen vessel, let it stand nine days in 

the brass vessel, wring out through a cloth and clear 

it well, put it into a horn, and about night time apply 

it with a feather to the eye ; the best leechdom. 

17. For a wen^ on the eye, take hollow cress,'"' roast 
it, apply it to the eye, as hot as possible. 

IS. For eye ache, let him work for himself ground- 
sel and bishop wort ^ and beewort^ and fennel, boil all 
the worts in water ; milk is better. 

19. For ache of eyes, take the red hove,^ boil it in 
sour beer or in sour ale, and bathe the eyes in the bath, 
the oftener the better. 

20. For eye ache, take twigs of withewind,'' pound 
them, boil them in butter, apply them to the eyes. 

21. Work an eye salve thus; take nut kernels and 
wheat grains, rub them together, add wine, strain 
through a cloth, then apply to the eyes. For acute 
pain and ache of eyes, mingle well crumbs of white 
bread and pepper and vinegar, lay this on a cloth, 
bind it on the eyes for a night. Thus shall a man 
work an eye salve, take the nether part of strawberry 
plants and pepper, pound them well, put them on a 
cloth, bind them fast, lay them in sweetened wine, 
make somebody drop one drop into the eyes. Work 
an eye salve thus ; leaves of v/oodbind," woodmarche," 
strawberry plants, southern wormwood,^** green hellebore. 

' Allium oleraceum ? 
- Wisps or sties are called -wuns 
ill Devon. 

^ Gentiana campestris. 

* In Herb. i. Betonica officinalis. 

^ Acorus calamus. 

'' Glechoma heeler acea. 
' Convolvulus sepium. 
'^ Convolvulus. 
^ Apium graveolcns. 
'" Artemisia ahiotanon. 


36 L^CE BOO. 

ptn bo on cypepen fset op];e on ?e]ienum fate hajra 
Iset franban j'eopon nilic o]>])e ma appinje J'a pypta 
fpiSe clsene jebo pipoji on -j jefj^et; fpi];e leohtlice mih 

fol. 13 b. liunije bo pi])J>an on hojm -j mib pej^epe bo on ]?a eajan 

£enne bpopan. Pyjic eajpealpe bpije • genim fpejlef 
seppel -j fpepl cpecipc attjium -j jebsejineb pealr "j pipopep 
msepc jejpmb eall to bufce apipc ]?u]ih cla5 bo on 
n^epc hsebbe liim on J?y Isep hit J>ine • bo mebmicel 
on l^a eajan mib coJ> jape jepefce liim septep "j plape 
•j J>onne a}»peah Inj- eajan mib clsene psetpe -j on ]> 
psetep locije. pypc eajpealpe cymen -j fcpeapbepjean 
pife jecnupa fpiSe pel -j op jeot mib jefpette pme bo 
In cypepen pset oSSe on sepen Iset fcanban pela nihta 
on appmg jja pypte |?uph claS -j aliluttpa fpi]?e pel bo 
ponne on |^a eajan ];onne ])u pille pefran • jip fio 

Imminutiones. pealp fie to heaji^ jefpet miS hunije. pi'S sepmselum 
jenl^m attpum jemenj piS fpatl ]?a^ eajan ntepeajib 
nalgep mnan. 

pib aepmselum ni]7epeapb^ sepcj^potu jecopen on mu];e 
-j appmjen J^uph claS on eaje jebon punbojilice h?el]7. 
]?i]) ])on j>e mon fupeje fie jenim ajjnmonian pelle 
fpij^e o]? ]?pibban bsel ];peah jelome ];a eajan mib ]?y. 
Pustula. P^]> poece on eajum • jemm pab -j pibban ^ hleomocan 

fol. 14 a. pyl on meolce on butepan ip betepe -j pypc bej^mjc • 

pyl hleomoc -j jeappan -j pubu ceappiUan on meolcum. 

' Heap MS. If any word closely 
answering to Gei-m. Ilerbe, Lat. 
Acerbus, occurs in Saxon, it has 
not met my eyes; the context is onr 
guide here. See Gl. 

^ fmipe must be supplied. 
" mh>ejieapb, MS. 


celandine, pound the worts much, mingle with wine, Book I. 
l)iit into a copper vessel or keep in a brazen vat, let ^^' "" 
it stand seven days or more, wring the worts very 
clean, add pepper, and sweeten very lightly with honey, 
put subsequently into a horn, and with a feather put 
one drop into the eyes. Work a dry eye salve thus; 
take beetle nut(?) and sulfiir, Greek olusatrum^ and 
burnt salt, and of pepper most, grind all to dust, sift 
through a cloth, put it on a fawns skin, let him keep 
it about himself, lest it get moist. Introduce a small 
quantity into the eyes with a tooth pick ; afterwards 
let him rest himself and sleep, and then wash his eyes 
with clean water, and let him look in the water, 
that is, keep his eyes open under ivater. Work eye 
salve thus; pound thoroughly cummin and a straw- 
berry plant, and souse with sweetened wine, put into 
a copper vessel or into a brazen one, let it stand 
many nights, wring the wort through a cloth and clear 
the liquid thoroughly, then apply to the eyes when 
thou may wish to rest ; if the salve be too biting, 
sweeten it with honey. For imminution of the eyes, 
take olusatrum, mingle with spittle, anoint the eyes 
outwardly not inwardly. 

22. For imminutions, the nether part of the herb Contraction 
ashthroat^ chewed in the mouth and wrung through a " le pupi . 
cloth, and applied to the eye, wonderfully healeth. In 
case a man be blear eyed, take agrimony, boil it 
thoroughl}'- doivn to the third part, wash the eyes 
frequently with that. For a pock or pustule in the 
eyes, take woad^ and ribwort* and brooklime,^ boil in 
milk, in butter is better, and work a fomentation. 
Boil brooklime^ and yarrow^ and wood chervil' in 

• Smi/rnium olusatrum. 
- In Herb. iv. Verbena officinulia, 
but in the gll. Ferula. 
^ Isatis tinctoria. 

' Plantago lanceolata. 
'■" Veronica beccabunga. 
'' Achillea millefolium. 
' Anthriscus silvestris. 




» nTiAoxris. 

fol. 14 b. 

]?ij> pypmum on eajum jeriim beolonan ffeb jfceab 
on jleba • bo tpa bleba pulle pserejief to fete on rpa 
healpe -j fite ]?8ep opep bp?eb ];onne f heapob hibeji -^j 
jeonb opep f pyp *j J^a bleba eac ]70nne pceaba]? ]?a 
pypmaf on j^set psetep. pi]? ]?eopable on eajum J)e 
mon ^epijo hset on Iseben hatte cimoSip • hsenne sejej- 
jeolocan -j mepcep pseb -j attpum -j tunmintan, Gpr 
pi"S jepijon fceapef holifcancan unfobenne tobjiec jebo 
];Eet meapli on ]7a eajan. pi]? }>iccum bpseptim'^ jentm 
|?peo hanb puUa mucpypCe ]?peo pealtrep • ]?peo papan^ 
jiylle ]7onne oJ» ^ fie tpaebe bej^ylleb 'psey pofej- healb ]7onne 
on cypejienum pate, pam men^ ]?e habbaS ]ncce bpaipaf 
jemm cypejien paet bo J^sejion lybcopn 'j pealt jemenj • 
jentm cele];onian -j bifceoppypt -j jeacep pujian -j at- 
topla]?an -j fpjimjpypt -j enjlifce mojian • -j hpon psebicef 
■j hjiepnep pot apaepc J^onne ealle jeot }7onne pm on • 
Iset ftanban apeoh ept on f cypejiene pset • Iset ]?onne 
ftanban ptptyne nilit -j }pa bepfcan beo]? jobe • hapa ]>e 
clcEne pletan bo on f pset ]7e ]>a, bepftan on pyn fpa 
pela fpa J^apa plietna ]?8ep on clipian magje • fcpep ])onne 
op })am p9Bte f bij? fpiSe 50b pealp Jmm men ])e hsep^ 
Jjicce bpsepaf, :. 

Alex. TraU., 
lib. iii. 


Lsecebomap piS eallum eapena fape -j ece "j piS eap- 
ena abeapunje . -j jlp pypmaf on eapan fynb o]>]>e 

> See the glossary ; it is 
ffVKTJ, ffiiKoiffis, not x'^M*"''^ ; this is 
a misinterpretation of an Hellenic 

- Read j-apan. 

^ I'arTi, MS. Read \>a. ni. 



23. For worms ^ in eyes, take seed of henbane/ shed Book I. 
it on gledes, add two saucers full of water, set them 
on two sides of the man, and let him sit there over 
them, jerk the head hither and thither over the fire 
and the saucers also, then the worms shed themselves 
into the water. For " dry" disease in the eyes, which 
is called the disease fig, and in Latin is called x^l^^^^^^s'"^ "No. ^vKwats. 
the yolk of a hens egg and seed of marche^ and 
olusatrum and garden mint.^ Again for the disease 
fig, break to pieces a hock shank unsodden of a sheep, 
apply the marrow to the eyes. For thick eyelids, take 
three handfuls of mugwort;^ three of salt, three of 
soap, boil them till two parts out of three of the 
ooze be boiled away, then preserve in a copper vessel. 
For him who hath thick eyehds, take a copper vessel, 
put therein cathartic seeds and salt there among, 
take celandine and bishopwort and cuckoosour and 
attorlothe ^ and springwort ' and English carrot, and a 
somewhat of radish, and ravens foot,^ then wash them 
all, then pour wine on ; let it stand, strain again into 
the copper vessel; then let it stand fifteen nights and 
the dregs will be good. Have with thee clean curds and 
introduce into the vessel on which the dregs are, as 
much of the curd as may cleave thereon. Then scrape 
the scrapings off" the vessel, that will be a very good 
salve for the man who hath thick eyelids. 


1. Leech doms for all sore of ears and ache, and for 
dea&ess of ears, and if insects are in the ears or an 

' Worms are all creeping things, 
here insects, acari : Celsus has a 
chapter " de pediculis palpebrarum," 
Lib.VI. vi. 15, — " sive etiam vermi- 
«' culos (oculi) habeant aut brigan- 
" tes qui cilia arare et exulcerare 
" Solent." Marcellus, 275, c. Cf. 
ibid. f. The disease in Hellenic was 
<pdiip'ia(rt.s, and by keen eyes the in- 
sects could be seen to move,Actuarios. 

- Hyoscyamus niger. 
' Apium. 
' Mentha saliva. 
^ Artemisia vulgaris. 
^ Uncertain. See Herb. xlv. vol. I. 
Pref. Ivi. 

^ Euforbia laOiyris. 
^ Ranunculus ficaria. 



285, f. 

fol. 15 a. 

286, d. 

Sextus, cap. 
xi. 1. Lat. 

eajipicja • ^ jij: eapan bynien • "j eajij^ealpa ptpyne 
cji8ej:taf. :• 

])i]> eajiena fape "j ece beronican nipan 5e]:'ophte ]>a 
leap pelp ^ jecnupa on peapmum pastepe bo hpon 5epo- 
fobep elep to • jeriim p fpa placu mib ]nc]\e puUe bpype 
on f eape. Gfc pip* pon ilcan jemm ciepan jefeo]? on 
ele bpj^De on f eajie Jjone ele. pi]? eappsepce -j piS 
beape hunbep tunje -j penminte "j cellenbpe jecnupa on 
pm o]>]>e on eala afeoh bo on eajie. ]}!]> ]?on ilcan 
^emm haenne ]iypele jemylte -j ]?onne jebo placo on 
eape jebpype on. PiJ? |>on ilcan jenim ele • jenim eac 
jope pypele jeor on ]7onne ^eyvc f pap apej. :• 

PiJ? Jion ilcan jemm beolonan peap jeplece -j J>onne 
on eajie jebpyp • ];onne f pap jefcilS. :• 

Cf. Marcell 
284, e. 

287, d. 

Pi]> ]?on ilcan jemm japleac "j cipan -j jope pypele 
jemylte "cojgebepe ppmj on eape. :• 

prS ]7on ilcan jemni ?emecan sejjiu jetpipula pjunj 
on eajie. piS eapena pape jemm jate jeallan bjiype 
2S5^^b "^' °^ ^ eape • menj pi6 cu meoltic jip ]7U pille. piS 
Cf.Alex.Trall., eapena beape • jentm hjiyj^ejief ^eallan pi]? jaeten hlanb 
lib. iii. 1. gemenjeb jebpype jepleceb on f eape. :• 

ed. 1548. 

yip ]?on ilcan jip eapan piUen abeapian o]>]>e ypel 
hlyfc fie • jenim eopopep jeallan peajijiep jeallan • 
buccan jeallan jemenj ]n]> liunij ealpa em pela bpype 
on j3 eape. :• 

Pi]? }7on ilcan jip- ypelne hlyfc hsebbe ipieS peap 
|>9ep J)e be eop]?an plihS p clsenofce feap jemen^ pi5 
pm bjiype on eape. :• 

6pt: jiibban peap -j ^eplecebne ele tojrebepe jemenjeb 
bpype on pimboplice htelS. pij? ]?on ilcau jenim pam- 

fol. 15 b. 

Read j-elye ? 

I * Add h]'a, or mon. 

LEECH BOOK. 1. 41 

earwig, and if the ears din, and ear salves. Fifteen Book i. 

• 1 Cli. iii. 


2. For sore and ache of ears, pound new wrought 
betony, the leaves themselves, in warm water, add a 
somewhat of rose oil, take that lukewarm with thick 
wool, drip it into the ear. Again for the same, take 
an onion, seethe it in oil, drip the oil on the ear. 
For ear wark and for deafness, pound the herb hounds 
tongue^ and fenmint^ and coriander in wine or in ale, 
strain it, apply to the ear. For the same, take hen 
grease, melt it, and then apply it lukewarm to the 
ear, drip it on it. For tlie same, take oil, take also 
goose grease, pour into the ear, then the sore departs. 

3. For the same, take juice of henbane, make it 
lukewarm, and then drip it on the ear ; then the sore 

4. For the same, take garlic and onion and goose 
fat, melt them together, squeeze them on the ear. 

5. For the same, take emmets eggs, crush thetn, 
squeeze them on the ear. For sore of ears, take goats 
gall, drip it on the ear ; mingle, if thou will, cows milk 
with it. For deafness of ears, take neats gall mixed 
with goats stale, drip it, when made lukewarm, on the 

6. For the same, if the ears have a tendency to 
grow deaf, or if the hearing be ill, take boars gall, 
bulls gall, bucks gall, mix equal quantities of all with 
honey, drip this on the ear. 

7. For the same, if one have ill hearing, mingle juice 
of ivy, that which runneth by the earth, the cleanest 
juice, with wine ; drip it into the ear. 

8. Again, drip into the ear juice of ribwort and oil 
made lukewarm, mingled together, it wonderfully 
healeth. For the same, take rams gall, with urine of 

Cynoglossum officinale. \ - M. silvestris. 



Cf. Marcell. 

284, g. 

Cf. Marcell. 

285, a. 

282, d. 

fol. IC a. 

inej' jeallan mib hij' j'elpei" nihtnej'tijej* niijoj^an je- 
menje piS butejian jeot; on eape. Gft yip j^on ilcau 
hnutbeamej' junbe feap jepleceb bpype on eape. :• 

])i\> Son ilcan jenim celenbpan feap jpenpe menj 
pi]7 pipep meoluc -j humjep bpopan -j jnnep jeplelit 
tofamne. Yi]> eapena abeapunje epr ellencpoppan je- 
tjxipulab f feap ppmj on p eajie. Gpt: pi]> J?on ilcan 
jen'im eopojiep jeallan • "j peapjief -j buccan menj pi]? 
liunij o]?]?e on ele ppmj on eape. :• 

Gpt; pib J70n ilcan jentm jpenne sepcenne fcsep leje 
on pyp jenim Jjonne f peap pe Inm op jae]? bo on j^a 
ilcan pulle pjimj on eape 'j mib ]??epe ilcan pulle poji- 
froppa Jjset eape, 

PiJ) ]3 lice ept jenim semetan hopf -j cpopleac -j 
neoj'opeapbe ellenpmbe o])])e beolonan "j ele jecnupa to 
Somne pypme on fcille bo J^onne on eape }?apa peabena 
iiemerena hopf* jenim ]7onne psebic -j eceb cnupa to 
Somne ppmj on f eape. jip pypmaf on eapan fyn 
jentm eop^ ^eallan jpenep feap • o)?|;e hunan peap • 
o]>])e pepmobep peap fpilc J^apa an fpa J^u pille jeot f 
feap on jp eape f tihS ];one pyjim ut. Pyjic fealpe 
jecnupa finpuUan 'j leo|?opypt' *j po-^ je^o ]7onne on 
jlaep pset mib ecebe -j ]mph claS appmj bpype on ^ 
eape. pij? ]?on jip eapan bymen • jenmi ele bo on mib 
eopocijpe pulle 'j popbytte f eape mib }>sepe pulle J?onne 
]?u jiapan piUe 'j bo ept op J>onne Jju onpsecne. :• 

' Read leaj^ojipy]! 



tJie 'pcitient liimself after a nights fasting, mix with 
butter and pour into the ear. Again for the same, 
drip into the ear juice of the rind of a nut tree made 

9. For the same, mix with womans milk juice of 
green coriander, and a drop of honey and of wine, 
warmed together. For deafening of the ears again, try 
alder ^ bunches triturated, wring out the juice into the 
ear. Again for the same, take boars gall and bullocks 
and bucks, mingle with honey or in oil, wring into 
the ear. 

10. Again for the same, take a green ashen staft', 
lay it on the fire, then take the juice that issues from 
it, put it on the same wool, wring into the ear, and 
stop up the ear with the same wool. 

11. For the same, take emmets horses^ and cropleek^ 
and the lower part of alder rind or henbane and oil, 
pound them together, warm in a shell, then introduce 
into the ear the red emmets horses ; than take radish 
and vinegar, pound them together, and wring into the 
ear. If there be insects in ears, take juice of green 
earthgall,* or juice of Aorehound, or juice of worm- 
wood, whatsoever of these thou mayesb wish, pour 
the juice into the ear, that draweth the worm out. 
Work a salve thus ; pound sinfulP and latherwort** 
and leek, then place theiin in a glass vessel with vine- 
gar, and wring througli a cloth, drip the moisture on 
the ear. In case that there is a dinning in the ears ; 
take oil, apply it with ewes wool, and close up the 
ear with the wool, when thou wilt sleep, and remove 
it a^ain when thou awakest. 

Book I. 
Ch. iii. 

' Sambucus niyra. 

"^ This talk of "emmets horses " 
is merely a misunderstanding of the 
ImrofivpfiriKes of Aristoteles. Hist. 
Anim. viii. 27. The translation hy 
Plinius, " formicse pennata;," that 
is, male ants, is commonly ac- 

cepted as true, of course, but it is 
both philologically and physically 

^ Allium sativum. 

' Erythrcea centaureum. 

'■' One of the sedum tribe, or all. 

" Saponaria officinalis. 



6pr pi]? j?on ilcan pepmob [^efobenne on pastepe on 
nipiim cytele bo op lieopSe Ise'c peccan ]>one fream on 
f eape "j popbytte mib ]7a3pe pypte li|?])an hit mjejan 
pie. pi]? eappicjan • jentm f micle jpeate pmbel fcpeap 
rpyecje ]? on pop]?ium pixS ceop on f eape he bi6 op 

• iiii. 

Alex, Trail., 
lib. iv. 

fol. 16 b. 

306, a. 

306, b. 

006, b. 

306, a. 

fol. 17 a. 

^Lsecebomap pi^ healfjunbe -j J)?ep tracn hp8e]?ep he 
hit fie • 'j eac piS jealhfpile "j ]?potan • -j papenbe • pij:" 
fpeopcojie • xilll. cpseptaf. :• 

Pi]? healpjunbe ]7onne ?epeft onjmne pe healpjunb 
pefan fmipe hme pona mib hpy]?epef o}?J?e fpi'Soft mib 
oxan jeallan p ip acunnob ymb peapa niht hi8 haL 
Tip J>u polbe pitan hpgBj'eji ]3 healp junb fie • jemm 
anjeltpasccean jehalne leje on J^a ftope ]>sd\i hit a]?puten 
fie "j beppeoh psefte upan mih leaptim • jip hit healp- 
junb biS fe pypm pyp'S to eop]?an • jip hit ne bi]? he 
bij? jehaL 6pt pij; healp junbe jentm celenbep -j beana 
tojsebepe jefobene -j aleje on Sona topepe]?. 6pt la3ce- 
bom pi]? ]?on ilcan jemm psetephsepepn jebsepnebne -j 
jwnne jejmben fmale -j pij? hunij jemenjeb *j on jebon 
Sona biS peh pi]? ]?on ilcan ept jalbanum hatce 
fuj>epne ]?ypt leje J>a on Jjone fpeoppsepc • ]?onne atih'S 
hio mib ealle ]7a ypelan psetan uc -j ]?one junb. 

Pi]? ]7on ilcan ept bepen melo 'j hluttoji pic -j peax • 
•j ele menj tofomne feo}) bo cmhtef 6p]>e cilbep mije- 
Jjan to to onle^ene bo on ]7one junb. prS healp junbe 

' Cf. Galeu, vol. x. p. 881, ed. 1825. 

LEECH r.OOK. T. 45 

12. Again for the same, try wormwood sodden in Book I. 
water in a new kettle, remove it from the hearth, let ^'^" '^' 
the steam reek upon the ear, and when the a'pplication^ 
has gone in, close up the ear with the wort. Against 
earwigs, take the mickle great windlestraw^ witli two 
edges, which waxeth in highways, chew it into the 
ear, he, the insect, will soon be off. 


Leechdoms against a purulent humour in the neck, 
and tokens of it, whether it be such, and also for 
wellings in the jowl and throat and weasand, and 
against quinsy. Fourteen receipts. 

2, Against a purulence^'^ in the neck, when first the " Struma, Mar- 
neck ratten begins to exist, smear it soon with gall of ^^''^"^• 

a beeve, or best of an ox ; it is a tried remedy ; in a 

few nights he will be whole. If thou wouldst know 

whether it be neck purulence,^ take an earthworm '' A strumou.'; 

entire, lay it on the place where the annoyance is, and 

wrap up fast above with leaves ; if it be neck ratten 

the worm tm'neth to earth, if it be not, he, the 

patient, will be whole. Again for neck ratten, take 

coriander and beans sodden together, and lay on, soon 

it removes the disease. Again, a leechdom for the 

same, take a water crab burnt and then rubbed small 

and mingled with honey and done on, or applied, 

soon he will be well. For the same again, a southern 

wort has been called galbanum, lay it on the neck 

pain, then it draweth altogether out the evil wet or 

humour and the ratten. 

3. For the same again, mingle together bere or 
harley meal and clear pitch ^ and wax and oil, seethe " Kesin- 
this, add a boys or a childs mie, nnake into an ex- 
ternal application on the matter. For ratten in the 

' It ; the application, because ] - Cynosurus cristatus, some ; 
l*ceam is masculine. | . Igrostis spica venti, some. 

46 L^CE BOO. 

eyt Jjfejie jieaban netelan pyptcpuman jej'obenne on 
ecebe -j jebeatenne *j on peaxhlajrey pij^an on aleb • pj: 
ye ^unb bi]^ ];onne onpnnenbe fio jpealj: lime cobjii]:!) • 
ji]: lie bi]? ealb hio lime ontynS -j fpa afrili5 p yj:el 
ut: o]> f lie lial bi5. :• 

GfC pi]7 ]?on mamjpealb tacn -j lascebom piS healj*- 
junbe 6p])e jeajlfpile ' oS6e J?]iotan o]?]?e payenbe • Sio 
abl t]' tpejea cynna. 0];ep if on ];am ^eajle -j |7onne 
mon Jpone mu]? ontyn^ bi]? jehppej^eji jefpoUen "j bi]? jieab 
3'mb ]>a lipsectrunja • *j ne msej fe man e]jelice efiian 
ac bij> afmojiob • ne m^j eac nalit popfpeljan ne pel 
fpjiecan ne fcemiie nsep]? • ne bi^ ]?eop abl lip£e]:'epe to 
ppecne. Oj^eji "ip ponne on ]7?e]ie ]?jiotan bi]? fpyle -j 
lypfen fe ne msej nah"c jecpej^an -j biS pe fpile je on 
]?am fpeopan je on )?8epe tunjan • ne msej fe man pel 
e]jian • ne J)one fpeopan on cejipan • ne hip lieapob 
popS on hylban f he hif napolan jefeon mseje • *j 
fol. 17 ii. butan 111]' man pa];op tilije he bi}? ymb j^peo mho 

jepajien. Tip fie ])?epe able bpyne Innan j^ssp fcjianj 
•p mon ne mseje utan jefeon fio bij? *Sy ppecenjie. 
Tip ]7onne fie^ on jehpa^l^epe liealpe pa ceacan afpollen 
•j fio ]?potu -j J)u pa tacn jefeo ponne fona Iset pu 
him blob on sebpe • jip pu f pujihteon ne mseje 
fceappa htm pa pcancan f Mm beah. 

Sele hnn fceajipne pyptbpenc pyjme him metef iBptep 
pon bepmb pone fpeopan 'j leje on Isecebomaf pa pe 
utteon pa ypelan psetan -j pset faji ponne bip pseji pyppe 
pen. Pypc him pa pealpe jentm fpmep ]iyfle jefmype 
ane bpabe pannan Innepeajibe mib pam jiypele pyl ponne 
peopp jofe fceapn to on pa pannan -j jeplece 'j ponne 
hit fy jemylt bo ponne on Imenne claS leje on p paji *j 
befpepe bo f pel opt on on bsej • 'j bip fpa betejie fpa 

' Seaslfpi)'e, MS. j - Ecad fien. 


neck again, use a root of the red nettle sodden in Book T. 
vinegar and beaten, laid on in the manner of a cake ^ ''• '^' 
of was; if the matter be then beginning, the salve 
driveth it away ; if it be old it openeth it, and so the 
evil riseth out till he be hale. 

4. Again for that, a manifold token and a leech dom 
for the neck ratten or jowl swelling or swelling of the 
throat or weasand. The disease is of two kinds ; the 
one is in the jowl, and when one openeth the mouth 
it is both swollen and is red about the uvula ; and 
the man can not easily breathe, but will be smothered ; 
he can not also swallow aught nor speak well, nor 
hath he voice ; this disorder, however, is not dangerous. 
Another sort is when there is a swelling in the throat 
and purulence, he, the 'patient, may not speak aught, 
and the swelling is both on the neck and on the tongue ; 
the man can not well breathe, nor turn his neck nor 
lean forward his head so that he may see his navel ; 
and except one attend to him somewhat speedily, in 
about three days he will be deceased. If the burning 
of the disease within be strong, yet there are no 
external signs of it, it is so much the more dangerous. 
If then on either side the jaws be swollen and the 
throat, and thou see the tokens, then soon let thou 
him blood on a vein ; if thou may not carry that 
through, scarify for him his shanks, that doth him 

5. Give him a sharp wort drink, warn him off meat, 
after that bandage the neck, and lay on leechdoms 
which may draw out the evil humour and the sore, 
there will be then hope of recovery. Work him the 
salve thus; take swines fat, smear the inside of a 
broad pan with the fat, boil up, then east goose sharn 
into the pan, and make lukewarm, and when it be 
melted then put it on a linen cloth, lay it on the 
sore, and swathe up, apply that pretty often in a day, 
and it will be the better the oftener thou renewest 

48 LiECE P.OO. 

])U oftoji ebnipafc ];a j^ealfe -j oj:tO)i onlejefc fio tilrS 
f yfel lit. :• 

PiJ> healj'junbe jeriim peax 'j ele jeinen^ pi}» poyan 
blofcman •-] jemelt; trojsebepe bo ];9ep on, pi]? fpeoji- 
fol. 18 a. cop>e pypc on lecjenbe pealpe • jentm peajipep jelynbo 

•j bepan fmepu -j peax ealpa em pela pypc to fealpe 
^ Alex. Trail, fmijie mib. ^Gpt: pij? ]7on ilcan jtp ]>u pmbe hpitne 
Paul.'iEoin. lumbej' Jjofc abpije pione -j je^nib *j afypt -j jeliealb f 
"'• ^^* pi]> j^aepe fpeojicoj^e -j J^onne ]?eapp pie menj pi]; liunij 

fmipe Jjone fpeopan mib f bij> fcpanj pealp "j job pr5 
fpelcjie ablapunje -j bpune]7an -j pi]> ];apa ceacna ^e- 
fpelle oS6e afmopunje • fceal ];eali fe hunb ban jnajan 
ffiji • ]?y bi]? fe ]?ofr lipit -j micel jip J;u lime nimefc -j 
jabejiafr: set pylne^ ]?onne ne bi]> he to unfpete to 
jefrmcanne • ]?onne pceal mon ]?one jeajl eac fpillan 
jelome on J>8epe able • -j fpoljettan eceb pi}? pealt je- 
menjeb. 6pt pipleapan feapep ]?py bollan pulle lytle 
pceal popcuuolftan. pij? fpeopcoSe ept japleac jejniben 
on eceb f j^e fie pi]? paeteji jemenjeb fpille ]?one jeajl mib 
]?y. pi]? fpeopco]?e ept pijep feopo]?a feo]? on jefpettum 
fol. 18 b. psetepe fpille }?a ceolan mib ]5y jip pe fpeopa pap pie 

pyn eac ]?a fpillmja lipilum bate J?onne ip eac to ]?ip]'e 
able jepet I? mon unbep ]?8epe tunjan Isete blob o]?}?e op 
eapme "j on mojijen on fppenje • jip hit ]?onne cniht 
fie Iset on ]?am fpeopan • *j on psepe able ip to pop- 
py pnanne piuej' -j plsepcep fpi]?0]'c ])y l^ej' fio ceole fie 
afpoUen. :• 

Pi]? ]?on jip mannep muS pap fie jemm betonican -j 
jetpipula leje on ]?a peolope. To mu5 j'ealpe -j to 

' Read yyWc. In Lye jillen, omentum, is an eiTor for yylmen. 


the salve and the oftcner thou layest on. It will Book I. 
draw the evil out. 

6. For matter in the neck, take wax and oil, mingle 
with rose blossoms and melt together, put this thereon. 
For swerecothc oy quinsy, work an onlaying salve. 
Take suet of bull and grease of bear, and wax, even 
quantities of all, work to a salve, smear with it. 
Again for the same, if thou find a white thost ^ of " Album 

111 • T !• T'f>» Till' Griccuni. 

hound, dry it and rub it, and siit it, and hold it 
against the swerecothe, and when need be mingle with 
honey, smear the neck with it, that is a strong salve 
and good for such upblowing or inflation and brunella,^ 
and for swelling* of the jaws, or smothering. The 
hound must gnaw a bone ere he dro'ppeth the thost, 
then will the thost be white and mickle ; if thou 
takest and gatherest it at the flxU, then it is not too 
unsweet of smell ; one shall further often also swill 
the jowl in this disease, and swallow vinegar mingled 
with salt. Again, he shall swallow down three bowls 
of the juice of cinquefoil, little ones. For swerecothe 
or quinsy again, use garlic rubbed in vinegar which 
be mingled with water, swill the jowl with that. For 
quins}^, again, seethe the siftings of rye on sweetened 
water, swill the gullet with it, if the swere be sore, 
let the swillings also be whilom hot. Besides it is 
also laid down for this disease, that blood be let under 
the tongue or from an arm, and on the morrow apply 
a clyster. Further if it be a boy, let (blood) on the 
neck ; and in this disease it is well to warn off (the 
sick) from wine, and specially from flesh meat, lest 
the gullet be swollen. 

In case that a mans mouth be sore, take betony 
and triturate it, lay it on the lips. For a mouth 

' A disease resembling diphtheria ; otherwise, Prima. 

50 L^CE BOC. 

jeblejenabjie 'cim;5an ppleajre • 'j lapembel leap }>yl on 
p£Ete]ie hajra lan^e on muSe "j jelome. Jij: monney 
ojiaS fie pul jenim bepen mela job. -j clsene hunij 'j 
hpir peak jemenj eall tofomne *j jnib ];a te]> mib 
fpiSe 'j jelome. :■ 


Lfficebomap pi}* toS psepce *j yi]) pyjimum je pi]; ]?am 
upejian toSece je pij; ]?am' nij^epan. :• 

^ Herbar. Pi]> toj? paepce -^ betomcan feoS on pme oj; };]iibban 

^ ^" ■ *■ ■ btel fpile j7onne jeonb ]?one muS lanje bpile. 

Pi6 to]? psejice jip pyjim ete • jemm ealb holen leap 
fol. 19 a. -j heojiot cjiop neo}>epeajibne -j paluian upepeajibe bepj^^l 

rpy bael on psetpe jeot on bollan "j jeona ymb Jjonne 
peallaS ];a pj=]imap on );one bollan. ^ip pyjim ete ]>& 
te'S jemm opeji jeape holen jimbe *j eopop }>jiotan 
mopan pel on fpa hatum^ hapa on mu]?e fpa hat fpa 
\>u hatoft mseje. Pi]? to8 pyjimum jenim ac mela 'j 
beolonan pseb -j peax ealpa em pela menj tosomne 
pyjic to peax canbelle • -j baepn la;t jieocan on ];one 
muS bo bl?ec hpasjl unbep ])onne pealla]? ];a ])y]iinap 

Pi8 to]? ptejice jebsepn hpit j-ealt -j japleac bepec on 
jlebum jebpseb "j bepenb -j pipo]i *j ftjifelpypt jejnib 
eal tofomne leje on, : 

yip top pjBpce hpepnep pot ])el on pme neo]?opeajibne 
oSSe on ecebe j'up fpa "Su hatoft mseje. pi]? toSpsepce 

I'll^fi, MS. I - hacum jwcjie 

LEECH nOOK. 1. 5] 

salve and for a blained tongue, boil in water iiveleaf, l5ook I. 
that is, cinque/oil, and bramble leaves, have it long in ^' ^" 

the mouth and frequently. If a mans breath be fijul, 
take good barley meal and clean honey and white 
salt,' mingle all together, and rub the teeth with it 
much and frequently. 


1. Leechdoms for sharp pain in the teeth and for 
worms, either for the upper tooth ache or for tlie 

2. For tooth wark, seethe betony in wine to the 
third part, then swill the mouth thoroughly for a long 

3. For tooth wark, if a worm eat the tooth, take an 
old holly leaf and one of the lower umbels of hart- 
wort,^ and the upward ^^ar^ of sage, boil two doles" 
in water, pour into a bowl and yawn over it, then the 
worms shall fall into the bowl. If a worm eat the 
teeth, take holly rind over a year old, and root of 
carline thistle, boil in so hot water 1 hold in the mouth 
as hot as thou hottest may. For tooth worms, take 
acorn meal and henbane seed and wax, of all equally 
much, mingle these together, work into a wax candle, 
and burn it, let it reek into the mouth, put a black 
cloth under, then will the worms fall on it. 

4. For tooth wark, burn white salt and. garlic, 
make them smoke on gledes, roast and tear to pieces, 
and add pepper and clubmoss, rub all together and 
lay on. 

5. For tooth wark, boil in wine or in vinegar the 
netherward part of ravens foot,* sup as thou hottest 
may. For tooth wark, bray together to dust rind 

1 That is, tlie best, purest salt. 
- Seseli ; perhaps, however, Hart- 
bramble, Rhamnus, may be meant. 

^ That is, two of worts to one of 

' Ranunculus ficaria. 

D 2 



fol. 19 b. 

296, h. 

linutbeamej" jimbe -j ]?ojni jimbe jecnua to bufre abpij 
on pannan fniS utan ];a te]; yceab on jelome. :• 

Pyjic ]>nY to]>yesi[\:e ofejifsepifc jimb -j hunij 'j pipoji 
men5 cosomne leje on • pypc eac j^ealjre op penpypre 
on J?a ilcan pipan. :• 

]}i]> ]>am upepan Co]?ece jemm pi})opmban leap appmj 
on J)a nofu, ])i]> ]?am ni]7epan coj^ece plit mib J?e 
po]?opne o]> peet Ine bleben. :• 

Gpc jentm elmep pmbe jebsepn to alifan jemenj J)a 
ahpan pi|p psetep -j afeoh hapa j^eet paiteji lanje on 
mujje. 6pt jemm jeappan ceop fpijje. :• 

Apul. i. 13. 


Tip mon blobe hjitece jenim betonican fjJilce fpa 
.III. penejaf jepejen jejnib on jsete meolc pele ]>]\y 
bajaf ]>py bollan pulle to bjuncanne. :• 

fol. 20 a. 


]}i\> blsece on -jplitan pyl to bsej^e pencepfan -j neo- 
}?opea]ibne fecj • cepcpmbe eappan pyl on psetepe lanje 
be]7e mib. 

To pealpe pij> bls&ce on "jplitan • omppan neojjopeajibe 
J>a ]>e fpimme bo pealt to -j pbetan -j cej. bpip y^-]> 
blsece on 'jplitan jemelte ealb fpic bpip on }?on • bo 
jejpunbenne pipop on • -j cpopleac hpsetenep melpej* 
tpy bsel fpilce ymy pipopep apyl lipset lipeja • jemm 
)?8ep ];peo fnseba jepefc a3ptep peapme. piS blsece 
jemm heopotep hojm jebsepn to ahpan "j fpepl -j je- 
bsepneb pealt ^ pic to alifan 'j fpa oftep pcella -j je- 
cnupa omppan finale "j jemenj eall to bjiij'e -j fmipe 

LEECH 1500K. J. 


of nut tree and thorn rind, dry then in a pan, cut ' ilic 
teeth on the outside, shed on frequently. 

6. Work a tooth salve thus, min2:le together oversea 
rind" and honey and pe})per, lay on. Work also a 
salve of wenwort in the same wise. 

7. For the upper tooth ache, take leaves of withe- 
wind, Avring them on the nose. For the nether tooth 
ache, slit Avith the tenaculum, till they bleed. 

8. Again, take elms rind, burn to ashes, mingle the 
ashes with water and strain, hold the water long in 
the mouth. Again, take yarrow, chew it much. 

Book I. 
Ch. vi. 


1. If a man break up blood, take as much betony 
as three pennies weigh, rub in goats milk, give for three 
days three bowls full to drink. 


1. For a blotch on the face, boil for a bath fencress^ 
and the nether ward j;«ri of sedge,* ash rind, tares, 
boil long in watei-, bathe therewith. 

2. For a salve against a blotch in the face, use the 
nether ward part of dock, which will swim,^ add to it 
salt and curds and egg. A brewit for a blotch on the 
face, melt old lard, on that a brewit, add ground pep- 
per, and cropleek,^ two doles of wh eaten meal as well 
as of the pepper, boil a little, take of it three slices, 
after that go to bed and get warm. For a blotch, take 
harts horn, burn to ashes, and sulfur, and burnt salt 
and pitch burnt to ashes, and so oyster shells, and 
beat sorrel' small, and mingle all into a brewit, smear 

' By Sect. 7, it appeal's by te]> is 
meant the gums, cohiieoman. 
- Cinnamon. 
^ Nasturtium officinale. 
* Carex. 

'■" This seems by Gerarde to be 
duckweed, Lcmna. 
" Allium sativum. 
' Rumex Acetusa. 



niib. 6pt; j-ealp pel on aj>ybum I'ceapejf fmejiupe hse^- 
Jjopnep blolrman -j ]ni fmalan fmjpenan -j pubupopan 
nienj ]7onne hpitcpubii pi]? "j hpon biitepan. :• 

Cf. Marcell. 
290, c. 

fol. 20 b. 


rtp men ypne blob op nebbe to IpiSe jennn jpene 
betomcan -j puban jecnupa on eceb jeppmj tofomne 
fpilce ]-ie an plah fcms on Jja nofu. blob peten bifceop 
pypt nio];opea]ibe ere o^Se on meolce bpmce. Blob 
feten epc gemm liejeclipan jebmbe on fpeopan. 

blob fecen ept fppmj pypt bo on eape. :■ 

Blob peten ept pejbpreban bo on eape. :• 

blob peten ept jebal bepen eap beftmje on eape 
fpa he nyte. Sume pip pjiitat) -{- sejpyn • thon • ftpiith • 
pola apspenn • tajit • fuputh • on • tpia • enn • piath • 
liathu • mojipana • on hsel i-f- ajia • cajm • leou • jpotL • 
peopn • Hi • ppil ♦ cjionbi • p • |XI • nipo • cpon • sepcpio • 
epmio • aeR • leNo • je hopfe je men blob feten. :• 

]}ip jeihote -j jepoi'um • jemm oxna lyb ni]7epeapb 
jecnupa pel piS pastpe • jip liio fie jpene ne bo J?u 
]?8ep psetep to ppinj J>onne on ^ neb. :• 

291, e. 


PjP pajium peolojium jefmipe mib hunije J)a peolopaj- 
gemm |?onne se;^eppelman bepceab mib pipope leje on. :• 


^Pi]7 pouum muj^e jentm omppan 'j ealbne fpinef 
pyple pypc to pealpe fete on ]?one pen- bsel. pi]? ceolan 

' KwLKhs (Tiraarfios. 

- you, here is a contraction of ])ohan, j^ogan. 


therewith. Again, a salve, boil in pressed sheeps grease, \'°"'^..i; 
hawthorns blossoms, and the small stonecrop and wood- 
rofic, then mingle mastic therewith and a little butter. 


1. If blood run from a mans nose too much, take 
green betony and rue, pound them in vinegar, twist 
them together like as it might be a sloe, poke it into 
the nose. A blood stopper; eat the netherward part 
of bishopwort or drink it in milk. To stop blood 
ao-ain, take hedge cleavers, bind it on the neck. 

2. As a blood stancher again, put springwort' into 
the ear. 

3. To stop blood again, put way broad" into the ear. 

4. To stop blood again, poke into the ear a whole 
ear of bere or havley ; so he be unaware of it. Some 

write this : either for horse or 

man, a blood stancher. 

For snot and })oses or catarrhs; take the nether- 
ward part of stinking hellebore,^ pound it well with 
water ; if it be green do not apply water to it, then 
wring on the nose. 


For sore lips, smear the lips with honey, then take 
film of egg, scatter it with pepper, and lay on. 


For distorted mouth, take dock and old swines 
grease, work to a salve, set on the wry part. For 
swelling of gullet, for that, everfern^ also shall come 

' Euforbia laihyris. i ^ Helleborus viridis. 

- Plantago maior. | ' Poh/podium vulgare. 

56 L^CE BOC. 

Ipile pi]? ]?on pceal eopjipeajm eac I'pa -j jyj'jiipaii pyl 
on meolce flip }'onne -j jebej^e mib. ])\]? ceolan fpile 
bipceop pypt; aCeplaSe niSepeapbe -j claran ]'yl on 
ealaS. :• 


■^ PiS haep pceapbe hpic cpubu jecnupa fpiSe fmale 

bo sesep f hpite to -j menj Ipa ]m belu teapoji 6n- 

foL 21 a. fniS mib peaxfe feopa mib feolce psefce fmipe mib ]7onne 

mib p»8epe pealpe utan "j mnan asp pe feoloc potije • 

jip tofomne teo pece mib hanba fmipe ept pona. : 


pi]? pea^an • jiecelp lytel I'pepl fpejlef aBppel peax 
jinjipep ]7uph hopn bjimce • liunan hapocpypt on 
hlurcpum ealo6. 


Alex. Trail. ' Pi]' hpof ran hu he mippenlice on mon beciime ^ hu 

1 . V. ini 10. j^^^, ^^^^ tilian fcyle. Se hpofra hsepS mamjpealbne 

rocyme fpa 'pa. fpatl beoS mippenhcu • hpilum cymS 

op unjemetpgej'Cpe ho3t:o • hpilum op unjemetpseptum 

cyle • ]^pilum op unjemethcpe bpijneppe. 

Pypc bpenc pi]? hpofcan • jeniin miicjpyjir feo]? on 
cypepenum citele -j pyl o]? ]3 hio^ fie fpi]7e ]?icce • -j hio" 
fie op hpsetenum mealte gepojiht ^enim ]7onne eopop- 
peapnef maept: bifceop pypt: • hmb heoloSan • bpeopje 
bpofclan fmjpenan bo to eall on pset fele bpmcan mib- 
fol. 21 b. belbajum -j pojija pup -j fealtep jehpset. pi]) hpoftan 

> B57|. I - Head he. 



into use, and boil cockle in milk, them sup some and 
bathe with it. For swelling of gullet, boil in ale 
bishopwort, the netherward part of attoiiothe, and 

Book I. 
Ch. xii. 


For hair Hp, pound mastic very small, add the white 
of an egg, and mingle as thou dost vermillion, cut 
with a knife the false edges of the lip, sew fast with 
silk, then smear without and within with the salve, 
ere the silk rot. If it draw together, arrange it with 
the hand ; anoint again soon. 


For watery congestions^ called KXvlmsc, a little 
incense, some sulfur, beetle nut, wax, ginger ; let the 
ixitient drink through a horn horehowa.^ and hawk wort ^ 
in clear ale. 


For host or cough, how variously it comes ujoon a 
man, and how a man should treat it. The host hath 
a manifold access, as the spittles are various. Whilom 
it cometli of immoderate heat, whilom of immoderate 
cold, whilom of immoderate dryness. 

2. Work thus a drink against cough. Take mugwort,'' 
seethe it in a cojDper kettle, and boil till it* be very 
thick, and let it* be wrought of wheaten malt ; then 
take of everfern most, bishopwort, water agrimony,^ 
pennyroyal,'' singreen,^ set all in a vat, give to drink 
at the middays, and forego what is sour and every- 

' Bpo7xoKTiA77, perhaps. 
- Hicracium. 
^ Artemisia vulgaris. 
' The gender of the pronoun 
makes it refer to the wort, whereas 

the process seems to require a mas- 
culine, referring to the potion. 

^ Eupatorium cannabinum. 

** 3Ientha pulegium. 

^ Sempervivuvi tectorum. 

58 L^CE BOC. 

ejzt; . jemm Imnan feoS on psetejie lele I'pa peapme 
bp.incan. :• 

Gyt jenim clifpypt fume men hata'S poxep clipe 
fume eapypt • 'j hio yy jepopht opeji mibne fumop 
feo]? ]7a on psecepe o]> f bpibban^ bsel p'sep popep op fie 
pele bpmcan J^pipa on bsej. 

PiS hpofcan ept jentm fsemmtan pyl on eala]? pele 

V bpmcan. 6ptr jennn fppacen bepmbpeb pyl on ealaS 

]"ele bpmcan. :• 

6ft: 5en[i]m hopn jeapj^an jieabe nerelan pyl on 
meolce. Gpc jentm pij> Lpofcan -j pi]? anjbpeofre ]-la- 
pian jobne bsel bo bollan pnlne jnnep to bepyl ppibban 
bsel on |)a pypte fupe on niht neptij. :• 

6pr ^^ennn majmbian j^yl on ealaS bo pipoji on. 
6pt; yip anjbpeofce jip men fie bpije hpofra • jemrn 
fpicep fnsebe J>ynne lege on liatne fcan fceab cyraeb on 
fete hopn on bpmce ]?onne fmic. :• 

PiJ? bpijum hpoftan ept jentm eolonan *j jalluc ete 
on bunijep teape. :• 

fol. 22 a. .XVI. 

V ]}i]> bjieoft paspce jenim ]>Sb lytlan culmillan -j cymeb 

]iyl on hluttpum eala]? fupe 'j bpmce. 6pt jemni 
bpeopje bpoftlan -j jyj^pipan kyncean pelle on hlut- 
tpum ealaS bpmce fcenc pulne on neaht neptij, :• 

Pyl on ealaS pijp ]?on ilcan pnul mapubian betomcan 
•j bpmce. pijj bpeoft ]?8epce jentm puban • hunan -j 

' Eead ^pibban = Sjiibba. 


thing salt. Again for host, take horehound, seethe in ^^^^^ I- 
water, administer it so warm to drink. 

3. Again, take clifFwort,' some men call it foxes cliff", 
some riverwort, and let it be wrought past midsummer, 
seethe it in water till the third part of the wash be 
off", give it thrice a day to be drunk. 

4. For host again, take sea mint, boil it in ale, 
give to drink. Again, take black alder rendered and 
purified, boil it in ale, give it to be drunk. 

5. Again, take hove," yarrow, red nettle,"^ boil them 
in milk. Again, take against host and against breast 
anguish,* a good portion of slary,^ add a bowl full of 
wine, boil away a third part on the wort ; let the 
patient sup it at night fasting. 

6. Again, take marrubium, boil it in ale, add pepper. 
Again, for breast anguish, if a man have a dry host, 
take a thin slice of lard, lay it on a hot stone, shed 
cummin on it, set it on a horn,*^ let the p)('dient drink 
in the smoke. 

7. For a dry cough again, take elecampane and 
comfi'ey ; let the 'patient eat them in virgin honey. 


1. For acute pain in the breast, take the little 
centaury and cummin, boil in clear ale, let the patient 
sip and drink. Again, take pennyroyal and cockle, 
artichoke, let him boil in clear ale, let him drink a 
cup fall at night fasting. 

2. Boil in ale for the same, fennel, marrubium, 
betony, and let the patient drink. For pain in the 
breast, take rue, /lorehound and abrotanon,'^ rub to- 

' Arctium lappa. 
-' Glechoma hederacea. 
' Lamium purpureum. 
^ Angina pectoris seems too 

^ Salvia sclarea. 

'^ Lye understands cj'meb as 
Xa^aibpis, germander, going by the 

' Artemisia abrotanon. 


appotanan jejnib toSomne I'msele on moptepe menj 
pi-S liumj -j ])]iy bajal" selce basj lep mete ]?pie cuclep 

. XVII. 

PiJ? heojit; psejice jTuban jelm I'eo]? on ele 'j bo alpan 
ane yntfan ro fmijie mib ]?y ]5 frilS ]7am fape. pi]; 
heopt ece jip linn on Innan heapb heopt psepc fie 
]?onne Inm pyx]? pmb on ]?8ejie heoptan 'j hme J'ejeS 
]7upft; "j bi]? unmelitijlic. :• 

Pypc htm ]?onne fcan bseS 'j on J^am ete lu]7epne 

pasbic mib j^ealte ]?y msej pefan fio punb jehseleb. 

fol. 22 b. pi]? lieopot ece eft jentm 5iJ>pi]:an {eo\> on meolce yele 

bjiincan • vi. bajaf. :• 

6]:t nio];epeapb ejroppeapn 5y]?]nj:an • pe5bp8e[ban] 
pyl toj'omne pele bpmcan. pi8 liiopot ece ejit jenim 
pipop • -j cymen • "j coft ^ejnib on beo*^ o]>]>e on 
psetpe yele bpmcan. :• 


Paul, ^gineta, ]Dponan ]-e micla jeoxa cume o]?]?e hu hif mon 

Al^x" Tr 11 ^icatf pcule. Se cymS op ]?am fpiSe acoloban mag an . 

vii. 15. o])])e op ]7am to fpiSe ahatoban ♦ oSSe op to micelpe 

olHwcl'x Fylls • o]>]?e op to micelpe Isepnepj-e <• oSSe op ypelum 

psetan • plitenbum 'j fceoppenbum ];one majan • jip 

}7onne fe j-eoca man ]?uph fpipebpenc afpipS }>one ypelan 

bitenban psetan on pej • ]jonne popftent j-e jeolila • fpipe 

pa beah J^am monnum ])e po-^ pylle jihfa j-lih^ oSSe 

popjjon ye hie iNnan pcyppS 'j eac j'e jeohfa pe ]>e op 

])i£Y ypelan psetan micelnyj-pe cym^S htepS }?eappe fpip- 

bpmcef • pe pypcS micelne pnopan eac -j fe hme bet • 

ponne pe jeohfa op Jjsepe iblan pambe cymS "j op J^sepe 


gctlier small in a mortal-, mingle with honey, and for pook I. 
three clays, every day before meat, let tliG imtient take Ch. xvi. 
three spoons full. 


For pain in the heart, seethe a handful of rue in 
oil, and add an ounce of aloes, rub the body with that, 
it stilleth the sore. For heart ache, if there be to him 
within, a hard heart wark, then wind waxeth in the 
heart for him, and thirst vexes him and he is languid. 

2. Work him then a stone bath, and in that let 
him eat southern radish^ with salt, by that the wound 
may be healed. For heart ache again, take githrife, 
seethe it in milk, give to drink for six days. 

8. Again, boil together the netherward part of ever- 
fern, githrife, and waybroad ; give to drink. For heart 
ache again, take pepper and cummin and costmary, rub 
them into beer, or into water, administer to drink. 


We here explain whence the mickle hicket^ cometh, 
and how a man should treat it. It cometh from the 
very chilled maw, or from the too much heated onaw, or 
from too mickle fulness, or of too mickle leerness, that 
is errhptiness, or of evil wet or humour rending and 
scarifying the maw. If then the sick man by a spew 
drink speweth away the evil biting wet, then the 
hicket abateth. A spew then is good for the men 
whom hicket teareth for fulness, or in case it scarifieth 
them within ; and also the hicket which cometh of the 
mickleness of the evil wet or humour, hath need of a 
spew drink, which eke worketh mickle sneezing, and 
amendetli the sick. When the hicket cometh of the 

' Rhafanus sativa. 

"^ Holland and old writers spell Hicket, the moderns " hiccup," " hic- 
" cough," 



fol. 23 a. jelasjian ne bet ];one i'e j;no]ia. jip I'e jeohfa op cile 

cume ]?onne fceal mon mib pypmenbum Jjinjum lacman 
fpile fpa pipoji "ip -j o];pa pepmenba pypta o]>]>e jiuhan 
jejnibe mon optn ' j'elle bpmcan • o]>])e mepcef yveh 
mib pme^ o]>]>e eceb^ pelle bpmcan oS6e mtntan bpoS 

Correct cy men, op];e mojian • oS8e cymenef o]>])e jmjippan hpilum an- 
lepij fpa jepenobe • hpilum ];a pypta tojsebepe jebon 
on p pof pelle bjimcan • jtp op hatum ppetan ypelum 
on pone majon gefamnobum fe jeohfa cume -j he jepele 
f fe lime mnan fceoppe on ]7one majan • pele hmi };onne 
placu ppetep bjimcan fpi]?e hat • jebo j^onne pepejie on 
ele fcmje him jelome on ];a hpacan f he maje fpipan* 
j'ele htm pij? jeohfan cealb psetep "j eceb bpmcan -j 
appotanan jejnibene on pme. 

fi'om the Hel 

Cf. Paul, 
lib. iii. 37. 
ed. Aid. fol. 
43 a. line 3.5. 
fol. 23 h. 

.X Villi. 

PiJ> plsettan ]>am men pe hme ne lyft hip metej' ne 
li])ep o^8e on majan untpum fie • oJ)]?e bitepe hprece • 
BOP'S jeallan -j pipop bjimce on peajimum psetepe pjiy 
bollan pulle on niht neptij. Gpt yip platunje puban 
pepmob bifceop pyjit mapubian pyl on ealaS fpipe ^efpet 
mib hunije leolitlice • jebyimc fpa hate]' fpa piii blob 
fie fcenc pulne bo fpa ponne pe peapp j'le. :■ 


pip j'culboji prepce ealbep fpinej- topb psep pe pelb- 
janjenbe fie menj pi^ ealbne ]iy]'ele jepypme leje on 
f beah pip pculbop ptepce je piS pib pjepce • pi's breofc 
prejice • -j pip lenbenpsepce. 6pu pyl betomcan -j nep- 
tan on ealo^ pele bpmcan jelome -j fimle set pype 
jefmipe mib penpypte. 6pt jenim fpmep pceapn peep pe 
on bun lanbe -j pyjitum libbe msenj pip ealbne pyj'ele 

For on jnn. 

2 Not the same case. 


foul wamb and of the leer (yr emi^ty one, the sneezing Book i. 
doth not amend it. If the hicket come of chill, then ^''- ''^"'• 
shall a man cure it with warming things, such as 
pepper is, and other warming worts, or let one rub 
rue and give it in wine to drink ; or give seed of marche 
with wine or vinegar, or broth of mint or carrot,'^ '^ aomkov, Gr. 
or cummin, or ginger, at times singly andj so pre- 
pared. At whiles give to drink the worts together 
put into the wash. If the hicket come of hot evil 
humours collected into the maw, and the side onan 
feel that it scarifieth him within in the maw, give 
him then lukewarm water to drink " very hot," then 
put a feather in oil, poke him frequently in the throat 
that he may spew ; give him against hicket cold water 
and vinegar to drink, and abrotanon rubbed in wine. 


Against loathing or nausea, for the man who hath 
no lust for his meat nor for his cup, or be infirm in 
the maw, or hreaketh bitter, as in heartburn, let him 
drink earthgall and pepper in warm water, three 
bowls full at night fasting. Again for loathing, boil 
strongly in ale slightly sweetened with honey, rue, 
wormwood, bishbpwort, marrubiura, drink of this as 
hot as thy blood be, a cup full, do so when need be 
to thee. 


Against shoulder pain, mingle a tord of an old swine, 
which be a fieldgoer, with old lard, warm it, lay it on, 
that is good for shoulder pain or for side pain, for 
breast wark and for loin wark. Again, boil betony and 
nepeta in ale, give to drink frequently, and always 
at a fire smear with wenwort. Again, take sham of 
swine, which liveth on the downland and on worts, 
mingle with old lard, lay on, and let the patient drink 



leje on 'j bjiinc' betonican on jefpertum pme • jij: 
pefep liabbe bjimce on pserejie. :• 


fol. 24 a. 

Apul. i. 9. 


Pi]; ]'iban j^ape ]7£ejie lpi]?pan bojen -j pebic *j hpite 
clfiepjian pyjic ro clame "j to bpence. pij> ]?se]ie pmef- 
rjian fiban fape pubupipan jecnupa on eceb -j pypc to 
clame jebmb on |;a fiban. GjTc betonican fpilc fpa 
]y]\y penejaf jepejen • -j pipopep feop on *j xx. copna to 
Somne jetpipulab. jeot ealbep pmep Jjpy bollan pulle 
to • -j jeplece pele nilitnej'ti^um bpmcan. Gpt piS 
fiban pape jmban piS pypele^ jemenjeb "j jebeaten 
lecje on ];a fiban p bet, ])i]> piban pajie ept laupep 
cpoppan jebeate bjimce on j'cetepe 'j on }»a fiban 
l>inbe, ^Pi]> fiban fape ept caulep pypttjiuman jebsepn 
to alifan -j yi]) ealbne pypele jeraenj -j aleje on ]>a 

Cf. Herbar. 
Apul. i. 10. 

Cf. Marcell. 
353, c. 

fol. 24 b. 


Pi]? lenben ece jenim betonican fpilce tpejen penejaf 
jepejen bo |?8Gpto fpetep pmej- tpejen bollan pulle menj 
pi]? hat pgeteji pele nihtneptij bjiincan. Gpt jenim 
jpunbe fpel^ean jebeat -j f peap pele bpmcan niht- 

pi]> lenben ece ealipep liatte pypt jnib on eala]? -j 
bpmce ]>a. 'Pi]> }>on ilcan hunbep tunje hatte pyjit 
jenim ]>a. leap abpij -j ^ejnib to melupe jenim jjonne 
Ibepen mela jemenj pi]; ])a pypt ^ jebpmj J^onne on 


i(rx«<ij. Pi]? J^eoli ece • fmice mib peapne fpij^e J^a J;eoh. 6pt 

to bpence • pipop • pin • pealpypt • Imnij. 6ac to ]?on 

' Read bpmce. 

- Tt) TTTjYttz'epa, Paul. iEg. aud Galen, a preparation of rue. 

3 Paul, .ffiginet., lib. iii. cap. 33. 

LEECH BOOK. r. 65 

betony in sweetened wine. If he have fever, let liim BookL 
drink it in water. ' ^^' 


For sore of the right side, work thyme and radish 
and white clover to a paste, and to a drink. For sore 
of the left side, pound woodroffe in vinegar, and work 
it to a paste, bind it on the side. Again, betony as 
much as three pennies weigh, and twenty -seven corns 
of pepper triturated together ; pour in three bowls full 
of old wine, and make lukewarm, give to the patient 
after his nights fasting to drink. Again for sore of 
side, lay rue mingled with lard and beaten, on the 
side ; that amendeth it. For sore of side again, let 
him beat bunches of laurel jloiver, let him drink them 
in water, and bind them on the side. For sore of 
side again, burn to ashes roots of colewort, and mingle 
with old lard, and lay on the side. 


For loin ache, take betony, as much as two pennies Lumbago, 
weigh, add thereto two bowls full of sweet wine, 
mingle with hot water, give it to drink after his 
nights fasting. Again, take groundsel, beat it, and give 
the juice to drink after his nights fasting. 

2. For loin ache, a wort is called ealiver,^ rub it in " Erysimum 
ale, and let the patient drink it. For the same, a wort Qgrarde 
hight hounds tongue, take the leaves, dry them, and 
rub them to meal, then mingle with the wort barley 
meal, and then apply it in milk. 


For thigh ache, smoke the thighs thorouglily with Sciatica. 
fern. Again, for a drink, pepper, wine, wallwort, honey ; 

VOL. n. 


apulbop • popn • lejpc • cjncbeam • eoj:o]i]7]iote seycj^jiote • 
eloD.e • bij'ceop py]^'c • ipj . betomca • pibbe • psebic • 
fppacen • pipop • hpit cpubu • cofc • jmjipep • moniaca • 
necle • blmbe netle pipe ]7ip to bpence. jtp ]>eoli 
j^apan abelp nio]?opeapbne yecj pyl on psetepe Iset 
peocan on pset lim pre ]\lape fmijie mib j^ealpe ]?e 
mon Jmp pypce. Op fpmep fmeppe • pceapep fmepu • 
butepe • Icipteapo • pipoji • lipit cpubu • fpejlep seppel • 
i'pepl . cofc • eceb • ele • hpeppetre • pssbic • eolene • 
bifceop pypt • pealr • a3pc • apulbpe • ac • j^opn. 


])i\} cneop paepce • pubu peaxe • -j hejejiijre jecnupa 

]>Si tojsebejie -j bo on ealu Iset bcjean neahtejuie j'ele 

him f l^onne bpmcan be|7e mib "j leje on. pi]? J»on jTp 

fol. 25 a. cneop pap fie • jemm pealpyjit -j clupj^unj • peabe 

netlan apyl on psetepe bej^e mib. 


gip jcancan j'ape fynb jeiiim jij^jiipan -j boljjiunan • 
'j hamoji pypT • *j beconican "j ban pyjit • 'j linpypc 'j 
pubn mejice • -j eopSjeallan • "j bpunpyjit peo]? on 
butepan fmipe mib:- 

Gip' fcancan pynb fojiobe mm banj'yjit jecnupa jeot 
cejep ]3 lipite menj tofomne fcancpopebum men. ]}i^ 
fopebum hme lege ];ap pealfe on p pojiobe lim -j jrop- 
leje mib elmpmbe bo fpilc to • ept fimle nipa o]>f 
jehalob fie jepenbjia ebn jiinbe 'j apyl fpi'Se bo ]?onne 
op })a pmbe jentm Impjeb jejpmb bpipe pic) ];am elmep 
bpsence f biS 50b jpealp popebum lime. 

tsiy, MS. 


also in addition, apple tree, thorn, ash, quick! )eara, Book I. 
everthroat, ashthroat, helenium, bishopwort, ivy, betony, " ^^^'" 
ribwort, radish, spraken,^ pepper, mastic, costmary, ' Mamnus 
ginger, sal ammoniac, nettle, blind nettle, work this-^'""^" 
to a drink. If thighs be paralyzed, delve up the 
netherward part of sedge, boil it in water, make it 
reek on the limb that is helpless, smear with a salve, 
which a man may thus work ; from swines grease, 
sheeps grease, butter, ship tar,^ pepper, mastic, beetle 
nut, sulfur, costmary, vinegar, oil, cucumber, radish, 
helenium, bishopwort, salt, ash, apple tree, oak, thorn. 


For knee pain; pound together woodwax- and hedge- 
rife, and put into ale ; let it lie for a night, give him 
then that to drink, bathe with it, and lay it on. In 
case that a knee be sore, take wallwort and doffing, 
and red nettle, boil in water, bathe therewith. 


1. If the shanks be sore, take githrife and pellitory 
and hammer wort and betony and bonewort and flax- 
wort and wild marche and earth gall and brownwort, 
seethe in butter, smear therewith. 

2. If shanks be broken, take bonewort, pound it, 
pour the white of an egg out, mingle these together 
for the shank broken man. For a broken limb, lay 
this salve on the broken limb, and overlay with 
elm rind,'^ apply a splint, again, always renew these 
till the limb be healed ; clean some elm rind, and boil 
it thoroughly, then remove the rind, and take linseed, 
grind it for a brewit or paste with the elms drink ; 
that shall be a good salve for a broken limb. 

' Fix navalis is frequent in Latin \ - Genista tinctoria. 
medicine of the time. j ' Cf. Aetius. I. i. v. TrreAea. 

E 2 



403, d. 

fol. 25 b. 


Gip fmo jefcjimce -j ept; • septep J?oii fpelle jemni 
jate tojib jemenj pi8 eceb fmit on yona halaS. CQone- 
jum men jefcpmcaS hip pet to hip homme pypc ba];o 
bo eapban to -j cepfan -j fmale netelan "j beopyjit bo 
on tpoh hate ftanap pel jehsette jebej^e ]7a hamma 
mib ]7am ftan baSe ]7onne hie fien jefpate ]7onne pecee 
he ]?a ban fpa he fpi])oft mseje bo fpelc to -j betepe 
fpa mon optop mib ]7y be]7i5e. Tip fmo clseppette 
mucjpypt jebeatenu -j pi]? ele jemenjeb -j on aleb. 
COycjpypte leap pij> jejiofobne ele jemen^ed fmijie mib 
|?y fona bi]> setftilleh fio cpacim;^. 


noSdypa. pi]^ pot ece betonicau- jeopmenleap* pmul* pibban* 

ealpa empela jemenje meoluc yi]> paeteji -j ■^ tofj'ollene 
Apul. Herb, l^ii^ p]iam ]?£epe upeppan healpe bej^e ]>y Ifep pe fpile 
ii. 17. In^epite • jenime Jjonne jalluc jefobenne leje on. ]?rS 

Cf. Marcellus, pota faRe 6p]ye jefpelle ppam miclum ^anje pejbpsebe 
405, f. g. jetpipulab -j pi8 eceb jemenjeb, pi]? ]?on beah jpunbe 

Ipelje jebeatenu -j piS pyfele jemenjeb. 

Pi]7 potece jip pe pot ace mjefpice jenim mucjpypte 

pyptpumaii menj pi]> ele pele etan. Vi5 pot ece ept 
fol. 2c a. hunan peap pi]? ele jemenjeb fmipe ]?a papan pet 

mib. :• 

Pi]? potece jenim ellenep leap • -j pejbpseban -j mucj- 

pypt ^ecnupa le^e on -j jebmb on. 


pi]? ban ece tunmjpyjit •' beolone • pealpypt ealbe 
jput "j eceb • heopotep fmepa o])]?e jate • o]?]?e jofe 

' Tnnrm?; pyjir, TTerbarinm, cxxxviii. !^o read. 


XXvi. Book I. 

If a sinew .shrink/'' and again after that swell, take ^, *. 

'. ° . . '^ That IS, when 

a she goats tord, mingle with vinegar, smudge it on, a leg is broken. 

soon the simeiu healeth. In tlie case of many a man, 

his feet shrink up to his hams, work baths, add tares 

and cress and small nettle and beewort,* put hot 

stones well heated in a trough, warm the hams with 

the stone bath, when they are in a sweat, then let 

him, the patient, duly arrange the bones as well as he 

can, apply a splint, and it is so much the better the 

oftener a man bathes with the "preparation. If a sinew 

have pulsation, mug wort beaten and mingled with oil, 

and laid on is good. Juice of mugwort mingled with 

rose oil, smear with that, soon will the quaking be 



1. For foot ache, betony, germen leaves^ that is noHypa. 
'mallow, fennel, ribwort, of all equal quantities ; mingle 

milk with Avater, and Ijathe the swollen limb, from 
the upper part of it, with that, lest the swelling go 
inwards; then take sodden comfrey, lay it on. For 
sore of feet or swelling from much walking, waybread 
triturated and mingled with vinegar. For that dis- 
order, groundsel beaten and mingled with lard is good. 

2. For foot ache ; if the foot ache go inwards, take 
mugworts roots, mingle with oil, give to eat. For foot 
ache again, juice of /iorehound mingled with oil, smear 
the sore feet with it. 

3. For foot ache, take leaves of elder and waybroad 
and mugwort, pound, lay on, and bind on. 


For leg ache, white hellebore, henbane, wallwort, 
old groats and vinegar, harts or she goats or goose 

' Acorui: calamus. 

7(^ LMCE BOC. 

meuj tofomne leje j^onne on, pi]? banece eft to bpence 
eleue • cneopliolen • pealpyjit • liune • clufj^unj jecnupa 
bo on pseteji ]3 ofep yjme be|?e to fype fpi^e ]7one 
ece ]7pea mib ]?y peetepe bo f j^pipa on bsej • pypc 
|?onne fealpe op tim[i]nj pypte op eolonan • op J^unjc • 
op pepmobe bo ealpa empela ]>ylle fpi'Se. 


Marcellus, ^^F mauuep jetapa beo]; pape oSSe ajmnbene beto- 

395, a. mean jetpipula on pme bej^e ]>a fapan ftopa "j ]7a 

a]?unbenan mib ];y. 6pt jip hie bylfrilite fien oSSe 

;^ebopfcene jenmi faluian feoS on psetepe bej^e mib ]?a 


Part in Mar- 6pt bile jebsepneb remenj pi5 ahj-an liimig ^ pypc to 

cellus, 395, d. 

fol. 26 b. fealpe aj^j^eah ]>onne "j jebej^e ]?a pimba aejiept mib 

hate psetepe septeji j;on mib peapme ele je fmipe on 

}7am |;e psepe pip jefoben leje ponne J;a pealpe on. 


xifxeTAof, J)jY pceal pi]j secelman -j piS J?on );e men acale f pel 

op Jjam potum • jemme neo|?opeapbe mebopypt -j lufc- 
mocan • -j acpmbe jecnua eall to bufte ^emenj pi6 
hunij lacna mib ]?y. 

. XXXI. 

* Oy Kos. Vi]7 selcum heapbum fpile obSe jefpelle abpije beana 

•J jepeo]? butan pealte menj jjonne pi]? huuij leje on. 
]}i]> })on ilcan jemm bepen melo peo]? on ecebe bo on 

' Read i^emenj; \>a, ahj-an jn'S hunig. 


grease, mingle together, then lay on. For leg aclio Book i. 

again, for a draught, lielenium, kneeliolly, or butchers '' ^•'''*'"'- 

broom, waUwort, or dwarf elder, Aorehound, cloffing,^ 

pound these, put them in water, so that it run over, 

warm at the fire thoroughly, wash the ache or aching 

part with the water, do that three times a day ; then 

work up a salve of white hellebore, of helenium, of 

thung or wolfs bane, of wormwood, put equal quantities 

of them all, boil thoroughly. 


1. If a mans instrumenta genitalia be sore or puffed 
out, triturate betony in wine, bathe with tliat the sore 
and puffed up places. Again, if they he mucous, or 
in eruption, take sage,' seethe in water, Imthe with 
that tlie instrumenta. 

2. Again, take dill burnt, mingle the ashes with 
honey, work up to a salvo, then wash and bathe the 
wounds first with hot water, after that with warm 
oil or grease, on which myrtle has been sodden, then 
lay the salve on. 


This shall be good for chilblain and in case that the Pernio, 
skin of a mans feet come off by cold,^ let him take 
the netherward part of meadowwort and lustmock and 
oak rind, pound all to dust, mingle with honey, effect 
a cure with that. 


1. For every hard tumour or swelling, dry beans 
and seethe them without salt, than mingle with honey, 
lay on. For the same, take barley meai, seethe in 

' Ranunculus sceleratus. ] ^ Oy Jjam focum, off the feet, 

- Cf. Myreps. xlvii. 10. | not of. 

72 ].iECE BOC. 

6ft; pi]7 ]?on belenan merij pi^ pyj'ele l^je on, pi& 
fjnle eft jebeat hunan nienj pi]? pypele leje on o8Se 
jate hopn jebsejmeb 'j pi]? ppeceji jemen^eb. Gyz 
jiypele o])]>e jelynbo pi]> japleac semenjeb -j on aleb 
l70ne fjnle Jjpsen]?. 

]}i]> fpile efc cepfiUe jecnupab mib jiyj'ele "j on 
jemelt peax jebon -j on aleb bet. :• 

ViS fpile eft jate fl?3fc jebsepneb to ahfan mib 
fol. 27 a. psetepe on jefmiten ealne ]jone fpile topepe]?. 6ft 

mnipejii p ip jojift f j'seb jecnupa "j peo]? on psetepe. 
6ft pmfuUe pi]» pypele jemenjeb -j pi]? lilap "j pij? 
celenbpan 88t • pomne jemenjeb. ])i]y yp lum pajtan "j 
I'pile jentm heopotep pceapo]?an op })ani hopne o]>]>e 
j^sej- hopnep melo menj pi]) psetep. finit on eal f popml" 
•j ]7one ypelan pgetan apej be]? -j abjiip]*. :• 

Pi]) fpile jemm jate tyjiblu on j'ceajipum ecebe 
jej-oben -j on pelpe pifan on jebon. 

Pi]? selcum yplum psetan mucjpypite }?a jjienan leap 
jetpiipulab -j pi]7 pypele jejmben tojsebepe fmipe an 
je }>eoli J'Pep bylftan on lynb f beali ]>i]> ]>an • je f 
beah eac pi]> pota ^efpelle. ^i} mnan jepypfmebuni 
jefpelle j^am ]?e pyjiS op pylle o]>]>e op jie^e oS^e 6f 
hp.icpca hpilcum • ]>&, pypt ]>e hatte plpleape • jeniiii "j 
jebeat "j leje on jelome oJ> ^te open fie pe fpile lacna 
])onne ]>a punba fpa o}>fie punba. piS fpile ept hluttop 
fol. 27 b. l^ic jemm bo ahfan to feoS setjsebepe jeleje }70nne 

]7one fpile mib ]»y jelome. pi]? fpile eyz jate typblu 
bpije ^ejnib -j afipte ]m\\h fma^l fipe bo ]'onne jiyple 

].KE(J11 JJUUK. i. 73 

vinegiir, put ou. Again for that, niingle henbane with Book I. 
Lird, lay on. For a swelling again, beat horehonnd, ^^' ^^^'' 
mingle with lard, lay on, or goats horn burnt and 
mingled with water. Again, lard or suet mingled with 
garlic, and onlaid, dwindleth the swelling. 

2. For swelling again, chervil pounded with lard 
and added to melted wax, and laid on, is to boot oi- 

3. For a swelling again, goats flesh burnt to ashes, 
smudged on with water, removes all the swelling. 
Again, pound the seed of juniper, that is gorse,^ and 
seethe in water. Again, houseleek mingled with lard 
and with bread and with coriander, mino;led too-ether. 
Against ill humours and swelling, take shavings oft' 
the horn of a hart, or meal of the horn, mingle with 
water, smudge it on, it doth away and driveth off' all 
that ratten and the evil wet. 

4. Against swelling, take goats treadles sodden in 
sharp vinegar, and applied in the same manner. 

5. For every evil humour,^ mugwort, the green ^\iyixa and 
leaves of it, triturated, and rubbed together with lard, ^'''^''^• 
both smear on the thighs on which the mucus is, that 

is good for them ; and that is good also for swelling 
of the feet. For a swelling purulent within, such as 
cometh of a fall or of a blow or of any crick, take 
the wort that hight fiveleaf Oi' cinquefoll, and beat it 
and lay it on frequently till that the swelling be 
open, then tend the wounds as other wounds. For a 
swelling again, take "clear pitch," ^ add ashes, seethe 
together, then overlay the swelling with that frequently. 
For swelling again, dry goats treadles, grate and sift 
them through a small sieve, then add lard, as much as 

' Some verb must be supplied to ' - Pituita molesta, of Horatius. 

form a sentence, as frequently hap- • ^ Probably resin, as solid. See 

pens. And of course iuniperus is Elseccepu, pale tar, in Lye. 
not gorse. | 

74 L^CE EOC. 

to fpa fpa j^yn tpa punb -j ealbef pmej" fjnx micel fpa 
jje p)ince pypc to fealpe. 

6pt jebsejineb j-ealt jejiiib pel on jepleceb prt3tep 
o]) f hit fie fpa }?icce fpa hunijef teap leje on j7one 
fpile ojrep leje mib cla6e -j mib eopcijjie pulle binb 
on. pi]? paeplicum fape -j jefpelle mm peax -j liemlic 
jetjiipula ]'y]ic fpa peajiin to pealpe biiib on f j'aji. :• 

Pi]? y-ceji fpile • mm liunan jebeat -j jemenj pip 
jiypele leje on. 6pt mape tpymhte jput mealtep 
fmebma • cepfan • cejej- p bpite bifceop j'ypt • elene • 
ontpe • elehtjie • fijfonte • jalluc menj tofomne leje 
on. pi]? beabum fpile • Nim jjiunbefpeljean leje on 
jleba "j jepyjime "j leje }>onne fpa peapme on ]7one fpile 
•j bebmb mib cla'Se Inet beon nihtejine on jip hip ]?eapp 
fie. TJi5 beabum fpile ajpimoman jebeat menj pi5 pm 
fol. i:s a. "j pijp ]-ealt bo on ]7one fpile pona jepit apej. Ipi]) fpile 

attopla^an jecnupa lege on ]jone fpile leje la^fc on f 
bolh pelf, bpenc pi]? beabum fpile ]3 he utplea eopop- 
}?pote • eolone • jotpoSe • tpa penpypta bo on ealu 
bpmce. pi]? beabum fpile jemm fpane pypt [^ecnupa 
pel jemenj pi6 pejifcpe butepan leje on Jione fpile o]? 
^ jelacnob fie. pi]? fpile cunille • fpjimj pyj^t elate 
pyl on butepan -j on hunije leje on ]?a ]?ypta jemenj 
piS ije^ey ^ hpite. Spe}?m5 pi]? fpile • ban pypt upe- 
peapbe jecnupa fmeele ]?a )?ypte jemenj piS tujep f 
hpite beclsem ^ lim mib ]?e j'e fpile on fie. 

Pypc ]? hiep op ]?am ileum pyjitum on cealbum pylle 
paetpe jecnupa ]?a pfpta f]'i]?e pel lege on f pjetep 
lapa on ]?one fpile. :• 

ViS fpile cnupa mSepeapbe hamop pypt *j pecj bmb 


two pounds, and as much of old wine as to thee may Book i. 
seem good, work to a salve. ^''- ^^^^' 

6. Again, rub burnt salt well in water made luke- 
warm, till that it be as thick as a tear of honey, lay 
on the swelling, overlay with a cloth, and with wool 
of ewe, bind on. For sudden sore and swelling, take 
wax and hemlock, triturate, work this so warm into a 
salve, bind on the sore. 

7. Against a sudden swelling, take horehound, beat 
and mingle it with lard, lay on. Again, mingle to- 
gether the cottony potentilla, comononly called silver- 
weed, groats of malt, smede or fine flour, cress, the 
white of an egg, bishopwort, helenium, ontre, lupins, 

" sigsonte," comfrey, la}' on. For a dead^ swelling, take ' Without 
groundsel, lay it on gledes and warm it, and lay it so ^'^^^^g- 
warm on the Bevelling, and bind on with a cloth, let 
it be on for a night, if need be for that. For a dead 
swelling, beat agrimony, mix with wine and with salt, 
apply it to the swelling, which soon will depart away. 
For swelling, pound attorlothe, lay on the swelling, 
lay least on " the wound" itself A draught for a dead 
swelling, that it may break out, put carhna, helenimn, 
goutweed, the two wenworts into an ale drink. For a 
dead swelling, take " swanwort," pound it well, mingle 
with fresh butter, lay on the swelling till that it 
be healed. For a swelling, boil cunila, springwort,^ 
clote, in butter and in honey, lay the worts on, mingle 
with them the white of an egg. A swathing for a 
swelling, pound small the upper part of bonewort, mingle 
with the wort the white of an egg, plastei" the limb 
on which the swelling may be, with that. 

8. Work the bath of the same worts in cold well 
water, pound the worts very well, lay on, leave the 
water on the swelling. 

9. For a swelling, pound the netherward part of 
hammerwort and sedge ; bind on. 

' Euforbia lathyris. 

76 lyece eoc. 


'AA^ds. AiVKT]. Lsecebomaf ]>i]> blaDce -j bae]? yiptyne ealjia. 

pel eolenan ni]?epea]ibe -j mintan 6n^ j'ealcej- pynian 

fol. 28 b. ']> hit fie jncce fpa bpip jemenj tojsebejie fmipe mib. 

]>i]> bltece mm eolonan iii]?epeapbe "j ompjian eac fpa 
fio ])e fpimme "j ontpan 'j bij'ceop pyjit 'j a^pcpmbe 
]-eo]? on butepan apeoh ]mph cla6 menj ];oune piS pipop 
•j pi]? teopan jejpmb fmijie mib. pi]? bl[ece pyl eolo- 
nan on butepan menj pi]? jfote j-ealt • teojio • liunij • 
ealb pape fmipe mib. piS blsece jenlm jope fmepo -j 
ni]?epeapbe elenan *j bapan fppecel bifceop pypt "j 
liejjiipan ]?a peo]?e]i pypta cnupa tofomne pel appmj 
bo ]?ffip6n ealbjie fapan ciiclep pulne jip ]?u hsebbe 
lytel eley menj pi]? fpi}?e -j on niht aly]?pe. Sceappa 
]?one fpeopan opep funnan fetljanje geot fpijenbe ]? 
blob on ypnenbe ]?8etep fpip ])pipa sep'cep • cpe]? ]?onne 
hapa ]?u ]?a]- iinh^ele • -j jepi'c aj^ej mib janje ept on 
clsenne pej to hufe *j 5eli])8e]?epne janj fpijenbe. bse]? 
piS bloBCe apyl tyn j-i]?uni ]?a pypte on hpepe -j fynb- 
jujea betonican • neptan mapubian- ajpimonian* jeappe* 

fol. 29 a. mmte ebheolo]?e limblieolo]>e • cupmealle • eopb jealla • 

bile • mepce • piiiul ealpa empela ^epyjic ]?onne fcol op 
j?pim tpeopum ni]?an Sypele fite on bybene "j ])e opep- 
lipep upan mib hpitle py Isep pe 8e]?m ut • jeot; unbep 
J?one fcol on ]?a bybene leet peocan on • fpa ]?u meaht 
on ]?am pyptum J?pipa bon • -j unbep ni]?an ftype mib 
friccan ^ip ]?u hattpe j^ille • 'j tep }?am b8e]?e fmipe 
]?one lichoman -j }?one •jplitan mib jefpette pastpe "j 
jehpep tpa sejpu on hatum psetejie ji;efmi]ie ealne 
]?one lichoman mib. 

' on on, MS. I - majubian, MS. 

LEECK r.OOK. I. 77 

xxxii. Book I. 

f"h. xxxii. 

1. Leechdoms for blotch and baths. Fifteen in all. 

2. Boil the netherward part of helenium and mint 
in the runnings of salt, that it be as thick as brewit, 
minofle together, smear therewith. Against blotch, take 
the netherward part of helenium, and so also of dock 
(that which will swim), and ontre, and bishopwort, 
and ash rind, seethe in butter, strain through a cloth, 
then mingle with pepper and with tar, grind these, 
smear therewith. For blotch, boil helenium in butter, 
mingle with soot, salt, tar, honey, old soap, smear 
therewith. For blotch, take goose grease and the 
netherward part of helenium and vipers bugloss, bishop- 
wort and hayrife, pound the four worts together well, 
wring them, add thereto of old soap a spoon full, if thou 
have it, mingle a little oil with them thoroughly, and 
at night lather on. Scarify the neck after the setting 
of the sun, pour in silence the blood into running 
water, after that spit three times, then say, " Have 
thou this unheal, and depart away with it ;" go again on 
a clean way to the house, and go either way in silence. 

A bath ^ for blotch, boil ten times the worts in a basin ^ , , , 

. •■' Inula iiele' 

and separately betony, nepeta, marrubium, agrimony, „,„,„. 
yarrow, mint, horseheal,'"^ hindheal,^ churmel,*^ earthgall,'^ " Eupatonum 
dill, marche, fennel, of all equally much, work then a <= chhra per- 
stool of three pieces of wood, with a hole below, ^^^ 1"^^^%^.^^ 
on a bucket,^ and robe thee over from above with a centanreum. 
garment lest the vapour escape ; pour the pre2Mred hot 
liquor under the stool into the bucket, let it reek on 
thee. So thou mayst do thrice with the worts, and 
underneath stir with a stick if thou wilt have it 
hotter; and before the bath smear the body and the 
forehead with sweetened water, and shake up two 
eggs in hot water, smear the whole body therewith. 

' nupnj. Hippokr. I - Byden, now Bidet. 


Lsecebom pi]? lijieofum lice • abelpe ompjian *j jelob- 
pypt ;^ecnupa • yyl ]?onne on but(3]ian bo lipon ]-ealtep 
to. ]}i]> beabum lice fcsejjpyjit mejice jnib on ealoS 
]-ele bjimcan. PiS hjieop le pell on hlonbe cpicpmbe ^ • 
ellenjimbe nijpepeajibe • sepc pmbe • -j pab • elm pmbe • 
hemlic bo j^onne butejian on -j liunij. pi]? hpeople 
pejbppebe IsecepypC • leac • inmte • ina5])a • eolone • 
fpepl jecnupa pi]' pyfle bo )78ep f[p]eplep fpilcan J^apa 
pyjita tpsebe. 

fol. 29 b. pi]? lijieople ept jemm lioppey jiyj'ele 5emen[5] fpi]je 

pij; fealce fmipe mib. b?e]; pi]> lipeople • pyl on pgetejie 
sepcpmbe • cpicbeam jiinbe • liolen jiinbe • pulanbeamej' • 
ananbeamef • fecj • J^eoppypt • hejepipe • mapubian • 
he]>e mib • -j ]5 lie jnib mib ]?pepe liejepipan. Pype 
j'ealf e op majiubian on butejian • op pyjim nuilupe • op 
hapan fppecele • hejepipan • jentm healpe ];a pealpe 
jemenj pi]? jecnupabe elenaii fmipe o]? ]5 batije • pi]>]?an 
mib ]??epe o]?eppe. bsej? pi]? J^am miclan lice eolone 
bpom • ipij • mucpypt selppone • beolone • cotruc • epe- 
lafran pyl on pPDtejie fpi]?e jeor on bybene -j pitte on. 
bpmce ]?ipne bpenc pi]? }^on • beronican • cujimiUe hope* 
ajjiimonia • fppmjpyji'c • jieabe netle • elehcjie • Saluie • 
fmjpene • alexanbjiia • fie jepoplit op pilifcum ealaS 
bpmce on }?am l)a}?e 'j ne IsBte on ]?one e]?m. Sealp pij? 
]?am miclan lice • elene • ]>u.n-^ ompjie • jjmnbefpelje • 
hole cepfan • pejbpcebe • epelafce • ontpe • hope • jaUuc • 

fol. 30 a. cele]?onian • cottiic pel on butepan eal tojsebepe liealp 

' Read ci'icbeanijiinbc. 



3. A leechdoin for a leprous body, delve up dock and 
silverweed, pound them, then boil them in butter, add 
a trifle of salt. For deadness of the body, rub in ale 
staithwort, marche, give to the patie7it to drink. For a 
leper, boil in urine ^ rind of quickbeam, the netherward 
part of elder rind, ash rind, and woad, elm rind, hem- 
lock, then add butter and honey. For a leper, pound 
with lard waybroad, leechwort, leek, mint, may the, 
helenium, sulfur, put of the sulfur two parts to one of 
the worts. 

4. For a leper again, take fat of a horse, mingle 
thoroughly with salt, smear with that. A bath foi- 
a leper, boil in water ash rind, quickbeam rind, holly 
rind, the foultree or black alder rind, rind of spindle 
tree, sedge, ploughmans spikenard, hapife, marrubium, 
bathe therewith, and rub the body with the hayrife. 
Work a salve of marrubium in butter, of worm" meal, 
of vipers bugloss, hayrife, take half the salve, mingle 
with pounded helenium, smear till it get better, then 
smear with the other half. A bath for the mickle 
body or elphantiasis, boil in water thoroughly helenium, 
broom, ivy, mugwort, enchanters nightshade (?), hen- 
bane, mallow, everlasting, pour into a byden, and let 
the iKitient sit upon it. Let a man drink against that 
disorder this drink ; betony, churmel, hove, agrimony, 
springwort, red nettle, lupin, sage, singreen, alexanders, 
let it be wrought out of foreign ale, let the sick man 
drink it in the bath, and let him not allow the vapour 
to reach it. A salve for the mickle leprous body, 
helenium, wolfsbane, dock, groundsel, field gentian, 
waybroad, everlasting, ontre, hove, comfrey, celandine, 
mallow, boil all in butter together, let half the salve 

Book I. 
Ch. xxxii. 

" Cf. Aetius. I. ii. 108. 

- Thus in later times : " Fair 
large Earth-worms gathered in May 
when they couple ; put them into a 
Pail of Water at night till the next 
morning, so will they have cleansed 

themselves, then dry them before 
the fire, or in an Oven, which when 
through dry, beat into Ponder.'" 
Salmon's English Physician, p. 
G97, ed. 169.3. He adds the cures. 



fie fpinef pyyele o"55e liojij'ey fmejiu • fmijie p>onne mib. 
Pi8 fpile jemm pejbpasban mo]7opeajibe jecnupa yi]> 
pyfele leje -j jebmb on ]?one fpile. 



fol. 30 b. 


Djiencaf -j )'ealj:a pi); I'ppmje • ipjiinjpyji'c peabe hope • 
jjejbpiebe • pepep puje • appotane • majej^e • pipoji • 
j'tn . jip lie on eajian fie jebeate pe^bpteban • -j pepeji 
pujean -j pipop • ppmj on ]5 eape. To pealpe pi^ 
ipjiinje • ntm bolhpnnan • pejbpa^ban majej^an • J?one 
]j]iaban capel nio]7opeapbne • jeojimenleap ni];epeapb • 
bocce nij^epepb • peabe hope • burepe "j hunij. Sealp 
epr mebopypt. aeumban* hmb hioloSe* jeappe* cneop- 
holen . sej^elpep^mj pypt . ajpimonia. 

Pi]? beabum fpjunje. Pyl on butrepan felpsetan 
fBptep ]?am^. *j fppmjpypt. pi]? fppmje majej^a • pubu 
mepce • pypc to j-ealpe bpmce jobe pypta. Ui}? fppmje • 
mm elehtjian jecnupa on hunij menj ro fomne lege 
on ]?one fpile oj7]?8et hal pie. PI'S fppmje fppmjpyjit: 
ceppillan ^j hunij 'j jope fmepa jecnupa pyl to pomne 
leje on Sone fppmg. 


51 p nsejl fie op hanba -j pij? peap.hbpseban ntm hpgete 
copn menj pi^ hunij leje on ]?one pmjeji. Pi5 anjnsejle 
ap^efpeopp -j- ealbe j-apan *j ele jip ]?u hsebbe ^ip j^u 
nsebbe bo plytan to menj tofomne leje on." :• 

Pi]; peaphbpseban • ma3o];an cjioppan pyl on butepan 
•j fealt fniipe mib. 

' Read 8e}e]i}»an. 

I -In the margin is some cypher. 


be swines fat or horse grease ; tlien smear therewitli. Book l. 
Against swelling, take the netherward part of way- 
broad, pound with grease, lay and bind on the swelling. 


1. Drinks and salves against pustule; springwort, red 
hove, waybroad, feverfuge, abrotanon, maythe, pepper, 
wine. If it, the inistule, be on an ear, beat waybroad 
and feverfuge and pepper, wring tlie'm into the ear. 
For a salve against a pustule, take pellitory, waybroad, 
maythe, the netherward part of the broad colewort, 
the netherward part of mallow, the netherward part of 
dock, red hove, butter, and honey. A salve again, 
meadow wort, tow,^ water agrimony, yarrow, butchers 
broom, stichwort, agrimony. 

2. For a dead pustule; boil in butter the herb wild 
oat, teferth, and springwort. For a pustule, maythe, 
wood marche, work thesa into a salve, let him drink 
good worts. For a pustule, take lupin, pound in honey, 
mingle together, lay on the swelling till it be hole. 
For a jDustule, pound springwort, chervil, and honey 
and goose grease, heat them together, lay tliis on the 


1. If a nail be off the hand, and against a warty 
eruption,''^ take wheat corn, mingle with honey, lay on pro^ablv""'' 
the finger. For an angnail,^^ brass filings and old soap, b xiapwvvxM, 
and oil if thou have it, if thou have it not, add cream, 
mingle together, lay on. 

2. For warty eruption, heat in butter bunches of 
maythe and salt, smear therewith. 

' Understand, in ashes. " Lin- I medicina; est ; et einis spodii (h-orj/ 

teorum lanugo e velis navium ma- \ Jiliiigs) vimhabet." Plinius, xix. 4. 

ritimarum maxime, in magno usu I 


82 L^CE BOC. 


Me\avia. Be afpeajitebum 'j abeabebiim lice iio abl cymb oftol'r 

Cf.Gliltumde*^^' ^™^"^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^®^™^ ^^ ^^^ ^epitenpe peo]i]>e« 
Simpl. Med. jipiluiii lic afpeajicob • ];onne op j^am p pum pelme fio 
ed. 182G. ' ^^1 ^1^^*^ cealbum l^injuni bi]^ to celanne -j to lacmanne • 
*j ]?onne fio abl cymS utan butan fpeotolum tacne • 
J^onne pcealt J;u jepept ]?a liseto celan mib cellenbjie 
jetjiipulabpe mib lilapef cjiuman oppenbiim mib cealb 
ptetpe oj'j^e mib ])y pelpan feape J^sepe cellenbpe • o])])e 
fol. 31 a. mib ssje]' ]>y hpite oJ^J^e mib pme o]>]m mib o])pum 

Jjinjum ]7am J?e p ilce rasejen htebbe • ]wnne pe ]jelma 
-j fio liseto fie apej jepiten "j pe bsel ]>i!ey liclioman 
fie jepenbeb hpon o^Se blaac oJ'J'e pon o]>]>e fpilcep 
hpget j' J^onne ];a fcope ]?oiine betft j^u "Sa • "j 
bjuje mib onlejene fpa fpa mon on peax lilape *j op 
peajimmn bepe • -j op fpelcum l^mjum pypcS.^ Nif him 
blob to Iretanne on tebjie ac ma liipa man pceal tilian 
mib pyptbpencum utypnenbum o])]>e fpij^lum o]>]>e mijo- 
Itim mib J>y ]>u mealit clajnfian f omcyn -j ]>8ep ^eallan- 
co'Se l^a jieaban • je ]>eah ]? ypel cumen ne fie op ]?ajia 
omena pelme fpa l:»eali beali fpilcum mannum j'e peeappa 
pyptbpenc. Tip }>a omihtan pannan j^mj o]?]?e J?a peaban 
fyn utan cumen op punbum o]>]>e op fmj'injum oSSe 
op plenum fona J>u ]?a J'lnj lacna mib pceappmje -j 
onlejena bepef septep ];sepe pifan J?e Isecaf cunnan pel 
\)u. hit betft. Tip ]3 afpeajitobe lie to ]7on fpi|7e abeabije 
fol. 31 h. ^ |;ae]i nan jepelnep on ne fie |?onne pcealt ]?u pona 

eal "^ beabe *j ]3 imjepelbe op afni]?an o\> f cpice he • 
]3 Jjseji na miht |)?ep beaban licef to lape ne fie J^aef j^e 
sep ne ij-en ne pyji jepelbe. jGpteji J'on lacnije mon 
)ja bolh fpa J>u ]?one bsel ]>e ]?onne jit hpilce hpeja 

' pync, MS. 


XXXV. Book I. 

Ch. XXXV. 

Of swarthened and deadened body. The disease 
Cometh oftenest of corrupt humours after the inflamma- 
tion of the disease which has passed away, the body 
whilom becometh swarthy. Then, from the original 
inflammation, the disease is to be cooled and to be 
tended with cold appliances. And when the disease 
Cometh from without, without a manifest token of its 
cause, then shalt thou first cool the heat with triturated 
coriander, with crumbs of bread moistened with cold 
water or with the juice itself of the coriander, or with the 
white of egg, or with wine, or with other things which 
have the same virtue. When the inflammation and the 
lieat are gone away and the part of the body is turned 
somewhat to he either pale or livid or somewhat such, 
then scarify the place, thou wilt then better it ; and 
dry it with an application such as a man works of 
wax cake and warm beer and of such things. He is 
not to be let blood on a vein, but rather the symptoms 
shall be tended with wort drinks, of a perfluent 
nature, either emetic or diviretic, with which thou 
mayest cleanse the corrupt humour and its red gaU- 
sickness. Yea, though the evil be not come of the 
inflammation of the corrupt humours, yet for such men 
the sharp wort drink is beneficial. If the pituitous 
livid or red symptoms be come from without, from 
wounds or from cuttings or from blows, soon do thou 
heal those matters with scarif5dng and onlayings^ of ^ 'Ein06>aTa. 
barley, after the manner which leeches well know; 
thou shalt amend it. If the swarthened body be to 
that high degree deadened that no feeling be thereon, 
than must thou soon cut away all the dead and the 
unfeeling fiesJi, as far as the quick, so that there be 
nought remaining of the dead flesh, which ere felt 
neither iron nor fire. After that one shall heal the 
wounds, as thou wouldst the part which as yet may 

P 2 

84 L^CE BOC. 

jejrelnej^j-e lisebbe • "j eallunja heabe ne fynb/ pu j-cealt: 
mib jelomhcjie fceappunje hpilum mib miclum* lipilum 
mib jreaptjm pene ^ teoli~ f blob ppam ])S3]\e abeabeban 
fcope laciia 6a pceajipan ]my • ^emm bean raela o]y]>e 
setena • oSSe bejief • dpl^e fpilcej- melupep fpa J?e ]?ince 
f htc onniman pille bo eceb to "j hunij peo]? petjsebepe 
*j leje on 'j bmb on ]?a ]"apan fcopa. Tip ]m polbe p 
fio pealp fjnSjie fie bo lycel pealcep to on bmb hpilum "j 
l^peah mib ecebe o]>]^e mib pine. Tip J^eapp lie j'ele 
hpilum pyptbjienc • -j jej'ceapa fimle J^onne J;u p>a fcpan- 
jan Isecebomaj- bo hpilc p msejen fie *j fio jecynb J^sej- 
lichoman • hpoe]?ep hio fie fcpanj ]?e heapb -j ea}>elice 
moeje j^a ftpanjan Isecebomap abepan ]>e hio lie hnepce 
•j meappe 'j ]>ynne *j ne nueje abejian ]?a laeceboma]-. 
bo ]>u Sa Isecebomaf fpilce ])u pa lichoman ^efie • pop 
];on Se micel jebal "ij* on psepnebef *j pipep -j cilbep 
lichoman • -j on ]?am msejene \>sei bsejhj^amlican 
pyjihtan *j ]?8ep iblan j^pep ealban -j ]?8ep jeonjan -j 
pijiep J>e fie ^epm^ ppopmijum • -j psej' J?e fie unje- 
puna fpelcum J'lnjum • je ];a hpitan lichoman beo6 
meajiuppan -j tebpan J^onne |?a blacan • 'j ]?a peaban. 
jip pu piUe Itm aceoppan oSSe afniSan op lichoman 
ponne jefceapa pu hpilc fio fcop fie • "j peepe ftope 
msejen • poji pon 8e papa ftopa fum pape potap jip 
hipe mon jimeleaflice tilaS • fume latop pelaS pajia 
Iseceboma fume jiapop - jip pu pcyle aceoppan oS^e 
afmpan unhal lim op halum lice ponne^ ceopp pu f on 
pam jemsepe peep halan licef • ac micle fpipop fen's o'SSe 
ceojip on f hale -j f cpice lie fpa pu hit pel -j papop 
jelacnoft. ponne pu pyp fette on mannan ponne mm 
pu mejipep poppep leap 'j jejmben pealt opep le^e pa 

' Kead fy. i ^ Eead sejmna. 

- Kead ]ienian t teohan. | ' Insert ne. 


have some feelinor, and be not altogether dead. Thou ^^^"^ i- 

. . . . . Ch. XXXV 

shalt with frequent scarifying, whilom with miekle, 
whilom with slight, wean and draw the blood from 
the deadened place. Cure the scarifyings thus ; take 
bean or oat or barley meal, or some of such meal as 
to thee seemeth good, so that it will serve, add vine- 
gar and honey, seethe together and lay on, and bind 
upon the sore places. If thou shouldst wish that the 
salve be stronger, add a little salt, bind on at whiles 
and wash with vinegar or with wine. If need be, 
give at whiles a wort drink, and observe always when 
thou art applying the strong leechdoms, what the 
power be, and what the nature of the body of the 
]jatient ; whether it be strong and hardy, and easily 
may bear the strong leechdoms, or whether it be nice 
and tender and thin, and may not bear the leechdoms. 
Apply the leechdoms according as thou seest the state 
of the body. For a miekle difference is there, in the 
bodies of a man, a woman, and a child ; and in the 
main ov constitution of a daily wright or labourer and 
of the idle, of the old and of the young, of him who is 
accustomed to endurances, and him who is unaccustomed 
to such things. Yea, the white bodies be tenderer and 
weaker than the black and the red. If thou wilt caive 
off or cut off a limb from a body, then view thou of 
v/hat sort the place be, and the strength of the place, 
since some or one of the places readily rotteth if one 
carelessly tendeth it : some feel the leechdoms later, 
some earlier. If thou must carve oflp or cut off an 
unhealthy limb off from a healthy body, then carve 
thou not it on the limit of the healthy body ; but 
much more cut or carve in on the hole and quick body ; 
so thou shalt better and readier cure it. When thou 
settest fire on a man, then take thou leaves of tender 
leek and grated salt, overlay the places, then shall be 
by that the more readily the heat of the fire drawn 

86 L^CE BOC, 

fol. 32 b. Ibope }>onne biS j^y ])e pajjop ]?8ej' pyjie)- hseto apej 

atojen • ]? ilce bij? nytcol icej' jflite o))]7e liunbef jip 
hit man yona to be^S • -j ept ymb ])jieo niht fmijie 
mib humje f ]>y ]>e pa];op fio hpypnj op fealle. 


PiJ> ]>?e]\e able ]7e men hset cijicul abl jentm cpicbeam 
jimbe • -j sepfan • -j apulboji • mapulboji • ellen • pi]?i5 • 
pealh • piji • pice • Sc • ylahj^opn • bijicean • elebeam • 
jatetpeop • sepcep pceal msept • "j felcep tpeopep basl 
]?e man bejitan mgej • butan bpe^j^opne -j alojie Jpapa 
tpeopa msept J?e heji apjiiten pynb "j eac jajel -j cneop 
bolen • finjjienan eolonan • jiebic pealpypt • ]?a jpeatan 
netlan » pepmob eo]i]:> jeallan. ^entm }?onne tynam- 
bepne cetel bo ]>]iibban bsel ]?a]\a jimba -j J>a pypta 
pylle fpij^e on max])yjite jip ]m hsebbe • jip J?u nsebbe 
pyl on psetpe fpij^e • bo j^onne op ]>a pinba "j bo nipe on 
fol. 33 a. mnan f ilce pof bo fpa ]?]iipa afeoh ]?onne clsene fpa 

hatne }?one bpenc "j bo ];onne mele pulne butepan on 
fpa hatne -j jehpepe tojsebepe l?et ftanban tpa niht 
o]?]?e ]7peo • abo j^onne op j^a butejian "j jemm ];oime 
jajel cjioppan • -j ipij cpoppan • helban • -j betonican 
eolonan • pebic • banpypt . eop'5 miftel jebeat tojas- 
beyie pylle on jjsepe butepan abo J7onne |?a butepan 
clgene op ]?am pyptum |??ep |^e mon mseje • jenim ]7onne 
fmsel bepen mela *j jebsepneb pealt bpipe )?onne on 

' Zc^;'?7, or ZwaTTip. 



away. The same 'process is advantageous for frogs ^ or ^^^^ I- 
liounds bite, if one soon applieth it. And again, for 
about three nights, smear with honey, that thereby the 
more readily the scab or crust may fall off. 


Against the disease which is hight circle addle^ or 
shingles, take quickbeam rind, and aspen and apple 
tree, maple tree, elder, withy, sallow, myrtle, wich 
elm, oak, sloe thorn, birch, olive tree, the lotus tree,^ 
of ash there shall be most, and a part of each tree 
which a man can get at (except hawthorn and alder), 
the largest quantity of the trees which are here written, 
and also gale and knee holly, that is, butchers hroom, 
singreen, that is, house leek, helenium, radish, wallwort, 
the great nettle, wormwood, earthgall.^ Take then 
a kettle holding ten ambers, put therein a third part 
of the rinds and the worts, boil strongly in mashwort, 
that is, the unfermented luort of beer, if thou have it, if 
thou have it not, boil strong in water, t hen remoth3 
rinds, and put new rinds into that same decoction, do 
so three times, then strain out clean the drink so hot, 
and then add a basin full of butter so hot, and shake 
them up together : let this stand two nights or three, 
then remove the butter, and then take catkins of gale, 
berry branches of ivy, tansy, and betony, helenium, 
radish, bonewort, basil, beat together, boil in the butter, 
then remove the butter clean off t]ie worts, as far as a 
man may : then take fine barley meal and burnt salt, 

' No doubt//'0(/,Cod.Ex.p. 426-9. 
Dioskorides Alexifarm. 31. has a 
chapter on the ^pvvrj, or toad, and 
the Barpaxos e\eios, or " marsh 
frog," as poisonous. 

- luPlinius Valerianus. Circinus. 

*' Vesicae si homiuem cinxerint oc- 

^ Are we to suppose Carpinus 
was read as Caprinus, and say horn- 
beam for lotus ? 

' Erythrcea centmireuin. 



fol. 33 b. 

])Sd]\e butepan -j hjiejie ]7onne fpij^e butan pype -j ho 
pipop to ere l^onne repefc J^one bpip on neaht neptij. 
bpmce ]7onne seftep ];one bpenc -j nanne o]?epne peetan 
■cyn nihtum J^pitij jlp he mjBje • jemm ]?oniie acmifcel 
jebeat fmaele "j abpije *j jejnib to melupe apeli ]7onne 
fi\> aenne peninj bo ]? on ]5 betfte pm. bpmc fpa 
nijon bajaf -j ne ete nipne cife ne peppce jof • ne 
peppcne sel • ne Fe[p]]-c fpin • ne naht |7S9p ]>e op 
mopobe cume • ne pixaf • tinpcellehte • ne plohtenpote 
pujelaf* jip lie hpilc J>ipfa ete fie ^ pealt -j nane 
Jjinja beop ne bpmce "j jemetlice pm -j eala • jip moq 
];ifum Isecebome bepylijS ];onne bij? fe man lial; pi|? 
cipcul able jemm boccan ]?a j^e fpimman pille jebeat 
fpijje fmale apylle on ealbum mopobe ^obe lianb pulle 
bo l^onne ]?a pypta op bo ept o]?pe lianb pulle j^sepe 
ilcan pypte pylle ept fpiSe jebo }»onne J^a ]'y]ita op 
jenim ];onne fpepl jebeat fpi]?e fmale jebo j^onne on 
]7a pealpe f hio fie fpa J>icce fpa bpip fmijie ]?oime J^a 
fpeccan mib J^Eepe fealpe o]? f him pel fie. 

362, d. 

362, d. e. 

fol. 34 a. 


pi]? Jpon ]>e mon ne mseje hip micjean jehealban -j 
]?8epe 5epealb na^e eopopej- clapa o]?]?e oppej- fpinej- je- 
b£epn to ahfan pceab ]7onne pa ahfan on J^sej' peocan 
mannef bpmcan. 6pt fpmef blsebpan untybpenbej- f ip 
jylce jebaspn to ahpan bo on pm fele bpmcan. Jfi]) 
]7on ilcan ept jate blsebpe ahypfce pele etan • fume fpa 
jehypfte jejniba]? to bufce fceab on pm pellaS bpmcan 
jlp hie beo^ butan pejrjie. jip mon ne mseje jeinijan 
ept cymenef jenim fpa micel fpa Su mib ]?pim pinjpum 


next make a brewit of tliein in the butter, and shake Book i. 

it well up without fire, and add pepper, then let the 

patient eat first the brewit at night fasting. Further 

after that let him drink the draught and none other 

liquid for ten nights, for thirty if he can endure it ; 

then take mistletoe of the oak, beat it small and dry it, 

and rub down to meal, then weigh it against one 

penny, put that into the best wine ; let the sufferer 

drink this accordingly for nine days, and let him eat 

neither new cheese, nor fresh goose, nor fresh eel, nor 

fresh pig, nor augbt of that which cometh of a decoction, 

nor fishes without shells, nor web footed fowls ; if he 

eat any of these, let it be salted, and by no means 

let him drink beer, and wine and ale moderately. If 

this leechdom be followed then shall the man be hole. 

Against circle addle or shingles, take dock that will 

swim, beat it very small, boil in old inspissated wine a 

good handful, then remove the worts, afterwards add 

another handful of the same wort, boil again thoroughly, 

then remove the worts ; then take brimstone, beat 

it very small, then apply the salve, so that it may 

be as thick as brewit, then smear the specks with 

the salve till it be well with him, the patient. 


In case that a man may not retain his urine and have 
not control over it, burn to ashes claws of a boar or 
of another swine, then shed the ashes on the sick mans 
drink. Again, burn to ashes the bladder of an unpro- 
lific, that is a gelt, swine, put it into wine, administer 
it to drink. For the same, fry a goats bladder, give 
it to the man to eat ; some, when so fried, reduce it 
to dust, and %vhen shed into wine, give it to the men 
to drink, if they be without fever. Again, if a man 
may not pass water, take of cummin as much as thou 
mayst lift with three fingers, triturate it, and add 



358, g. 

362, d. 

fol, 34 b. 

up aliebban mneje jetjiifula -j jebo to pmej- cpejen 
bollan f ulle • -j o]?pe cpejen paecepef pele bjiincan nihc- 
neptijum. 6pc jip mon ne mseje jemijan bpmce jy]?- 
pipan on psecjie jejnibene. 6pc ^enime eac jeajipan *j 
pejbpseban pyl on pme pele bjimcan. 6pt pammep 
bltebpe jefobene Jiicje he. ^entm pmolef pypccjiuman 
epc • 'j ]7a j'ypt; pelpe jebeat "j jepiib on pm opJ>sene 
pel "j apeoh pele bpmcan. 6j:t- jofa tunjan jebjisebbe 
•j jejacje. 6pt; jip pu pmbe pile on oj'pum pifce 
innan jentm ]?one -j jebjifeb fpij^e -j jebjiyce on bpim- 
can -j pele ]?am peocan men bpmcan fpa he nyte fpa 
]?u pcealt ]?a oj'pe ?ecap "j bpmcan j-ellan. rip mon ne 
mseje gemijan bjimce he lilian pyptcpuman apyllebne 
on pme o^Se on eala'S. Tip he J'onne to fpiSe mije 
bjimce ^yjjpipan on psetepe jejmbene. Tip mon blobe 
mije jemm pubu popan feoJ> on psetpe o^8e on ealaS 
j-ele bpmcan. 

Gtp pip ne mseje jemijan mm tunceppan fseb feoS 
on pffitpe j'ele bpmcan. Jip mon ne mgeje jemijan 
jecnupa lupefcice *j ellenpmbe -j oleafepum 'p tp pilbe 
elebeam jemen^ piS fupum hluttpum eala'S pele 


J^eR linbon bolh pealpa to eallum punbiim "j bjiencap 
•j clsenpunja^ on jehpilce pifan je utan je on f'am 
mnoJ?um. pejbpsebe jebeaten pi's ealbne pypele je- 
menjeb peppc ne nyt bij?. 

^6pC bolhpealp jentm pejbpseban fasb jetpipula fmale 
pceab on |?a punbe pona bi^ pelpe. 

claej-nunsa, MS. 

Herbar. Apul. ii. 6. 


thereto two bowls full of wine and two others of water, Book i. 
give it to the sick to drink after his nights fasting. Ch.xxxvn. 
Again, if a man cannot mie, let him drink githrife, 
rubbed fine in water. Again, take also yarrow and 
waybroad, boil them in wine, give them to be drunk. 
Again, let him eat a rams bladder sodden. Again, take 
roots of fennel and the wort itself, beat it and rub it 
fine into wine, moisten well and strain it, and admi- 
nister it to drink. Again, let him roast ^ and partake 
of the tongues of geese. Again, if thou find a fish 
within another fish, take and roast it thoroughly, and 
break it to bits into a draught, and give it to the sick 
man to drink in such a manner that he know it not. 
So shalt thou give the other meats and drinks. If 
a man may not pass water, let him drink a root of 
a lily boiled in wine or in ale. If he then mie too 
strongly, let him di-ink githrife in water, rubbed to 
(lust. If a man mie blood, take dog roses, seethe thera 
in water or in ale, administer them to drink. 

If a woman may not pass water, take seed of garden 
cress, seethe it in water and give it her to drink. If 
one may not pass water, pound lovage and elder rind 
and oleaster, that is wild olive tree, mix this with 
sour clear ale, and give to drink. 


1. Here are wound salves for all wounds and drinks 
and cleansings of every sort, whether without or in 
the inwards. Waybroad beaten, mixed with old lard ; 
the fresh is not of use. 

2. Again, a wound salve ; take seed of waybroad, 
bray it small, shed it on the wound, soon it will be 

' Our Saxon has not been careful I is set down in Marcellus as restrain- 
in the selection of his recipes ; this | ing " profluvium urinse." 

92 LJiCE BOC. 

Pi]? ealbpe piuibe tobjiocenpe ^jiunbefpelje jn]? ealhne 
pyj-ele jemenjeb *j on aleb lacna fpilce punba. To 
punbe clseDpunje -^ jentm clc"ene humj jepyjime to 
fyjie jebo J^onne on clsene psec bo pealc ro "j hpepie o|? 
■p hic lisebbe bpipej- ]?icne]-pe fmijie |?a punbe mib |)onne 
fol. 35 a. pulla^ hio. jip banbjiice on heapbe fie majej^an "j 

5ocpo]?an jecnupa pel on hunije bo ]?onne bucepan on 
f bi^ job bolhpealp. Gyt pi^ |?on eac bi]? job lufc- 
mocan cpop co lecjanne on jebjiocen heapob *j jtp 
hunb plice. ]}i]> hunbep j'lice jemm J^a peaban netlan 
•j accoplajpan -j fpicej- sleep empela feoS on burepan 
pypc CO ]-ealpe pona beoS ])Si unnytcan ban nte. 

bolli pealp piS limjen able • lileomoce hacce pyjic fio 
peaxeS on bpoce jepypc J?a on mopjenne ]?onne bio 
jebeap lie fume beoS unbeape "j jofe fceapn ])onne 
bio ne ere • jecnupa ]?a bleomocan menj pi]? ]7am jofe 
pceapne • bo Isep J^aep fceapnep pyl on bucepan appmj 
p bij; 50b pealp. Sealp bapan fppecel mm on ealbum 
lanbe ^ kmjenpypc feo bi]? jeolu upepeapb -j sejef 
bybjnn mib J?y j'ceal mon lacnian ]?one man ];e bi]? 
lunjenne punb. pij? mnan punbe pealp • ptn ele • 
fol. 35 b. jalluc . hunij. bolhpealp 5y]>pif e -j jelob pypc -j ];a 

bpunan pypc bpableapan fio peaxe]? on puba "j lufc- 
moce cpoppan • jecnupa ]?a ealle -j pyl pepefc on bure- 
jian bealpe 'j appmj. 

bolb pealp epc jjiunbe fpelje J?a Se peaxa'S on pop]?i- 

"^ jtim fio bi]) 50b CO bolhpealpe *j jiibbe -j jeappe •j ji]?- 

pipe jecnupa }>a pypca ealle pyl on bucepan -j appinj. 

6pc bolbj'ealp 50b acpinb abjiije ];a pmbe -j fpiSe fmale 

Tecnupa "j abelp ni]7epeapbne j-lali Sopn aj-cap ]ja yce- 

- clajj-nunge, MS. 



3. For an old bruised wound, groundsel mingled Book l. 
with old lard, and laid on : tend such wounds thus. '' ''''''""■ 
For cleansing of a wound ; take clean honey, warm it 

at the fire, put it then into a clean vessel, add salt, 
and shake it till it have the thickness of brewit, smear 
the wound therewith, when it turneth foul. If there 
be a bone breach in the head, pound maythe and 
goutweed well in honey, then add butter, that is 
a good wound salve. Again for that, a bunch of 
" lustmock " is good to lay on a broken head, and also 
if a hound tear a man. For tearing by a hound, take 
the red nettle and attorlothe and some lard, of each 
an equal quantity, seethe in butter, work to a salve, 
soon the useless bones will be out. 

4. A wound salve for lung disease. A wort is called 
hleraock, which waxetli in brooks, and is nov: hrool-- 
lime, work it, that is, deal with it in a morning when 
it is dewy, (some 'plaiits of it are undew}'), and sharn 
of goose dropped when the goose eats not ; pound the 
brooklime, mingle with the dung of goose, put in less 
of the sharn than of the wort, boil in butter, wring 
through a cloth, that will be a good salve. A salve : 
take vipers bugloss, grovjii on an old tilth, and golden 
lungwort,^ and a yolk of egg, with this shall one tend " Tlieracium 

1 . 1 1 • J.1 1 -ri • T murorum and 

a man who is wounded m the lung. Jbor an mward ^„/„,t,„,,,.j„,„. 

wound, a salve : wine, oil, comfrey, honey. A wound 

salve : githrife and silver weed, and the broadleaved 

brownwort which waxeth in woods, and a bunch of 

the flowers of '' lustmock "; pound all these and boil 

first in a half proportion of butter, and wring through 

a cloth. 

5. Again, a wound salve: the groundsel which waxeth 
in highways, that is good for a wound salve, and rib- 
wort, and yarrow, and githrife ;b pound all ihe-woris,^ Agrostemma 
boil in butter, and squeeze through a cloth. Again, a 9^^''^'9"- 
good wound salve : oak rind ; dry the rind and pound 

it very small, and delve up the nethermost jpart of a 

94 LiECE BOC. 

mefean pmbe -j fpiSe fmale jecnupa ajfipc fmale j^ufih 
fmrel fipe bo bejea empela f mela biS 50b on to 
fceabenne, rip pu paSe pille lytle punbe jelacnian 
eacepfan jetjiipula oS'Se jefeo^ on buCepan pyjic to 
pealpe fmipe mib. bolh pealp • jeappan • jyl^jupau • 
fmjpenan • jotpojmn Itefc jecnupa piS butepan fpiSe 
pel leje neahtepne fpa jecneben • bo Jjonne on pannan 
pyl fpiSe bo f pam op clsene apeoh j^uph claS bo on lipit 
pealt h]\e]\ fpiSe o]; p jeftanben fie. bolhpealp mejifc 
hope sej^elpepSmjpypt "j jy]?]iipan -j fm^penan on ]>a 
foi. 36 a. ilcan pifan p/pce. bollipealp jenim pabef cpoppan "j 

netelan eac jecnupa pel • pyl on butejian afeoli ];upli 
claS bo lipit fealt on lipejie fpiSe, 

bolhpealp acpmb • eepepSe • meobopypc abpije ealle 
■j jecnupa fmale apipt Jmjili pipe men^ pi]; hnnije -j 
rejep p hpite. bollipealp i^iy mon fie mib ipene je- 
punbob • pubupope • fm^jiene • jelobpypt fppmj pypt • 
3yj7pipe • jpunbefpelje • majoSe pypm pypt niojjopeajib 
jecnua pel tofomne ealle menj piS butepan pyl pa 
pjjjita on psepe butepan fpiSe apleot p pam op clsene 
afeoli pupil cla5 bo on blebe lipep piS op p jefcanben 

^tp mon mib tpeope jej-lejen fie o"S^e mib ftane 
oppe byl on men jebepfteS • to pon bollipealp • jyp- 
pipe • ontpe • jelobpypt • pijelhpeoppa • jecnupa pa 
pypta fpipe jemenj pel piS butepan -j on pa ilcan 
pifan jepena pe ic sep cppep. 

Jip men fie lim op aple^en • pmjep o^6e pot oppe 
lianb jip p meaph ute fie . jenim pceapej' meaph je- 


blackthorn, shave off the outermost "paH of the rind Book L 

and ponnd it very small, sift it small through a small ^^xruu 

sieve, put togettver equal quantities of both, the meal is 

good to shed on a vjound. K thou wilt quickly cure 

a little wound, bruise or seethe in butter water cress, 

work it into a salve, smear therewitL A salve for 

wounds : pound very well with butter, yarrow, cockle, 

singreen, or hjou^leek, of goutweed the least, lay them 

by for a night so bruised, then put them into a pan, boU 

thoroughly, remove the foam clean off. strain through 

a cloth, add white salt,' shake it well up till it 

be got firm. A wound salve; work up in the same 

wise marsh hove, stichwort, and cockle, and singreen. 

A wound salve ; take heads of woad and of nettle, 

also pound them well, boil in butter, strain through a 

cloth, add white salt, shake thoroughly. 

6. A wound salve : oak rind, '' aeferthe, ' meadowwort : 
dry all these and pound them small, sift the diud 
through a sieve, mingle with honey and the white of 
an egg. A wound salve, if a man be wounded with 

iron: woodroffe, singreen, silverweed, springwort,* gith- ^ Evforbia 
rife, groundsel, maythe, the lower part of wormwort, ^"' 
pound them all well together, mingle with butter, boil 
the worts in the butter thoroughly, skim the foam 
off clean, strain through a doth, put U on a saucer; 
shake it till it be concrete. 

7. If a man be .smitten with wood or with stone, 
or if a boU bursteth on a man, for this a wound salve : 
cockle, "ontre,'' silverweed, turnsole, pound the worts 
thoroughly, mingle weU with butter, and prepare in 
the same wise which before I quoth. 

8. If a limb be smitten off a man, a finger, or a foot, 
or a hand, if the marrow be out, take sodden sheeps 

- Sail DOT ^uitc pTire is z.'.a -a^id-i/c : the Latin and Gre^ authors ; per- 

mticli c-.ome5 rei frcrr. vn jis ; : haps tliis is an evasioo of that 

much dirty from the saiTpans. Sal | drag, 

ammoidacian is oftea pre&cnbfcd in I 

96 L.ECE EOC. 

j'oben leje on f o]>e]\ meapli • appi]^ fpiSe pel neahtejine. 
fol. 30 1). bolh yealj: • h^cylef jiaju -j bolen pmbe m];epea]ibe • 'j 

;;5y|)jiipan jecnua fpiSe pel ]>a pfjita jemens pi5 buce- 
pan feocS fpiSe pleoc op p pam afeoh ]>upli claS fpij^e 
clfiene jip psej' boljep oppap fynb to hea ymb frpic 
mib hate ipene fpiSe leohrlice f p pel bpitije. 

bolhpealp jotpoj^an i^ecnupa fpiSe pel mej pi"S bute- 
pan feoS fpiSe -j j^yll -j appmj J'uph cla8 pleot f pam 
op jepelc fpi'Se pel • jip bolh pulije ceop fcpsel pyptr 
on -j jeappan. bolhpealp jenim jiibban • -j jeappan • 
■j bolhpunan nio]>opea]ibe • -j boccan -j ^ope pceapu 'j 
picef lytel • "j hunij pylle on butepan bo on f bolh 
})onne clsenfaS hit -j halaS. bolhj-ealp jentm jeappan 
•j Ifece pypt pyl on butepan. 

Sealp yip ];on f bolh ne pulije jemm bpeji J?e hiopan 
on peaxa]; ceop J^a jnnbe on f bolh ne pula]? hit. 
bolhpealp mebopypt niojwpeapb • lufcmoee • hope • eopoji 
peajm • pyl on hunije bo j^icce maxpyjit on jemanj. 
fol. 37 a. bolhbpenc • eopopj^jiote mopopeajib "j mebopypt eac fpa 

ajjiimonia nioj^opeajib "j upepeajib pyl on ealaj> ]>a, pypita 
jebijim mib jifte pele bjiincan. 

bolhbpenc jeacej- fujian pubu cuniUe jij^pipe • eopop- 
}>]iote ni])epeapbe cepc)jpote cnupa fmale bo on cealb 
pEetep jmb betpeoh lianbum afeoh J>uph cla8 pele 


marrow, lay it on the other marrow, bind it well up for ^'(^(^^ I-... 
a night. A wound salve : the lichen of hazel, and the 
netherward part of holly rind and githrife, pound the 
worts very well, mingle with butter, seethe thoroughly, 
skim off the foam, strain through a cloth very 
clean ; if the edges of the wound are too high,^ run 
them round with a hot iron very lightly, so that 
the skin may whiten. 

9. A wound salve : pound very thoroughly, gout- 
weed, mingle with butter, seethe thoroughl}^, and boil, 
and wring through a cloth, skim off the foam, salt it 
very well ; if the wound get foul, chew strailwort up- 
on it and yarrow. A wound salve: take ribwort and 
yarrow, and the netherward part of pellitory, and dock, 
and goose dung, and a little pitch, and honey, boil in 
butter, apply it to the wound, then it cleanseth and 
healeth. A wound salve : take yarrow and leechwort, 
boil in butter. 

1 0. A salve to the end that a wound may not foul : 
take briar, on which hips wax, that is, dog rose, chew 
the rind and let it drop on the wound, then it Avill 
not foul. A wound salve : the netherward part of 
meadow wort, lustmock, hove, everfern, boil in honey, 
add thick mashwort among them. A drink for wounds : 
the netherward part of everthroat, that is, cavline 
thistle, and meadow sweet, so also the nether and up- 
ward part of agrimony, boil the worts in ale, barm 
them with yeast, that is, introduce fermentation with 
yeast, administer to drink. 

11. A wound drink : pound small, cuckoo sour, 
wild cunila,^ cockle, the netherward part of carline 
thistle, ashthroat, put them into cold water, rub be- 
tween the hands, strain through a cloth, administer to 

' Probably, if the edges are likely to coalesce, before the parts that lie 

- Plinius, XX. 63. 

VOL. n. G 

98 LiECE BOC. 

bjimcan fcenc fulne nealitnejcij. bolhbjienc jiibbe 
nio|;epea]ib -j ufej^eapb • eoj:op];]iocan • -j seyc J?)iot;an 
niojjopeapbe cuiipa finale bo on peallenbe pajteji jnib 
becpeoli lianbum -j aj'eoli |ni]ili cla8 yele bjimcan. To 
gelcum bolje j'ealj: • ^efomna cue mefa cu mi5o]?a je- 
pyjice CO flynan ]>a fpa mon fapan j'ypcS micelne citel 
fulne • mill ]7onne apulboji jimbe 'j sej'C pmbe j-lali];o]in 
jimbe • -j piji pmbe • -j elm piinbe • 'j liolen jimbe • -j 
pi]>i5 jiiiibe -j jeonjjie ace • ]fealh junbe • bo J?a ealle on mi- 
celne cicel jeot: ]?a plynan on pyl fpi])e lanje • bo })onne 
op ]ja jimba pyl J>a plenan ]3 Ino fie ))icce bo fimle on 
foi .i: b. liTgppan citel fpa hio Isej'pe fie • jeor on yset ]7onne liio 

jenoli ]>icce fie • jetel |?oiine cealcfcan fpiSe -j jefamna 
poc -j afipc J^ujih claS "j ];one cealcfran eac on ]?a 
plynan fmijie mib f bolli. 6pc pij> ]?on ilcan jenim 
liopan -j jelobpypt 'j bjiune pypic -j lufcmocan cpioj) -j 
hapan fpjiecel pyl on butejian "j ppmj ponne op )?a 
pypta bo o]:>pe on • pibban • bipceoppypt jeajipan at- 
topla]?an bo ]:>a on j^a ilcan bucejian pyl epc fpiSe 
apjunj ])H op f bip 50b bollip^alp. 


J^eR fint laecebomaf y\]> selcep cynnef ofhum 'j 6n- 
peallum -j banco]mm ealica 'j tpenCij. 

Nim 5penep mepcef leap jejnib o]>])e jetpipula pi'ci 
ecebep bepfcan finipe mib ])y Jja pajian fcopa. pi]; 
omum utablejnebum ntm fuji molcen pyjic to cealjie -j 
l>e\) luib |;y cealjie, Uib omum ept jenim beojibpsefra -j 



drink a full draught to the sick caffcer his nights fasting.' Book T 
A wound drink : pound small the netherward and up- 
ward part of ribwort, carline thistle, and the netherward 
part of ashthroat, put them into boiling water, rub 
between the hands, and strain through a cloth, ad- 
minister to drink. A salve for every wound: collect 
cow dung, cow stale, work up a large kettle full into 
a batter as a man worketh soap, then take appletree 
rind, and ash rind, sloethorn rind, and myrtle rind, 
and elm rind, and holly rind, and withy rind, and the 
rind of a young oak, sallow rind, put them all in a 
mickle kettle, pour the batter upon them, boil very 
long, then remove the rinds, boil the batter so that it 
be thick, put it ever into a less kettle as it groweth 
less, pour it, when it is thick enough, into a vessel, 
heat then a calcareous stone thoroughly, and collect 
some soot, and sift it through a cloth with the quick- 
lime also into the batter, smear the wound therewith. 
Again for the same, take hove and silverweed and browai- 
wort, and a bunch of the flowers of "lustmock," and 
vipers bugloss, boil in butter and wring the worts off, 
and put others in, ribwort, bishopwort, yarrow, atter- 
lothe, put them into the same butter, boil again strongly, 
wring these off" ; that will be a good wound salve. 


1. Here are leech doms for erysipelatous inflammations 
of every sort, and fellons, and leg diseases of every 
sort ; eight and twenty in number. 

2. Take leaves of green marche, rub or bruise them 
with the lees of vinegar, smear with that the sore 
places. For erysipelas which hath broken into blains, 
take sour curds, work them to a chalder, and foment with 
the chalder. For erysipelatous inflammations again, take 

' Ne)t;i5 must be understood as najTrijum. 

G 2 

100 L^CE BOO. 

fapan "j sejef f hpite -j ealbe 3)iuc leje on pi]? omena 
jefpelle, pi]? omena jebepfce Sitte on cealbum p^ecejie 
fol. 38 a. o}* f lii"^ abeabob fie teoli ]?onne tip yleali ]jonne peopep 

fceappan ymb J»a poccaf utan -j Iset yjman ]3 fncce ]?e 
luc pille ; pypic |?e pealpe ]?up • Nim bjiune pypc -j mepfc 
nieap jeallan 'j peabe netlan pyl on butepan -j fmipe 
mib -j bej»e mib |;am ileum pypcum. 

^ V^]^ W^ ilcan jenim anjolcp^eccean jejnib fpi];e bo 
eceb CO "j on bmb *j fmipe mib. pi]? ]?on ilcan jemm 
lapinan jnib to bufce -j menj pi]? hunij -j fmipe mib. 
UiS ])on ilcan jenim jebpaebbe fejpu menj pi5 ele 
leje on -j be]?e fpiiSe mib betan leapum. Gpr jemm 
cealpej- fceapn o]']?e ealbep h]iy]?epef peapm -j leje on. 
Qf-c pi]? }?on jemm heopotep fceapo]?an op pelle afcapen 
mib pumice -j pefe mib ecebe 'j fmipe mib. 6ptr jenim 
eopopep jeallan jip ]?u nsebbe mm o]?pe]' fpinej- ^ejnib 
•j fmijie mib J>y ]?fep hit faji fie. pi}? pon ilcan jemm 
fpealpan neft bpec mib ealle apej --j jebaepn mib fceapne 
mib ealle -j jnib to bufte menj pi]? eceb "j fmipe mib. 
fol. 38 h. piS ])on ilcan jehset cealb psetep mib hatan ipene -j be]?e 

jelome mib ]?y. pi]? Latum omum • mm betonican -j 
pepmob -j pmul jnib on eala *j jiebic pele liim bpincan. 
])]]> liatum omum liim pen omppan -j ]?a fmalan clatan 
j>yl on jate meolce *j fupe. pi]? hatum omum mm 

' Plinius Valerianus, fol. 76, d, for eight lines. 



dregs of beer, aud soap, and the white of an egg, and 
old groats, lay tliis on against erysipelatous swellings. 
Against bursting of erysipelatous inflammations, let 
the man sit in cold water till the sore becometh 
numbed, then get him up, then strike four scarifying 
slashes about the pocks on the outside, and let the 
lymph run as it will. Work thyself a salve thus : 
take brown"v^'ovt, and marsh gall, or marsh gentian, 
and red nettle, boil in butter, and smear and bathe 
with the same worts. 

3. For the same, take an earthworm,' rub it tho- 
roughly fine, add vinegar to it, bind it on and smear 
therewith. For the same, take savine, rub to dust, and 
mingle with honey and smear therewith. For the same, 
take roasted eggs, mingle with oil, lay on, and foment 
freely witli leaves of beet. Again, take a calfs sharn, 
that is clung, or an old bullocks, still warm, and lay 
it on. Again for this same, take harts shavings, shaven 
off the fell or skin with pumice, and wash, that is 
maceraie, with vinegar and smear therewith. Again, 
take a boars gall, if thou have not that, take gall of 
another swine, rub and smear with that where it is 
sore. For that ilk, take a swallows nest, break it 
away altogether, and burn it with its dung and all, 
and rub it to dust, mingle witli vinegar and smear there- 
with. For tlie same, heat cold water with a hot iron, 
and bathe frequently with that. For hot er3^sipelatous 
humours, take betony, and wormwood, and fennel, 
rub them into ale, and radish ivith tJt.em, give the 
mixture to the sick man to drink. For hot erysipe- 
latous humours, take fen ompre, that is ivater dock, 
and the small clote, that is, cleavers, boil in goats 
milk and sup. Against hot erysipelatous humours, 

Book I. 
Cli. xxxix. 

' Bjorn Haldorson mentions this 
treatment : the earthworm is called 
A'mumadkr (read ma'Skr), because 
erysipelas is usually cured by it ; 

" his lumbricis probari et curari 
" soleat, cum applicati marcescant 
" et moriantur." (On A'mumadkr.) 
A'ma is the Ome of the text. 

102 LiECE BOC. 

Imnan "j epelafran -j alexanbpian "j betomcan "j cele- 
];onian -j ceplicej- ysdb bpmce on pme. Sealj: mm 
ellenef blofrman -j j^one cpop pyl on butejian *j fmipe 
mib • jij: hit pille pypfman fmipe mib sejef jeolcan opep 
fmipe mib Jjy -j bpije to jlebum o]? p hit heajib fie 
Jjpeah ]7onne apej "j fmipe ept mib ])se]\e ]*ealpe. pi]? 
hatum omum mm pmef bpseftan menj pij) hpeap rejjiu 
■j mib pe]7epe fmit on -j ne ]?peah sep hit hal fie. 
Pi}» feonbtim omum mm cneopholen micle sep oSpum 
mete bpejhpam to ]'am bolje • "j hjiyj^epef jeallan 
humj fot • bo tofomne lacna mib. pij> j7on ilcan f ly 
ptc • hiftmoce ]7a cpoppihtan ntm to baj>e -j jebfejme 
to j'ealpe pulpef ceacan |?a pmefcpan 'j j^a te]? funbo]^ 
fol. 39 a. menj pi8 humje -j fmipe mib -j peppcne cyj'e on leje 

menj ]5 oj7ep jnS meoluce fupe })py mo'^jenaf nijon 
fupan. pi]? banco]?e p ip oman mm ni^ontyne fnseba 
eolonan -j nyjon ontpan -j enblepan peabej- fecjef bo 
on eala -j bjnnc micle jep ]?onne J>u ete • -j ])a eolonan 
ane feo"S o]? f hio meppe fie cnupa tofomne fmipe mib 
])0ep ut plea, bpenc pi]? onpeallum cymeb • pipoji • coft • 
mepcep preb • ceafceji pypte fseb cnua pel bo on eala. 
bpenc pi]? onpeallum • cnua on eala o]?}?e jefeoS cele- 
}?onian -j heah hiolo]?an bifceop pypt 5y])]iipan. bjienc 
pi}) onpeallum • fijponte • cipe • leac • ]>e5bpsebe nio)?o- 
peajib • pyl ealle on pretpe -j jefpet mib humje. bjienc 
pi]) ]>on mm })a fmalan cla3pe}i pypt mo]>opea]ibe ])yl on 
ealo}? oSbe on beope. bpenc pi]> onpealle pyl on ealoS 


1. xxxix. 


take horchound, and everlasting, and alexanders, and ^P'*"'^ \ 
betony, and celandine, and charlock seed, drink them 
in wine. A salve : take blooms of elder, and the croi>, 
or bunch or umbel, boil them in butter, and smear 
therewith ; if it will, that is, if it shew a tendency to 
form ratten or 2mrident matter, smear with yolk of 
egg ; smear over with that, and dry it by gledes, or hot 
coals, till that it be hard, then wash away and smear 
again with the salve. For hot erysipelatous eruptions, 
take dregs of wine, mingle with raw eggs, and with a 
feather smudge it on, and wash not till the place he 
hole. For oozing erysipelatous blains, take knee holly, 
that is, butchers broom, much ere other meat, daily 
for the wound, and put together bullocks gall, honey, 
soot; cure therewith. For the same, that is, for the 
disease called fig, take for a bath that sort of "lust- 
mock " which bearetli crops or flower bunches, and 
for a salve, burn a wolfs jaw, the left one, and the 
teeth apart, mingle with honey and smear therewith, 
and lay on fresh cheese, mingle the other ingredient^ 
with milk, sup for three mornings nine sips. For leg 
disease, that is hot red blains, take nineteen snips of 
helenium, and nine of " ontre," and eleven of red sedge, 
put them in ale and drink much ere than thou eat; and 
seethe the helenium alone till that it be tender, pound 
together, smear therewith where the disease may bo 
striking out. A drink for fellons ; cummin, pepper, 
costmary, seed of marche, seed of black hellebore, pound 
well, put into ale. A drink or potion for fellons ; 
pound in ale or seethe celandine, and elecampane, 
bishop wort, githrife. A drink for fellons ; sigsonte, 
onion, leek, the netherward part of waybroad, boil all 
in water and sweeten with honey. A drink for that ; 
take the netherward part of the small cloverwort, boil 
in ale or in beer. A drink for fellons ; boil in ale 

' What other ingredient is not clear by the grammatical construction. 

fol. 39 b. 

104 L^CE BOC. 

j-'inujlan bij'ceoppijit heali hiolojje. bpenc pi]? 6n):ealle 
pyl on ealaS Ippmj pyjit o]>])e on beope. bpenc epc piS 
onpealle pyl on eala]? cjiopleac bpeopje bpofclan pypm 
pyptr. bpenc fip onpealle mepce at;copla];e • betoce •' 
pube . fecj • ontpe • clare • bipceop pypt jepypc on 
eala"S. 6fc pi]? onpealle jemm asr ppuman haeplenne 
fciccan o]>]>e ellenne ppic J?inne naman on apleali ])]\y 
pceappan on ^epylle mib ])y blobe j^one naman peopj) 
ope] I eaxle op]?e berpeoh ]?eoh on ypnenbe pjietep -j 
franb opeji ]?one man ];a pceappan aj'lea "j f eall fpi- 
jmbe jebo. 

PrS onpealle jepoli pox apleah op cucum }>one cuxl 
Itet hleapan apej bmb on nsepce hapa ]7e on. 


^ Pi]> p6c able • onjieb hampypt • nio]?opea]ib • pelbmope 

nij^epeapb onpebep empela -j ]7apa o]7eppa tpejea pelb- 
luojian liealpe l^oppe Jjonne hampypte cnnpa fpiSe to 
lumne bo liluctoji ealu ^ }>a pypca opepfcije • Ifet fcau- 
ban ]?]ieo niht pele j'cenc pulne on mopjen. bjienc piS 
poc able ]'yl psetep on cjioccan bo liunij on pleot fimle 
foJ. 40 a. \) pam op o]> f lut nelle ma pseman • flip ]?onne "j bpmc 

opt "j jelome fj\a ]n liatofc maeje *j mib ]7f hunije 
fViiijie ])a3]i hit iitjlea on ]?one poc ne bi]? pona nan 
tcona. Sealp pi]? poc able pyl on burepan fmjpenan • 
jeappe • 5y]?)iipe peabpe netelan cpop. bpenc pi]? poccum 

Kead beconice. 



fennel, bishop wort, elecampane. A drink for a f'ellon; 
boil in ale or in beer springwort. A drink again for 
a fellon ; boil in ale cropleek, penny royal, wormwort. 
A drink for fellons ; marclie, attorlothe, betony, rue, 
sedge, " ontre," clote, bishop wort, work tlieim up in 
ale. Again for fellons, take, to begin, a hazel or an 
elder stick or spoon, write thy name thereon, cut three 
scores on the place, fill the name with the blood, throw 
it over thy shoulder or between thy thighs into run- 
ning water and stand over the man. Strike the scores, 
and do all that in silence. 

For fellon, catch a fox, strike oflf from him ivliilc 
quick, that is alive, the tusk, or canine tooth, let the 
fox run away, bind it in a fawns skin, have it upon 

Book I. 
Ch. xxxix. 


For pock disease,' use " onred," liouseleek, the nether 
part of it, fieldmore, the nether part of it; of "onred" 
an equal quantity, and of the two others Ijy half less 
of the fieldmore or carrot than of the houseleek, 
pound them thoroughly togetlier, add so much clear 
ale as may mount above the worts ; let them stand 
three nights, administer in the morning a cup full. 
A drink for pock disease ; boil water in a crock, add 
honey, skim continually the foam away till it will 
foam no more ; then sip and drink oft and whilom 
as thou hottest may, and smear with the honey where 
it may be breaking out into the pock, soon there will 
be no mischief. A salve for pock disea,se ; boil in 
butter singreen, yarrow, githrife, the crop, or floiver 
head, of red nettle. A drink against pocks ; bishop 

^Smallpox. The disease was un- 
known in classical medicine ; it 
appeared in France in 565, A.D., 
and in Arabia in 572, A.D. The 

Arabic physician Razi treats of it 
in a separate monograf about 92.3, 
A.D., not long before this copy of 
the Leech Book was ^Titten out. 



bifceop pyjit • acco]\la]>an • fppiD;z;py]it • clatan nio]?e- 
peajibe on ealaS jepojibc. pi]^ poccum i'piSe I'ceal mon 
blob Isetan -j bjimcan ainylce butepan boUaii fulne • 
jip hie utylean selcne man fceall ape^ abelpan mib 
]70]me • -j |>onne pm oSSe aloji ' bpenc bpype on mnan 
fionne ne beoS liy jefyne. 

])i]> poccum jentm jlofpypt apyl on buuepan "j fmipe 

fol. -lo b. 

yi\> mnan onpealle neejlsep- hatte pypt fu}>e]mo l"io 
bi^ 30b to ecanne pi]? mnan onpelle on niht nej'tij. 
pi]) mnan onjzealle pyl elonan eluhtpan on ealaS bpinc 
liatef bollan pulne. Gft pyptbpenc op j'ejimobe beto- 
nican • op j^fepe pupan j^e^bji^eban bpmce pela nihca. 
PiJ? ]>se]\e ^eolpan able • hune • bifceop pypt • helbe • 
hope meii^e pa tojsebepe bo selcpe jobe hanb pulle 
maxpypte bo to pope ambeji pulne -j to ftanbsepe 
bj^phomaji • hune pepmob. StanbseJ?^ bpmce bpenc op 
ompjian op pme -j op psetpe • jefpete fpi'Se. 


^ Op ^eal able lio bip op psepe jeolpan • cymep jpeat 
ypel fio bi]? ealpa abla picufc • ponne ^epeaxeS on innan 
unjemec psetan pip fmt tacn • ^ him fe lichoma eall 
abicepa^ -j ajeolpaS fpa 50b feoluc • 'j him beo8 imbep 
cun^an tulje fpeapte sebjia -j ypele -j htm bi5 micje 
jeolu • la3t lum op lunjen a^bjie blob pele him opt 
fcypjenbne bjienc fcanbaSu jelome. ^Pyjic him Sonne 

' Aloji, alnus glutinosa, has no 
medical properties. Probably the 
AlnixHuigrajnow Bhamnus franyula, 
Spjiacen, was meant by the Latin 
author copied. 

' Read cunsDj^lserre, cynoglossum. 
' By 8tanbae)> understand Sran- 
bee)'b]ienc, or amend thus. 
' "iKrepos. 

* Cf. Plinius Valerianus, fol. 61 d. 


wort, attorlothe, spriiigwort, the nctlierward part of Book i. 
clote, or burdock, worked up in ale. Against pocks, a ^'" 

man shall freely employ bloodletting and drink melted 
butter, a bowl full of it : if they break out one must 
delve away each one of tliGin with a thorn ; and then 
let him drip wine or alder drink within them, then 
they will not be seen, or no traces will remain. 

Against pocks : take glovewort, boil in butter, and 
smear therewith. 


For inward fellon, there is a southern wort hight 
cynoglosson, which is good to eat against inward fellon, 
at night fasting. Against inward fellon, boil heleniuni 
and lupins in ale, drink a bowl full of the hot infusion. 
Again, a wort drink from wormwood and betony, and 
from the rough waybroad or 'plaintain, let him drink 
it many nights. For the yellow disorder, or jaundice, 
/lorehound, bishop wort, tansy, earth ivy, mingle them 
together, of each employ a good handful, add of mash- 
wort, for an infusion an amber full, and for a stone 
bath use dithhomar, or "papyrus, horehound, and worm- 
wood. A stone bath; that must he, to use ivith a stone 
hath ; let the oimn drink a drink from ompre or sorrel, 
from wine and from water ; sweeten thoroughly. 


From gall disease, that is from the yellow jaundice, 
Cometh great evil ; it is of all diseases most powerful, 
when there wax within a man, unmeasured humours ; 
these are the tokens : that the patients body all be- 
coraeth bitter and as yellow as good silk ; and under 
the root of his tongue there be swart veins and perni- 
cious, and his urine is yellow. Let him blood from the 
lung vein, give him often a stirring drink, stone baths 

108 L.ECE BOC. 

fcilne bpenc op omjijian on pme 'j on j^setjie -j on jjam 
baSe jehpilce mopjene bjunce mylfce bpmcan fio jebet 
)?a bitepneype psep jeallan. 


foi. 41a. ^ Pi]? psetep boUan betomcan fpilce anef penmjep je- 

pasje on peapmum psecepe jmbe bpnice ])py bajap jelce 
bsej jobne bollan j:u]ne. Gy~ jemm sepcppotan oJ)|?e 
pealpypce pyccpuman jjsep peapep peopep cuclepap pnlle 
jebo on bollan pulne jnnef fele bpmcan. 


Pi]7 canceji able f ip bire ♦ ]*u]ie • peak • pibbe • 
fej • poc . jebsepneb lam • hpaecep fmebma menj piS 
je^pu mebopypt; sepeppe acpmb • apulbop pmb • ]lali 
|7opn pnibe • ^ip pe bice peaxe on men jej^ijic nijme 
cealjie -j leje on cl?enpa^ j?a punbe mib. 

])i]) cancepe on C3^pepenum paste jebaejm Ipepl je- 
jnib to bufce fpa }in fmalofc mreje "j apipc ]ni)ili claS 
men5 piS ealbe fapan -j pie fpepl picpa bo luinijej' 
ceapep mebmicel to'^ fceape • ^ip to ftiS fie ]>£em mib ]yf 
hunije leje on jeopmen leap J)onne bit hahje ]'yl on 
butepan jeacep fupan -j fmjpenan "j pubupopan fmipe 
foi. 41 b. niib J7a oppap j^sep hit jieabije Iset ]?a o^pe j-ealpe clasn- 

iian f bolli ne bo nan paetep to, Sealp pi]? cancjie • 
jemm cu meoluc bucan ppetejie l?et )7eop]?an to pletum 
5e]?pe]i to butepan ne paspc on pjetpe. Ntm fijel- 
hpeoppan ]?a fmalan unprej'cene bo clsene cnua fpiSe 
5emen5 pel pi^ J)?epe butepan bo on pannan opeji pyji 
apyl fpiSe apeoli pel ]?u]ih claS lacna mib ]?y, ]7i]) canceji 
able • ac pmb on no]i]?an cpeope be eo]i]?an • -j mebo- 

I "rdp(ii\p. j ^ Supply a point after to, not in 

- clsej-na, MS. I MS. Kead J^sen. 


often. Work him then a composing drink of sovrel in Book I. 
wine and in water, and in the bath, every morning, 
let him drink a mulled draught ; it will amend the 
bitterness of the gall. 


For dropsy, rub betony, as much as a penny weight, 
in warm water, let tlie patient drink for three days, 
each day, a good bowl full. Again, take of the juice 
of the roots of ashthroat or of dwarf elder four spoons 
full, put them into a bowl full- of wine, give them to 
drink to the patient. 


1. Against the disease cancer, that is, bite : sorrel, 
salt, ribwort, egg, soot, burnt loam, smede or fine flour 
of wheat ; mingle with eggs, meadow sweet, " fieferth," 
oak rind, appletree rind, sloethorn rind : if the cancer 
wax on a man, work up some new chalder and la}' 
on ; cleanse the wound thei'ewith. 

2. Against cancer ; burn sulfur in a copper vessel, 
rub it to dust, as small as thou may, and sift through 
a cloth, mingle with old soap, and let the sulfur pre- 
dominate, add a moderate quantity of virgin honey ; 
see if it be, too stiff, moisten it witli the honey ; lay on 
a mallow leaf; when it healeth, boil in butter cuckoo 
sour and singreen and woodroffe, smear therewith the 
borders, where it is red ; make the other salve cleanse 
the wound, put no water. A salve for cancer ; take 
cows milk, without water, make it become cream, turn 
it to butter, wash it not in water. Take the small 
turnsole unwashen, make it clean, pound it thoroughly, 
mix it well with the butter, put it into a pan over 
the fire, boil it thoroughly, strain well through a cloth, 
cure therewith. Against disease of cancer : oak rind 
on the north side of the tree by the earth, and the 

110 LiECE BOC. 

pypt nioJ>epeapb • jepejiSe ni]pepea)ib • cunejiseppe nio- 
}>opeapb • bo ealpa empela jecnua to bufce • bo lienne 
fejep f hpite to • -j hunij bo bejea empela jemen^ 
piS J?am bufciim cla^m on Sone eancep ne bo nan 
p?etep to. 


yi]) attpe bpencaf "j Isecebomaf • betonican mepce • 
pejnnob • pmul • pebic • cnua on ealaS j-ele bjiincan. 
piS attjie betonican "j ]?a fmalan attopla];an bo on 
halij psetep bpinc f pseteji -j et ];a pypta. Ui5 selcum 
attjie • pebic "j elate ete eep ne msej ]>e nan man attpe 
fol. 42 a. apypban. PI'S selcum attpe bipceoppypt ni];epeapb -j 

elehtjie • -j fppmj pypt nio]?epeajib eo):opJ?potan • "j 
clatan • apyl on ealaS pele bpmcan jelome. jtp nreb- 
b]ie j-lea man pone blacan fnejl apsepc on halij psBtpe 
pele bpmcan o]>])e hpset hpeja ] sep ];e fjiam fcottum 
come. 6pt pejbjiteban jejnib fpipe bpmc on pine. 
Pi]; nsebpan bite betonican ^te ]>\iy penejaf jepeje bo 
on ]>]\y boUan pulle pmef pele bpmcan. 

Pi]? nsebpan bite ept ptfleape appunjenu -j \>\\> ptn 
jemenjeb 30b bij> to bpincanne. Yip nsebpan bite ept 
celejjonie jetpipulabe bjunce on nealit neptij • ill. 
bollan jrulle. pi]> nsebpan pleje fppmjpypc • atoplaj^an • 
eopopppocan • bipceoppyjit ]'ypc to bpence. 

Pi|) |)on ])e mon Jncje atoji • jenim pa. bajian hunan 
jepypc micelne bsel *j nsebeppypte cnua tojsebepe -j 
ppmj f peap bo pmef }jpie mel on ^j pele bpmcan. 
yip nsebpan plite ntm pejbpseban • ^ ajpimonian • -j 
nsebbep pypt pele jejnibene on pme bpmcan • -j pypc 
fol. 42 b. pealpe op ]?am ileum pyptum • -j mm |^a ajjiimonian 

Ch. xliv, 


netherward part of meadow sweet, the netherwavd part Book i. 
of "feferthe," the netherward part of cynoglosson, em- 
ploy of all equal quantities, pound to dust, add thereto 
the white of a hens egg, and honey, employ equal 
quantities of the two, mingle with the dusts, clam or 
maJ^e it cling on the cancer, put no water to it. 


1. Drinks or 'potio7is and leechdoms against poison. 
Pound in ale betony, marche, wormwood, fennel, radish ; 
administer this to drink. Against poison ; put in hoi}' 
water betony and the small atterlothe, drink the water 
and eat the worts. Against any poison ; eat ere the 
danger cometh radish and clote ; no man may then do 
thee a mischief with poison. Against any poison ; boil 
the netherward part of bisliopwort and lupin, and the 
netherward part of springwort, everthroat, and clote 
in ale ; give to drink frequently. If an adder strike 
a man, or for whatever of that which cometh of shots, 
wash the black snail in holy water, give to the sich 
to drink. Again, rub waybroad thoroughly fine, drink 
it in wine. For bite of snake, put so much of betony 
as may weigh three pennies into three bowls full of 
wine, give it the man to drink. 

2. For bite of snake again ; cinqfoil wrung and min- 
gled with wine is good to drink. For bite of snake 
again; celandine bruised, at night fasting, let the man 
drink three bowls full. For adders wound, work eu- 
forbia, attorlothe, stemless carline, ammi, into a drink. 

3. In case a man swallow poison, take then hore- 
hound, work up a mickle deal of it, and adder wort, 
pound them together and wring the juice, pour thereon 
three measures of wine and give this to the poiso7ied 
man to drink. For hurt from snake ; take waybroad, 
and agrimony, and adderwort, administer them rubbed 
up in wine to be drunk ; and work up a salve of the 

112 L^CE ROC. 

jepyjic anne hpmj ymb ];one j-lice ucan ne ofepfciliS 
hit }:up}'op • "j bmb ]?a pypce ept opeji ]3 bolh. Pi]j 
nasbjian yle^e bo op }>inum eajian ]3 ceojio -j fmipe niib 
ymb *j fmj j^pipa Jjsep haljan See lohannep jebeb -j 


From the beup meup et pateji et piliup et fpipitup Sanctup, 

Assumptio sci ^111 omnia ]-ubiecca funt. Cui cm nip cpeatnijia be- 
lohaunis Seuuic ec ommr pocercai- rubiecta eSc et mecuic ec 

apostoli. J \. PI 1 

expauej'cit et bpaco pujic ec lilic uipepa et jiubeta 
ilia que bicitup pana quieca toppepcit et pcoppiuS ex- 

^phalangiusAl. j-ijij^j-uj^ et pejulup iimcituji et fpelaiu]"'^ nihil iioxmm 
opepatup et omnia uenenata et abhuc pepociopa pepen- 
tia^ et animaha noxia te iiepentup" et omnej- abueppe 
Saluti^ humane pabicep ajiepount. Tu bomme extinjue 
hoc uenenatum uipuf extmjue opepatjonef eiuf mopti- 
pepaf et uipef quaf In ye habet euacua et ba In con- 
fpectu tuo omnibuf quof tu cpeaftj • oculof ut uibeant 
aujiep ut aubiant cop ut majnitubmem tuam Intelle- 

fol. 43 a. jant '* et cum hoc bixij'j'et totum femet jpfum fijno 

cpuci]' apmauit et bibit totum quob epat In cahce • 
pep pijnum Sancte cpucif • et pep te xpe ihu et^ 
beo fummo patpe umiS faluatop munbi In umtate 
fpipitup Sancti pep omnia Ssecula Sseculopum amen ; 

])i]) pleojenbum atpe "j selcum jetejmum fpile • on 
ppijebseje ajjpep butepan J^e fie jemolcen op anej- bleoj- 
nytne o1S^e hinbe • 'j ne fie pi]? p?etpe jemenjeb • 
aj-mj opep nijon fi]?um letania • "j mjon pi]?um patep 
noptep • -j nijon fi]?um J>ip jealbop • Acpse • sepcpse • 
fepnem • nabpe • gepcuna hel • sepnem • nijjsepn • ?ep • 
afan • buipme • abcpice • sepnem • meobpe • sepnem • 
jejjejm • sepnem • allu • honop • ucuf • ibap • abcept • 
cunolaju • paticamo • helse • icap xpita • hsele • tobsept 
tejia • pueh • cui • pobatep • plana • mil • '^ beah to 

' pepentje, MS. i ' -gunc, MS. 

^ tenebancuji, MS. ^ Supply cum. This doxology is 

^ abiK'ri'e SaluciS, MSS. | an addition, not in the legend. 


same worts, and then take agrimony, form a ring ai-ound Book T. 
the incision on the outside, (lie mischief will proceed no *"'' '''^" 
further, and bind the wort also over the sore. For 
stroke of viper, remove from thine ears the wax and 
smear around therewith, and say thrice the prayer 
of Saint John. 

4. Dominus mens et pater et fdius et spiritus sanctus ; 
cui omnia subiecta sunt ; cui omnis creatmu deservit 
et omnis potestas subiecta est et metuit et expavescit; 
et draco fugit, et silet vipera, et rubeta ilia qu?e dicitur 
rana quieta torpescit, et scorpius extinguitur et regulus 

tho. hcLfiU he \mc\iviY et o-TrijAajoj^ nihil noxium opera- ^ The tarantula 

tur, et omnia venenata et adhuc ferociora, repentia et i^*^,^ ^'"^ '" '? 

. ^ hole watching 

anmialia noxia, te verentur ; et omnes adversse saluti for prey. 

human?e radices arescunt ; tu, domine, extingue hoc ve- 

nenatum virus, extingue operationes eius mortifera,s, et 

vires, quas in se habet, evacua, et da in conspectu tuo 

omnibus quos tu creasti, oculos ut videant, aures ut au- 

diant, cor ut magnitudinem tuam intelligant. Et cum 

hoc dixisset, totum semet ipsum signo crucis armavit, 

et bibit totum quod erat in calice : per signum sancttc 

crucis, et per te Christe lesu, qui cum, domino summo 

patre vivis, salvator mundi, in unitate Spiritus Sancti, 

per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. 

5. For flying venom and every venomous swelling, 
on a Friday churn butter, which has been milked from 
a neat or hind all of one colour ; and let it not be 
mingled Avith water, sing over it nine times a litany, 
and nine times the Pater noster, and nine times this 
incantation. The charm is said in the tahle of contents 
to be Scottish, that is Gaelic,^ but the ivord.s themselves 
seem to belong to no known language. That is valid 

' Or Gadhelic, or Irish. An early I as not Scotland, occurs in TIClfrics 
instance of the mention of Ireland, 1 Homilies, vol. ii. p. .T JG. 


114 LMCE BOa 

[Blciim -j liujiu CO beopum boljum. Sume an j^ojib piS 
nrebjian bire IsejuaS co cpe])enne f ip fanl ne mrej liim 
bejuan. ])i^ nveh]\ai\ yhte 31]: he bejefc "j yt pmbe fio 
pe cyniS oj: neojixna pon^e ne bepeS him nan atteji • 
fol. 43 b. J>onne cpoe]; pe pe ]?ap boc ppat p hio psejie tO]i 


Ttp lipa bjiince pypm on poetejie op fniSe fceap paSe 
bjnnce hax: p j'ceapep blob. Tip mon fie jyjituin poji- 
bojien pele fpjimjpypt p he ete -j hahj pasteji pupe. 
]}\]) }Jon ]>e mon fie popbopen • jip lie hsey]? on him 
fcyttifc peax • J^a fmalan attoplaSan o^^e on ajjylbnm 
ealaS bjnnce ne msej hme pyptum popbepan. 

• XLVI. 


qIP ana p3^]im on men peaxe • fraijie mib prepe blacan 
pcalpe jip he nt pnjih ete -j ]>ypel jepypce • jentm 
hnni^ep bjiopan bpype on j^ast pyjiel • hapa ]>onne je- 
bpocen ^Isep jeapa jejpunben fceab on p pypel ponne 
pona fpa he J^rep onbipij^ ponne fpilt he. Sealp piS 
anapypme • ]nif mon j-ceal pypcean. Tentm qiimque- 
polian p ip pipleape* .puban pyl on butejian ^efpet mib 

bpenc qumquepolian p ip pipleape pele on ealaS bpm- 
can pipitij nihta. bpenc ]>iS ];on prebicef fj©b -j caulep 
jnib on eala o]>])e on pm bjimce yi]) anapyjime lanje -j 
jelome op f pel fie. Clam yip ];on ])a jieaban tijelan 
fcl. 44 a. jecnnpa to biifce -^emenj ]nt> 5]iut abjiaeb cicel leje on 

]) bolli ]'y]ic o]H;pne ;5ip J^'ajip fie. 


for every, even for deep wounds. Some teacli us against Book I. 
bite of adder to speak one word, that is, Faul;' it Cii. xlv. 
may not linrt him. Against bite of snake, if the oiian 
procures and eateth rind, which cometli out of paradise, 
no venom will damage him. Then said he that wrote 
this book, that the rind was liard gotten. 

6. If one drink a creeping thing in water, let him 
cut into a sheep instantly, let him drink the sheeps 
blood liot. If a man be "restrained" with worts," give 
him springwort for him to eat, and let him sup up 
holy water. Incase that a man be "withheld;" if he 
hath on him Scottish wax, and the small atterlothe ; 
or let him drink it in boiled ale, he may not be 
" restrained " by worts. 


1. If 0ns worm ^ grow in a man, smear with the " See Glos- 
l)lack salve. If tJie worm eat through to the outside ^^'^^' 
and make a hole, take a drop of honey, di'op it on the 

hole, then have broken glass ready ground, shed it on 
the hole, then as soon as the worm tastes of this he 
will die. A salve against an 0ns worm, thus shall a 
man work it : take cinquefoil, that is five leaved grass, 
and rue, boil them in Ijutter, sweeten with honey. 

2. A drink; administer in ale cinquefoil, that is five 
leaved grass, or 'potentilla, to drink for thirty nights. 
A drink for that ; rub ' down into ale or into wine 
seed of radish and of colewort, let the man drink that 
long and frequently against 0ns worm, till that Ids 
case be bettered. A plaster for the same : pound to 
dust a red tile or hrick, mingle with groats, bake a 
cake, ky it on the wound ; work another ];>laster if 
need be. 

' Cf. " Duo," to drive away scor- I - From hajnieb)niis. See yoiibe« 
pious, Plinius, lib. xxviii. 5. | jian in Glossary. 

H 2 

U6 L^.CE P.OC. 


Lgecebomaf ]'i5 |ieo]iabliim • reycjnnb • sejpan jiinh • 
elm jmib • cpicjnnb • fio micle popjnj uerle nio]:»opea]ib • 
pepniob • InnbhioloSe • befopeaba ]ja pmba ealle iitan *j 
j^ecnua fpi) e p}^ tofomne • bo ealpa empela op jeot 
nnb hlutujie ealo]; \vex: fcanban ];one bpenc nihtejnie 
on pate sd]\ mon Line bpmcan pille • bpince on mop- 
jenne fcenc pulne J'lj'ep bjiencep • to mibbep mepi^enef 
fcanbe eaft peajib 'j bebeobe hme jobe -^eopiihce -j liine 
jepenije cyjipe hiue fun;j;on5ep ymb {epteji J^am bjieiice 
;;^an;t;e pij^J^an -j ftanbe fume lipile ve]\ lie Iniie jiefte 
jeoce fpa micel on fpa lie J^seji op bo • bjiince jnpne 
bjienc nijon nilit -j Jncje fpilcne mete fpa he pille. 
b)ienc pj]^ ]7eo]iable • funb' oinpjian ymb help fmj ]?pipa 
pateji ]i]i • bjieb up p>onne ]?u cpe];e fet - libepa nof a 
malo . j^enim J'jepe pip fiifieba -j feopon pipoji cojm 
jecnua tojsebejie 'j j'onne ]m f pypce fmj .xii. fi|pura 
fol. 441). ])0iie pealm • mipejiepe mei beup • -j jlopia In excelpif 

beo • 'j patep nopteji • opjeoc J>onne nub pine ];onne brej 
•j nilit pcabe*^ bjunce ]>onne ]7one bpenc *j beppeoli 6e 
peapme, Tenim Jjonne hinb hiolopan ane^ 6p7;eot mib 
yrete]\e bjiince o]?]ie mojijne fcenc pulne |?onne o]>pe 
]-i])e feopon fiifeba -j iiijon pipojicopn • ];pibban pipe 
1115011 fnreba -j xi. pipojicojin. 6]iinc pij>)\an fpi<Sne bjienc 
pepe pille up yjinan 'j op biine • l?et ponne blob unbeji 

' Head fiipe ? { ' At morning tM'iliglit. 

- That is. I'ch ; the MSS. usually | ' Some Avords nvc here, it seems, 
set. I omitted. 

LEECH i;0OK. (. 117 


1. Leechdoms for '"dry" diseases;'^ ash rind, aspen 


Book I. 
Oil. xlvii. 

rind, elm rind, (piickbeaui rind, the netherwai'd i>art ' ^^ °^" 

of the niickle highway nettle, wormwood, hindheal, 
that is, luater agrimony, empurple all the rinds on the 
outside, and pound them thoroughly, boil them togetlun-, 
apply equal quantities of all, souse them with elear ale, 
then let the drink stand for the space of a night in a 
vessel, before a man shall choose to drink it. Let him 
in the morning drink a cup full of this drink ; in the 
middle of the morning hours,' let him stand towards 
the east, let him address himself to God earnestly, and 
let him sign himself with the sign of the cross, let 
him also turn himself about as the sun goeth fivrii 
east to south and west ; after the drink let him next 
go and stand some while ere he repose himself; let 
him pour as much liqmd into the vessel as he removes 
from it : let him drink this potion for nine nights and 
eat what meat he will. A drink for the "dry" disease ; 
delve about sour ompre, that is, sorrel dock, sing 
thrice the Pater noster, jerk it up, then while thou 
sayest sed libera nos a malo, take five slices of it 
and seven pepper corns, bray them together, and while 
thou be working it, sing twelve times the psalm 
Miserere mei, deus, and Gloria in excelsis deo, and 
the Pater noster, then pour the stuff all over with 
wine, when day and night divide, then drink the dose 
and wrap thyself up warm. Then take hindheal alone, 
souse it with water, drink the next morning a cu}) 
full, then the next time seven slices and nine pepper 
corns, the third time nine slices and eleven pepper 
corns ; afterwards drink a strong potion which will 
run up and adown ; ^ then let blood below the ancle. 

1 This .should be read as be- o'clock. The middle will be about 
ginuing the morning at dawn, and seven on the average, 
ending it at unbejm, our nine I ■ Purgative and emetic. 


bpenc ])i\> ]78opable mnie liealj: pubu 'j bulent-jfan j-a 
linalan • Jninoji j'yjic • ]Hibiipeaxau moj'opeajib • pealpyjit; 
mojjopeajibe jecnua ]?onne ealle topomne pypce liim Co 
bjieiice bo on pylifc ealo • o]?J?e on beo]\ Imt fcanban 
nilicepne • bpmce ]?onne I'pilcue nijon mopjenai' • nime 
]jy teoj^an mopjne ]7Pep bpincef tpa bleba pulle • bepylle 
on aue -j j^a pyjita fien mib apeoli ]?u]\li claj? apete 
tip ]78eji hio eo]i]7an hjiman ne mreje o]? ■^ hic mon 
bpmcan mseje ; ^ ];onue }?u hit ~ jebjuincen lisebbe be- 

fol. 45 a. ppeoh ]?e peapme lije on J^a fiban 'pe he J»onne jecenje 

lie- jip he'^ on J^am mnoj^e.biS J^onne abpifS hme )?el' 
bpinc ur. Sealp pi]? ])eope mm japleac -j jjieate J'yjic • 
pepmob leabe* netlan ciS jecnua fmale "j hiopoc fmepu 
gemanj p hit: fie fpilc fpa bah bo ]?onne on hnenne 
claS pyjime ]?onne ^ehppejjeji je ]5 he je jja pealjre co 
pype ]?onne ]7U hit fmypian pille Jjsep fio abl fie fylje 
htm mib ]7ippe fealjie -j mib ])yp ^ bpence. bpenc pi)? 
|?eopable bjiije pejimob • pebic pealpypt ealpa J?]ieopa 
em }:ela bo on eahi gnib pel hi3te set jepefran fcanban 
]?peo nihc iep pon he hme bjunce • -j pi]?]?an he hme 
bjimce ymb feopon mhc pojilcece blob uiibep |;am an- 
cleope bpmce poji]? ]?one bjienc peoj^ejit^me nih'c • Isete 
jponne ept blob unbep ]?am o])]ian ancleope, bjnnce 
eallep pone bpenc j'pitig nihta on unbejm jobe blebe 
fulle oj'pe ]7onne ]?n pefcan pille. pi]? ];eo]ipypme on 
pet mm ]?a peaban iietlaii gecnua bo pseteji to leje on 

fol. -15 b. hatne fuan liBt appeo]?an binb on ]?one pot neahtejme. 

6pt pealp setan jecnua leje on. pi]? ]?eope on pet 
jejmb pealpypt on jefpet pm • -j hpitcpnbu -j pipoji 
bpince p. 

' nBEgc, MS. I ■' This word seems corrupt ; per- 

■•■■ hr, MS. I haps jieabe ; red nettle, a plant 

,^ The only antecedent abl ought | ofit.'ieB.-t^'uui 1(i> 

to be followed by feminine pro- j = )'y)*, MS., understand as hyj-um. 

LEECH LOOK. 1. I 10 

2. A drink against the " dry " disease ; take liekl ^o""^ {■. 
balm^ and the small bulentse, thunderwort,^ the nether a Calaminth'a 
lYcXvt of woodAvax, the netherward jiart of wallwort, ncpeta. 
then pound all toojether, work it for him (the patiejtt) ' ^^"'P<^'''''^- 

1- , . V J. / vuiii teclorum. 

for a driidv, put it into foreign ale or beer, let it 
stand for the space of a night, then let him drink 
such drink for nine mornings, take on the tenth morn- 
ing two cups full of the drink, boil them both in one, 
and let the worts be therewith, strain through a cloth, 
set it up where it may not touch the eartli, till that 
a man may drink it ; when thou have drunken it, 
wrap thee up warm; lie on the side to which the imin 
is incident, if it be in the inwards, then this drink 
will drive it out. A salve against the "dry" disease ; 
take garlic and great wort, wormwood, a plant of net- 
tle, pound small, and along with it harts grease, that 
it may be such as dough is, place it then on a linen 
cloth, then warm both the body and the salve at the fire ; 
when thou wilt smear the body or the spot where the 
disease may be, follow up the 'patient with this salve 
and with this drink. A cMnk for the "dry" disease; 
dry Avormwood, radisli, wallwort,*^ of all these equal " Saiabucas 
quantities, put into ale, rub the herbs doivii well, the 
man should have the liqmd stand at first for three 
nights before he drink it, and subsequently let him 
drink it for about seven nights, let him let blood 
under the ancle, let him drink the drink straight on 
for fourteen niglits; let him next let blood under the 
other ancle. Drink the dose for thirty nights in all, 
a good cup full at nine A.M. or when thou wilt go to 
bed. For a "dry"' worm in the foot; take the red 
nettle, pound it, add water to it, lay it on a hot 
stone, make it froth, bind it on the foot for the space 
of a night. Again, a salve ; pound oats, lay on. For 
the "dry" rot in the foot, triturate wallwort into sweet- 
ened wine, and mastic and pepper ; let him drink that. 

120 L/ECE BOC. 

Oxa liejibe |nj-ne lajcobom • jeiiiine pealpyjic "j cluj:- 
j^unj -j ciieopliolen ^ ejrelaptau "j cainecou "j tunjilj'in- 
pyjit • vim. bjuuie bij-ceop pypt • "j attojilaj^an 'j peabe 
net Ian • -j jioabe ]io]:an --j pepmob -j jeappan • "j hunan 
■j boljjiiman • -j bj^eopje bpolrlan bo ealle ]>a]' pypta 
on pylipc ealo -j bjnnce ponne nijon bajal' "j blob Isete. 
])i]) J^eop pfBpce pypc to bjience alexanbpe • finpulle 
pejunob • tpa cneopliolen • paluian • lapme • pealmope • 
lupefcice • pepep puje • mepce • cofc • japleac • tej'C- 
I'jiotu • beconice • bifceop pyjic • on tj^ybpopnum ealaS 
jepypce (pet mib Imnije bjmic nijon mopjenaf nanne 
o];epne poetan bjunc repcep Ipijme bpenc "j Iset blob 
fol. 4G a. oxa laepbe jnfne lascebom. j^i]? JjBope cneopliolen nij^e- 

peajib • acumba • cpiS • -j bpune pyjit ealjia empela bo 
on pililc ealii • bepyl o]? ]?pibban bsel -j bpmce ]m hpile 
]>a lie jnijipe • -j ]?a3p lio abl jefitce pylje hmi fiinle 
nnb ti^e hopne o]? ]3 Lai fie. 

"E\iJ.iv0es. 1 Pij; |,ain pyji mumjje mnan ejlaS j)am men • jennn 

l^e^bpteban jetjupula -j Ji peaj) j-ele on cuclepe fupan 
•j ]>a p3^]it ]-elpe Ipa jecnupabe leje on j^one napolan. 
PrS cilba mnoj'ep pypnmm • jennn jpene mmtan penne 
gelm jebo on ppy ]'e]-t]iaf pa?tepel" peo5 o]? ]?pibban bsel 
apeoli ]?onne pele bpincan. piS cilba mno]) I'ape bpeopje 
bjiolrle • "j cymen jernm jebeat jemense pij; pjietep 
le^c opeji Sone napolan Ibna biS hal. Vi& pypmum ]>e 
innan ejIaS • ^enelbep lieojirej- hopnep ahfan oSSe bufc 

Jfcrb. Apul., ii. 10. 


3. Oxa taught an this lecchdoin : take wall wort, ;>nd Hook 1. 
clofting, and kiieeholn, and everlasting, and cainniock,' '' ^ ^"' 
and white hellebore, in the proportion of nine to one, 
brownwort, bishopwort, and atterlotlic, and red nettle, 
and red hove, and wormwood, and yarrow, and hore- 
honnd, and pellitory, and pennyroyal, put all these worts 
into foreign ale, and then let tJte rnan driidv for nine 
days and let blood. For the "dry" pain; make into a 
drink, alexanders, sedum, wormwood, the two kneeholns,- 
sage, savine, carrot, lovage, feverfue, marche, costmary, 
garlic, aslithroat, betony, bishopwort, work them up 
into double brewed ale, sweeten with honey, drink 
for nine mornings no other liquid ; drink afterwards a 
strong potion, and let blood. Oxa taught this leecli- 
dom. Against "dry" rot; put into foreign ale, the 
netherward part of kneeholn, tow,^ matricaria (?\ and 
brownwort, of all equal quantities; boil down to one 
third part, and let the patient drink while lie may 
re(piire it ; and where the disease has settled, follow 
him up ever with the drawing horn* till the place 
be hole. 


Against tlie worms which ail men witliin ; take intestinal 
waybroad, triturate it, and give tlie juice in a spoon worms, 
to sup, and lay the Avort itself, so pounded, on the 
navel. Against worms of the inwards of children ; 
take green mint, a handful of it, put it into three 
sextariuses of water, seethe it down to one tliird part, 
strain, then give to drink. For inward sore of chil- 
dren take pennyroyal and cunmiin, beat them up, 
mingle them with water, lay them over the navel, soon 
it will be whole. Against worms which ail a mail 

' Pcucedanuin officinale. 

■ Only Muscus aculcalus grows 
wild in England. There are three 

^ Understand as reduced to ashes. 
See note on I. xxxiii. 1. 
* Cupping glass. 

122 L^CE BOC. 

jemenj pi6 himij jefmijie mib J^one bpecj^eajim ^ jjone 
napolan mib ]?y jjonne jreallaS hie, ^ pib pyjimum \)e 
innan ejla^ jerpijrolab- cofc to bufce • jebo jobne ba3l 
in hat paeteji yele bpmcan. 

fol. 46 b. ^P^P pj^jimiim eyt jate cojib iieajib -j I'piSe bjnje je- 

menj -j jejmb yip liunij pele bjimcan pset abjiip]> liie 

]Marcellus, apej. piS pyjimiiin ]^e mnan ejlaS ept jiebtc feo"6 on 
psetjie oj? pone ]?]ubban bsol menje pi];* pm pele bpmcan. 

Marcellus, 6pt pib bon gate ^eallan jebo on puUe lege "j biub on 
' ' ]>one napolan. yip ]>on ilcan • mmtan pel jetpipulabe 

menj pij? Imnij py]ic to lytluin clipene Itet popfpeljan. 
6pt ele -j ecebep em micel gemenjeb pele J^py bajap 
bjiincan. Gpt eopojij^jiote • mejice • Ijetonice • nepte • 
jiScojm pyl on jnne. pi]> pyjunuin pe innan ejlab 
pyptbjienc op oiitpan • op pelbmopan lele bjnncan- 
Sealp • ete celej^onian • b]iunep3qit a]:»ylle on mojiobe • 
bo ]7onne Icip teajio -j fpepl to imi]ie mib. 

AoKapts. y^p ]'3,m I'malan pyjime. pipepmban tpij pojiepeajib • 

•j ]7a pealpan boccan njep pa jieaban • -j pip jpeate 
pcalt jcbeatcn toja-'bepe fpiyjc I'male *j lytel butejian. 


y ip lionb pyjimum -j beap pyjimuin • jenim boccan 
fol. 47 a. obSc clataii pa pe i'pnnman polbe pa pyjittjiuman men;^ 

pi6 plccan "j prS j'calt last I'ranban pjico iiilit -j ]>y 
pcoppan bajje iinipc inib pa j'apian fcopa. 

' riiiiius Valerianus, ut infra. l ' Piiniuw Valerianiis, fol. 41, c. 
■-' Head secjujola. | 


within ; minsrle with hone^', tishes or dust of burnt ^^H \\. 
harts horn, smear therewith tlie fundament and the 
navel, then they fall away. For worms which ail 
Avithin ; triturate costmar}' to dust, put a good deal 
into hot water, give to drink. 

2. For worms again ; mingle and rub up vriih honey 
a hard and very dry goats tord, administer it to be 
drunk, that will drive them awaj*. Against worms 
which ail a man within, again; seethe in water radish 
to the third part, mingle with wine, give to drink. 
Again for that ; put goats gall on wool, lay and bind 
it on the navel. For that ilk ; mingle with honey, mint 
well triturated, work it into a little bolus, make him 
swallow it. Ao-ain, give for three davs to diink oil 
and of vineg-ai- an equal quantity. Again, everthroat,^ 
marehe, betony, nepeta, githcorn ; boil them in wine ; 
For worms which are troublesome within ; give to 
drink a wort drink of •*ontre'" and of parsnip. A 
salve ; let him eat celandine ; let him boil brownwort 
in inspissated wine, then add thereto ship tar and 
sulfur ; smear therewith. 

For the small worm; the forepart of a twig of Hair worm, 
withe wind, and the tallow dock,* not the red one, ^i?«'"f r "•«"- 
and this coarse salt beaten together very small and Apalustris. 
little butter. 


1. For hand worms- and dew worms ; t-ake dock or 
clotes, such as would swim, mingle the roots with cream 
and with salt, let it st^aJid for three nights, and on 
the fourth day smeai" therewith the sore places. 

' Curlina acttulis. Keipjoi = tacniaj ? tape worms, \ronas 

- Souse Gl. make gad dies the I like ribands or tapes ; i-ead as 
hand worms ; are they rather here I x^'P'"*- 

124 L^CE BOC. 

tT): pypm hanb ete • jentm mejifc meaji jeallan 'j 
jieabc netlaii -j jieabe boccan "j I'mjele clifan yy\ on cu 
butejian j^onne fio j'ealj: jelbben I'le pipj^um nun Jjonne 
j'ealtej' ])]iy men Iceab on hpeji colbnme • -j Innjie nnb • 
ly)7]ie mib lapan ymb mhc fmijie inib. pi}) beappypme 
Icseppe on liar col cele nnb pfetjie itseppe on Ipa hat 
Ipa he harol'r mpeje, pib beappyjiine • fume mmaS 
peajim cpeab monnef ]?ynne bnibab neahtepne on • 
fume fpinef lunjenne peapme. ])i^ honb pypme Nmi 
fcijVceapo • "J fpepl 'j pipop • -j hpir j-ealr menj coSomne 
fmijie nnb. peax pealp pi)> pyjime • peax pealp • butepe 
pipo]i hptr yealt: menj tofomne fmijie nnb. 


Pi]) pyjimum^ ])e mannep plsej'C etaS jiam jeallan 
|;one pajan cnua on ni]ie ealo seji ])on Inc aj'ipen pe 
fol. 47 b. pele ]5 opeji p3'llo bjiincan ))]ieo nihr. 6pt: jemm jjiunbe 

fpeljean ]?e on eojipan peaxe]? -j fceapej- fmejiu menj 
tofomne jelice pela leje on. 6j:t jennn bepen eap 
befenj leje on fpa hat 'j hat pjietep lapa on. ]}ip 
plccpc pyjimum jenim monnep fnjian |a leap gejiel 
tojtebjie jebjiifib on jtejife jecuna ]7onne leje on fpa 
j'u hatofc nuieje ajipepnan, 


yi]) Infiim acjiiub -j hpon pepmob jccnua on ealn 
pele bjuncan. UiS lulum c])'ic peolpoji "j ealb butejie 
an pemnj peolpjiep • -j tu pennij pa'je butepan menj 
on ajipot eal toSomne. 

' 'POnplacrii ? 


2. If a worm cat the hand ; take marsh mareo-all''^ Book i. 

f'l 1 
and red nettle, and red dock, and tlte small bur, boil ^ " 

in cows butter; when the salve is sodden, then further ^,„,.,„/,„/,«)(/// 

take of salt three parts, shed thereuj>on, shake together, 

and smear therewith ; lather with soap, about night 

timie smear therewith. Against a dew worm; let the 

man step upon a hot coal, let him cool tlie foot with 

water ; let him step upon it as hot as he hottest maj". 

For a dew worm, some take warm thin ordure of 

man, they bind it on for the space of a night ; some 

tahe a swines lung warm. Against a hand worm ; take 

ship tar, and sulfur, and pepper, and white salt, mingle 

them together, smear therewith. A wax salve against 

a worm ; a wax salve ; butter, pepper, white salt, 

mingle them together, smear therewith. 


Against worms which eat a mans flesh ; pound into 
new ale, before it be strained, the party coloured ram 
gall,' give the running over to drink for three nights. 
Again, take groundsel which waxeth on the earth, and 
sheeps grease, mingle thein together, alike much in 
qwtntlty, lay on. Again, take an ear of beer or bar- 
ley, singe it, lay it on so hot, and hot water, leave it 
on. Against flesh worms; take mans sorrel, boil the 
leaves together, spread them out on the grass, then pound 
them, lay them on, as thou hottest may endure them. 


Against lice ; pound in ale oak rind and a little 
wormwood, give to the lousy one to drink. Against 
lice ; quicksilver and old butter ; one pennyweight of 
quich^Wev and two of butter; mingle all together in 
a brazen vessel. 

' Menyimthea trifoliafa. 



V iS fmejca j'yjmie nipe cyye -j beob]ieab 'j lipfietenne 
lilap ete. Gyx: monnej" lieapob ban bj\3]in to aliyan bo 
jnib pipan on. 


J)]]> pyjimaecura lice "j cpelbehtnm acjnnbe bnfc • 
{rpcjiinbe bufc • ellen pnibe bnfc on no]i}jan neo];an 
fol. 48 a. jam cpeope • eolonan mopan bufc- boccan mopan bufc' 

j'yjim acmehipep bnfr pipopef bnfr fijlan bufc • fpejrlep 
bnfc • ele • 'j li0]i]-ep fmejiu Co pope -j pcipteajiof leefc ' 
]>ip]"a ealpa empela -j })a]ia biifca ealjia empela jemenj 
eal cealb to)-omne p hic pjiam ])ani ])ofuni eal pel 
fmitenbe fmipe mib on nihc *j on mojijen ale]:>]ie. 


Pi]) aplejennni lice . bpom • peltejie • ^eappe • Iiope 
p3'l on butepan -j on hiui ^ fmipe mib. 


> ypc bse}* pi]) aplejenum lice • jentra 'p micle peapn 
nio])opeapb • -j elm jtmbe jpene jecnua cofomne -j meb- 
bjiofna bo CO pretan jnib fpiSe cofomne leje on lanje 
lij'ile o]> p he peapm fie o])}^e onfcaeppe. 

pip aplejenum lice pealp eolone fpiSe jefoben "j 
niSepeajib homoppecj "j ealb fpic cniia eal topomne 
jjyjim ])U]ih cla(5 co pyjie fmijie mib • pceappa ];onne 
fimle ymb . YIT. niht ]-ere liojni on pa openan pceajipan 

Iluro ail erasure occurs, as if luuiise laud been meant, but not filled ii 

LEECH BOOK. I. 127- 

liii. Book r. 

Ch, liii. 
Against a boring worm ; let the man eat new cheese 

and beebread and wlieaten loaf. Again, burn to ashes 

a mans liead bone or skull, put it on with a pipe. 


For a wormeaten and mortified body ; dust of oak 
rind, dust of ash rind, dust of elder rind, taken on the 
north of tlie tree, and the nether part, warm, dust 
of the root of helenium, dust of root of dock, dust of 
acorn meal, peppers dust, dust of rye, sulfurs dust, oil, 
and horses grease for a liquid, and the least propor- 
tion of ship tar, of all these equal quantities, and of all 
the dusts equally much ; mingle all cold together, so 
tliat by means of the liquids may be all well smudg- 
ing, or tJiorougJily unctuous, smear therewith at night, 
and in the morning lather. 


For slain, that is, stricken, body, broom, fel terrre,^ » Enjthraa 
yarrow, hove, boil these in butter and in honey, smear '^(^"'""'^'^""'^ 


1 . Work a fomentation for a stricken body ; take 

the mickle fern,'^ the netherward part, and elm rind ^ AsphHum 
green, pound them together, and for a liquor add mead'"'' 
dregs, rub them up thoroughly together, lay on foi- 
a long while, till tliat the sufferer be warm or walk 

2. For a stricken body, a salve; heieniurn thorouglily 
sodden, and the netherward part of hammersedge, and 
old lard, pound all togetlier, warm through a cloth 
at the fire, smear therewith ; then scarify continually 
about the bruise for seven nights, set a horn ' upon 

' A cupping horn. 

128 LtECE boc. 

fol. 48 b. fmijie mib ])[e]ie Macan yealje fpa mht fj^a tpa fpa 

];eapp fie 'j liy opeiie yynb. 


^ukTi. j^ip }-'ice hjienc ^ pealj: • py]ini J'jpt pylle on meolce 

^ b)\ince. Sealp cnua jlaep co bufte bo hiniije]- tfaji 
on lacna \> bolj niib. 


lo penj-ealpe 'j pen byliim • pyjic hie op nio] opea]ibjie 
nerlan "j op hemlice 'j op ])B?]ie clupihran penpyjite "j 
op p[epe fmalan mo]ipy)ire pyl ealle peopep on bnrejian 
'j on pceapep fineppe o]?]? jenoli j'le jecnna ept ]>a 
ilcan pyjita on ]>ie]\e pealpe -j j'cip ceapo -j japleac -j 
cjiopleac -j pecjleac "j pealr menj pel bo on claS p^^jnn 
ro pype fpi^e^ fmipe mib. 

Penj'ealp ourjie cejipan peai^e neclan pejunob • tpa 
penpyjita • ellen jimbe • pejbp.tebe • fujmn • bipceop pyjit • 
bulor niSepeapb • fmepe pypt • peak • pcipteaj\o • -j 
pceapen fmejia. pij) pen byle Nim cpopleac • ontpe • 
fol. 49 a. eolone • clupelite penpypr • jecnna ealle J^a )'/)ita fpi])e 

pel leje on. 

Penj-ealp hiojiorep meajih • ipij; teapo -j jebeaten pipop 
'j fcip ceapo. 

^ [P^V ]^^ blacan blejene fyle })am men etan cpejeu 
cjioppaf oSSe ])]\y op ) sepe pypte ]?e man on J>peo pifan 
hace^ myxenplante.] 

fpi«, MS. 

In the margin, in a different and later hand. 

LERC'Tr BOOK. I. 129 

the open scarifications, smear with tlie black salve, bo Book I. 
it for a night, be it for two, as need be, and as they " ^'' 

be open. 


For the disease called fig, a drink and a salve ; let 
him boil worm wort in milk and drink it. A salve ; 
pound glass to dust, add a drop of honey, leech the 
wound therewith. 


1. For a wen salve and for wen boils ; work the salro 
of the netherward part of nettle and of hendock, and 

of the wenv/ort which has cloves or bulbed roots^'^ and =" Probably 

of the small moorwort, boil all four in butter and in f ""f"^"^"^' 

sheeps grease till there be enough, pound again the 

same worts in the salve, and ship tar, and garlic, and 

cropleek, and sedgeleek,^ and salt, mingle well, put i> AHium 

on a cloth, w^arm thoroughly at the fire, smear tliere- •'^fhienoprcmm. 


2. A salve for wens ; ontre, cress, I'ed nettle, worm- 
wood, the two wenworts, elder rind, w^aybroad, sorrel, 
bishopwort, the nether part of bulot, smearwort, salt, 
shi]i tar,^ and sheeps grease. For a wen boil ; take 
cropleek, ontre, helenium, the clove rooted wenwort, 
]iound all the worts thoroughly well, lay the stuff on. 

8. A wen salve ; harts marrow, ivy tar, and beaten 
pepper, and ship tar. 

4. [Against the black blain, give to the man to eat 
two bunches or three ofl:' the wort, wdiich is called in 
three ways, the mix en plant.^] 

' Pix uavalis is occasionally prescribed by the medical authors, as 
Nic. Myreps, 481, c, in the Medicte Artis Principes. 
- Atropa belladonna. 

VOL. ir. I 

130 L^CE BOC. 


^ PiJ> If ft able • mm j^cenc jrulne peallenbef psetejief 
o)>e]ine elep • *j bpicef yealtey fpilc fpa mseje mib j:eo- 
pep pmjpum jemman • hpep tojsebepe op 5? hit eall 

V' on an fie. bpmc eall be bpopan pefc hpile fanj pmjep 

on ciolan afpip^ epc eall -j ma 51]: ]>u masje • ]?onne on 
mor^5en foplset blob oj: eapme • oS6e of fpeopan fpa 
msept apsefnan mseje • -j j-ceappije • *j hpon onfette 
opep eall fmipe }>onne mib liacan ele "j htm sejhpset; 

^- j-ealrep beopje • bpuce jlsebenan "j eop ojipeapnep uppe on 

rpeope -j mib hnej'ce puUe opep ppiSe ealle J)a fceappan 
]7onne hie fien jefmyjiebe. ])i]> neujiipne banpypt bo 
on fupe plecan 'j on hunij sejep jeola menj tofomne 
fmijie mib. Gpt jienpypmaf cnua bo on. 


P16 bjiyne pypc pealpe • jemrn jate tojib "j hpsete 
fol. 49 b. liealm jebsepn to bufce jemenj burn pij) butepan bo 

on pannan opeji pyp a]>yl fpi^e pel apeoli |)U]ib cla5 
fmipe mib. 

Pi]> bpyne jemm pmulep ni})epea]ibe]- jebeat piS 
ealbne pypele -j leje on. Bpc jentm lilian -j jeappan 
pyl on butepan fmipe mib. pij), pon ilcan pylle pibban 
on butejian -j fmipe mib. 

Pi]7 J;on ilcan pylle jeappan on butepan fmijie mib. 

Pi]? ]?on ilcan pylle coccuc on pceape]' fmeppe -j 
atcojilajjan -j eopoppeapn bo on hunij oSSe on peax. 
Pi]> }>on bo as^ej- ]3 hpite on jelome. 

napAxvati. | = afpi])e, as third persou better. 


lix Book I. 

Ch. lix. 

Against palsy ; take a cup full of boiling water, 
another of oil, and of white salt so much as one may 
pick up with four fingers ; shake together till that it 
be all one : drink all this by drops, rest awhile, poke 
thy finger into the gullet, spew up again all and more 
if thou ^ may ; then in the morning let blood from the 
arm or from the neck, as much as he ' may bear ; and 
scarify and let him put something on, then after all 
smear with hot oil and let him taste a trifle of salt; 
employ gladden and everfern picked high up on the 
tree, and cover over with nesh wool all the scarifica- 
tions when they have been smeared. Against "neu- 
risn" put bone wort into sour cream, and into honey, 
mingle together with this the yolk of an egg, smear 
therewith. Again, pound up earthworms, apply them. 


1. Against a burn work a salve; take goats tord and 
halm of wheat, burn them to dust, mingle both with 
butter, put into a pan over the fire, boil thoroughly 
well, strain through a cloth, smear therewith. 

2. For a burn, take some of the netherward part of 
fennel, beat it up with old grease, and lay on. Again, 
take lilly and yarrow, boil them in butter, smear 
therewith. For the same, boil ribwort in butter and 
smear therewith. 

3. For that ilk, boil yarrow in butter, smear there- 

4. For th^t ilk, boil mallow in sheeps grease, and 
attorlothe, and everfern, put them into honey or into 
wax. For that same, put the white of an egg on 

The careless use of pronouns belongs to the text. 

I 2 

132 L^OE BOC. 

P'P l>]iyn<3 pab jecniia pyl on butejian finipe raib. 


^ Pib liS psejice cnua li5 pyjit; ])i'6 Imnije o])])e ceop -j 
leje on. 6}?u pulpep heapb ban baejin fpi'Se -j jecnua 
fmale ajyfc ]m]\]\ claS bo on f bolj. PiS li]? psepce 
cnua pejtniob pi]; teojipe -j pencepfan apjiinj f feap op 
menj tolbnme clceni on J3 li'S j;e ]?ie]i faji pie jebnib 
peepte on. pi]> liS peape jelob pyjit • bjiune pyjit: • 
■j ba)\e pypt lytelu optofe peaxe]; on cune hsepS 
fol. 50 a. hpire blofcman jecnua Sa }?peo pyj^ta jemenje ]3 bi}> 

/ 30b j-ealp. O^anejum men li'S j-eau pyb6^ jepjun;^ 

seplej" feap on 'j bojmep fceapof'an fjnSe fmale jepceap 
cpnn on p bolb ninan bo f op "j fnnle nipe on. pi]? 
b'S feape h];py]it liunbep beapob jebspjine "j jecnupije 
-j jebjipebebne jeppel • menj ]3 eall tofomne bo ]3 on. 
6pt j-ennn fujme ?eppel jebpreb 'j leje on • bo jpuc 
on upan ]jone reppel :• 

Pi]; lib peape • jeiiim ina5e]7an menj piS hunij bo on 
]> bolj -j Ijinb ppefce. pi]) peape jenim acpmbe -j bjiije 
'j I'lpc to fmebman -j plahpopn pmbe nio])opea]ibe fypt 

' 'Apdp~rts. I Dooms, p. 42. art. 53. " Si quis in 

- Subluvium. We find the out- | " hnmevo plagietur ut glutinum 

flowing of the synovia an object " compagum efflnat:" Laws, Henry 

of enactment. See vElfrecLs I., p. 2G5. 

LEECH B(K)K. 1. 133 

5. For a burn, pound up woad, boil it in buttci-, ■^^'jok I. 
•smear therewith. ^^- '"• 


1. Against racking pain iu the joints, pound lith- 
wort with honey, or chew it and lay it on. Again, 
burn thoroughly the head bone or skull of a wolf and 
pound it small, sift it through a cloth, put it on the 
wound. Against pain in the joints, pound w^ormwood 
with tar and fen cress, wring out the juice, mingle 
together, stick the residue upon the joint where the 
sore is, bind it on fast. For the synovia of the joints, 
silver weed, brown Avort, and the little harewort,^ it 
oftenest waxeth in a garden, it hath white blossoms, 
})0und tlie three worts, mingle them, that is a good 
salve. With many men the synovia of the joints oozeth 
out,^ wring on the spot the juice of an apple, and shave 
very small some shavings of horn, crumble"^ them on 
the wound within it, remove that and ever apply the 
same anew. For the synovia of the joints, burn lith- 

wort,-'^ hound shead, and pound them up with roasted •■■ Samlmcus 
apple ; mingle all that together, apply it. Again, take ^ " "*' 
a sour apple, roast and lay it on ; ap|)ly groats over 
above the apple. 

2. For the synovia of the joints, take maythe, mingle 
it with honey, apply it to the wound and bind it fast. 
For the secretion of the joints, take oak rind and dry 
it and work it to a fine Jiour or smede, and further 
sloethorn rind, the netlierward part of it, sift tlieni 

' Lepidium ? ! " siipincntiir, aut vicinis adfixi in- 

- " Tunc articiili tumcntesinflau- " cunibant, ct aliquanclo Immore 

" tui', ac cleinde durcscunt ft soli- | " piirulento vel miicilento collecto, 

" dati saxeam faciunt qualitatem ; " aut viscoso, gcnerent poros, quos 

" turn etiam nigriores cfficiuntur, ! " cos transitus dicere potcrimus.'" — 

" atque contort!, ut in ohliquas Cnrlius vV^.irclianus, about A.D. 230, 

" partes digiti vcrtantur, aut rcflexi Chron. lib. v. cap, 2. 

134 " L^ECE BOG. 

]>A }?ujili claS -j fceab on f bolj. pi8 li8 j^eape • jeiiiin 
cetelhjitim *j bejieiihealm jebaejm 'j jnib tojsebepe 'j 
fcab on. Jif li]?ule utyjine ^entm mepce nio]?opeapbne 
•j hunij -j Lpsetenef melupep fmebman "j picjjan Innel ' 
bejnib tofomne leje on. Gpt 5emm mebopypte nioj^o- 
peapbe ^ecniia fniale menj pi]> hmiije leje on ]?8et 
jebatob fie. 

fol. 50 b. Ttp lijmle ticypne jennn eceb -j fujie cpuman bejie- 

nep hlapep -j jienpyjimap men^^ toSomne bmb on pset; 
p h]? mib ecebe o]7]?e mib fupan eala^. Jip lijjule 
tityjine • jentm pepmob -j jecnua bo on teojio clsem 
on -j bmb on yssyte. 


^ Pi]? pepeji able • elehtjian • ^yj^pipe • pejbjiasbe jecnua 
on ealu Iset fcanban tpa nilit pele bpmcan. P1J7 peppe 
ept betonican bpmce fpiSe • -j ete Jjpeo fnseba. 6pt: 
bjunc on Llutrcptim ealaS pepmob • jyj^jiipan • betonican • 
bipceoppypo • pen mmte • bojen • fio clupilite • pen- 
pyjit • mappulDie • bpmce J'pitij baja. bpenc ]n]> ]7on • 
beronican • fppmjpypr attojilaSe • bepbme • eopopj^pote • 
Imnbeptunje • bpeopje bpoMe • pepimob. pi8 J^pibban 
baejep pepjie on peajimum psetpe bpmce betonican tyn 
popan ]?onne to pille. piS peo-^J'an bsejep pepjie bpimce 
pejbpseban feap on fpetum psetpe tpam tibum sep him 
fol. 51 a. fe pepep to pille. pi]? selcej- bsejef pepepe bpmce 

on cealbum paetepe betonican bufcep f senne penmj 
jepeje • o]?ep fpilc pejbppeban. 

Pi]? peppe ept hylpS fynbpijo majiubie to bjimcanne. 
Pi]? lencten able pepmob eopop ]?jiote • elebtpe • pej- 
bpsebe • pibbe • ceppille • attoplaSe • pepeppuje < alex- 
anbjic • bipceoppyjit • hipefcice • Saluic • capj-uc pypc to 

' Read Innelye ? 1 •' Uvpirus, Febris. 

- men, MS. 


throuo'h a cloth, and shed that on tlie wound. For ^"^"^ ^• 

. . . Ch. 1x1. 

synovia of the joints, take kettle soot and barley halm, 
burn and rub them together, and shed on. If the 
synovia run out, take the nether ward part of marche 
and honey, and the smede of wheaten meal, and the 
bowels of an ear wig, rub them together, and lay on. 
Again, take the netherward part of meadowwort, pound 
it small, mingle with honey, lay on till it be mended. 
3. If the synovia run out, take vinegar and sour 
crumbs of a barley loaf, and earthworms, mingle to- 
gether, and bind on ; wet the joint with vinegar or 
with sour ale. If the synovia run ou€, take worm- 
wood and pound it, put it on tar, plaster it on, and 
bind it on fast. 


1. For fever disease ; pound in ale lupins, githrife, 
waybroad, let it stand for two nights, administer to 
drink. For fever again ; let him drink betony much, 
and eat three bits of it. Again, drink in clear ale 
wormwood, githrife, betony, bishopwort, fen mint, rose- 
mary, the clove rooted wenwort, marrubium, drink for 
thirty days. A drink for that, betony, springwort, 
attorlothe, vervain, everthroat, houndstongue, dwarf 
dwosle, wormwood. For a tertian fever, let the sick 
drink in warm water ten sups of betony, when the 
fever is approaching. For a quartan fever, let him 
drink juice of waybroad in sweetened water two hours 
before the fever will to him. For a quotidian fever, 
let him drink in cold water so much of the dust of 
betony as may weigh a penny ; as much more of way- 

2. For fever again it helpeth, to drink marrubium 
alone. For lent addle, or typhns fever, work to a drink 
wormwood, everthroat, lupin, waybroad, ribwort, cher- 
vil, attorlothe, feverfue, alexanders, bishopwort, lovage. 



fol. ol b. 

* Head Indc. 

bjience on pelfcum ealaS bo halij piereji to • -j Ipjunj 

pij- mon yceal pjiitan on hu]*lbipce "j on j'one bpeuc 
inib habj pajrejie ])pean -j jnnjan on • 

+ + +A+ + + + +CD+ + + + + + + + + 
In ppmcipio ejiat uejibum et nejabum epat apnc 
beum et beup ejiat: ue]ibum. ]Doc ejiat In p]nnci})io 
apuo beum omnia peji ij^Siim ysczn Sunt, pj'eah J'onnc 
■]) ^epjut mib bab^ j'a^cjie op ]?am brfce on }7one bjienc* 
Inij • ]jonne cjiebo ^-j pateji nopteji -j \ny leo]?. bcati 
Jniii cubxtj ]>one feabn mib ab bommum ]?am .xii. 
jebeb pealmmn. Abiuro uoS ppijopef^ et pebpeS • pep 
beum patpem omnipotentem et pep eraf pibum lepum 
cjnptum peji apcenfum et bipcenfum^ SaJuatopip noptpi 
ut jiecebatiS be boc pamulo bei • et be cojipuSculo 
eiu]- quam^ bomniup noptep Inbimmape Inftituit. Um- 
cit: nop leo be tpibu niba jiabix bauib. Uincic uoj- qui 
umci non poteSt • + xpp natuf • + xpp pafsup • + 
xpf uentujiuf • + aiuj- •'* + aiup • + aiup • + Sc)- • 
+ Sep- + Sop* Jn bic''' Salutipepip mceben]- jpepiibup 
upbe]- • oppiba jiupa uicop captjia cafcella pejia^pani". 
Omnia bepulpq- fanabat cojipopa mopbi]- -^ -j J>pi])a ];onne 
onfupe ]nep psetepef fpelcef 3ebp?e]7e]i pajia manna. 



Pi]? peonb leociim men • ]?onne beopol |)one monnan 
pebc obSe bme iiinan jepealbe mib able. Spipebpenc 
ebibtpe • bifceoppyjit • beolone cpopleac jecnua toSoinne 
bo eala to psetan Iget franban ncabtejine bo piptij 
lybcopna on -j babj pa^tep, bjienc pip peonbfeocum 
men op cijucbellan to bpmcanne • jyj^jnpe • jlsep •'^ jeappe • 
elebtpe • betonice • attopbape • cappiic • pane • pinul • 

' Frigora. 

^ Descensum. 

^ Quern. 

■* an\y = aytos. 

'■" Head Oppida, rura, casas, vicos, 

castella pcragrans ; Sedulius, 
Carm. Pascli , Lib. III., 23. Inter- 
■floven in the text of Beda, III. 

" For nej^la:)-, cynajglaei-j-an ? 


Hage, cassock, in foreigu ale ; add holy water and i^<>'>^ I. 

Ch. Ixii. 
spring wort. 

8. A man shall write this upon the sacramental An exorcism 

paten, and wash it ofi' into the drink with holy water, 

and sing over it .... In the beginning, etc. (John 

i. 1.) Then wash the writing with holy Avater ott' the 

dish into the drink, then sing the Credo, and the 

Paternoster, and this lay, Beati immaculati, the psalm ;' 

with the twelve prayer psalms, I adjure you, etc. And 

let each of the two^ men then sip thrice of the water 

so prepared, 

Inde salutiferis incedens gressibus urbes, 

Oppida, rura, casas, vicos, castella peragrans 

Omnia depulsis sanabat corpora morbis. 



For a fiend sick man, or demoniac, when a devil 
possesses the man or controls him from within with 
disease ; a spew drink, or emetic, lupin, bishop wort, 
henbane, cropleek ; pound these together, add ale for 
a liquid, let it stand for a night, add fifty libcorns, 
or cathartiG grains, and holy water. A drink for a 
fiend sick man, to be drunk out of a church bell ; cimrch bell. 
githrife, cynoglossum, yarrow, lupin, betony, attorlothe, 
cassock, flower de luce, fennel, church lichen, lichen, of 

' Psalm, cxix. 

- Two, the leech and the sick ; two is in j^ehpaj^cji. 

138 LMCE BOC. 

cipicjiaju • cjiifcef msele]* jiai^u • lupefcice • ^epyjic ]7one 
fbl. 52 a. bjienc oj: liluttjium ealaS jefmje feofon msej'yan 0}:e]\ 

]7am pyjitum bo ^apleac 'j halig psetep to -j bjiype on selcne 
bpincan ]?one bpenc ]^e he bpmcan piUe ept* 'j fmje 
];one fealin • bean Inmaculati -j exupsat; • -j Saluum 
me pac beuj- • *j j^onne bjimce J;one bpenc op cipicbellan -j 
fe mseppe ppeofe him finje seprep pam bpence }>if opep. 
bomme Sancte parep omnipocenf. Pi]? bpsecfeocum 
men • cofc • jotpoj^e • eluhtpe • betonice • attoplaSe • 
cjiopleac • hoiecepfan • hope • pmul • afm^e mon msep- 
pan opep pypce op pylifcum ealoS -j op halij pastepe. 
bjimce ]?ipne bpenc per jejhpilcum nipe nijon mopjenaf 
'j nane o]?pe pseran f ]7icce -j fcille fie • -j selmeppan 
pelle "j htm apena 30b jeopnhce bibbe. pi^ peben 
heopte bifceoppypt • elehcpe • banpypt • eopoppeapn • 
jij^pipe • heahhiolojje j^onne bsej fcabe ^ -j niht ]?onne 
fmj ]>u on cipicean letaniaf f ip ]?apa hahjpa naman • 
•j patep noptep mib j^y fanje ]m 5a ]5 ]ni fie aeC })am 
pyptum 'j ]ppipa ymbja *j ]>oma.e ]>n hie 111 me janj ejrc 
to cipicean mib ])j ilcan panje • -j jepmj .xii. m^p- 
pan opep -j opep ealle ])a bpencan ]>e to j^sepe able 
fol. 52 b. belimpaj) on peop^mynbe |?apa tpelpa apoftola. 


Pi|> selcpe ypelpe leobpunan -j piS a3lppibenne j^ij- 
3ep]ut ppit him ]>iy ^pecifcum ftapum • + + A + 4 
O 4-y°+ipByM iHli:- B e p p N NIKNEttANI. 
Gpt • o]7e]i buft 'j bpenc pi]? leobpunan • jemm bpembel 
jeppel -j elehtpan "j pollesian jecnua* fipt }?onne bo on 
pohhan leje unbeji peopob fmj 1113011 mgeppan opep bo 
on meoloc f buft bpyp ]7pipa on halij psetepef^ pele 

' At morning twilight. 

- A partitive genitive ; balij; in haliS )i!cce)i is commonly unde- 
clincd, or regarded as part of a compound. 


Cluists mark or cross, lovagc ; work up the driuk off '^ook I. 
clear ale, sing seven masses over the worts, add garlic and '^ '' '''"' 
holy water, and drip the drink into every drink which 
he will subsequently drink, and let him sing the psalm, 
Beati immaculati, and Exurgat, and Salvum me fac, dens, Psalm cxix. 
and then let him drink the drink out of a church bell, Psaim Ixix.' 
and let the mass priest after the drink sing this over 
him, Domine, sancte pater omnipotens.' For a lunatic; 
costmary, goutweed, lupin, betony, attorlothe, cropleek, 
field gentian, hove, fennel; let masses be sung over, 
let it be wrought of foreign ale and of holy water ; 
let him drink this drink for nine mornings, at every 
one fresh, and no other liquid that is thick and still, 
and let him give alms, and earnestly pray God for his 
mercies. For the phrenzied ; bishopwort, lupin, bonewort, 
everfern,^ githrife, elecampane, when day and night di- 
vide, then sing thou in the church litanies, that is, 
the names of the hallows or saints, and the Pater- 
noster ; with the song go thou, that thou mayest be 
near the worts, and go thrice about them, and when 
thou takest them go again to church with the same 
song, and sing twelve masses over them, and over all 
the drinks which belong to the disease, in honour of 
the twelve apostles. 


Against every evil rune lay,^ and one full of elvish A holy amultt. 
tricks, write for the bewitched man this writing in 
Greek letters : alfa, omega, iesvm (?) beronikh.* Again, ix0Y5 ? 
another dust or powder and drink against a rune lay ; 
take a bramble apple,^ and hipins, and pulegium, pound ^ ^ oiackhary. 
them, then sift them, put them in a pouch, lay them 
under the altar, sing nine masses over them, put the 

' A formula of Benediction ; ! ^ Heathen charm, 
several such are found in the ' Invoking the miraculous por- 

Missals. trait of Christ on the kerchief of 

- Polypodium vnhjare. \ St. "Veronica. 

140 L^CE BOC. 

bnincan on bjieo tiba • on unbejin • on mibb^ej • on 
non* jij: I'lo abl netnum fie jeot: mib lialij jiterpe on 
muS f lice bnfc. Sealf elehtjie hejejufe • biyceoppyjit • 
pa peaban majojmn • ajimelu • cjiopleac • yealr pyl on 
butejian to fealjre fniijie on f heapob "j J'a bjieolr. 
bpenc hapan fppecel • alexanbjne • jmbe • elehrjie 
hejejiipe • bipceoppyjit • mnjope • cpopleac • apmelu • 
fio cneoelite • j'enpyjit bo on lialij psetep. Jip mon 
inape pibe • jenim elehtjian 'j japleac • "j betonican • 
fol. 53 a. -j jiecell" biiib on mepce lipebbe liim mon on "j lie 

janje in on pap j'ypte. 


6 pt bpenc piS lenc~en able pepejipuje • hpam jealla* 
pmul • ]'e;5bppebe • jefinje mon pela meeppan opep ] sepe 
j^yjite -^ opjeot; mib ealaS bo halij pa?t:ep on pyl fpipe 
]'t'l bjunce ponne Ipa lie hatofc mseje micelne fcenc 
pnlne sep pon fio abl to pille :• peopeji jobfpellapa 

-'— H- 
naman "j jealbop "j jebeb • -1-^,-1- . COatheup • + + + -}- + 


CtJa]icuS+ + + + + • lucaS • -j4^- • Iobannep_L;^_lt^. Inteji- 

cebite ppo me • Tiecon • leleloth • patjion • abiiipo uoS. 

6pt jobcunb jebeb • Jn nomine bommi fit benebic- 
Runes. tiim • b^j^onice • bepomcen • et babet In uefnmento et 

In pemope fuo • fcjuptum pex pejmii et bominnj- bomi- 
Kev. xix. jiantjum*' 6pr jobcunb jebeb. Jn nomine fit bene- 

(lictnm . M M IVl R IV1 ]> • N cj . ], T X X M R F p N -j • ]J T X .'-^ 
e"- pceal mon ipijcnbe pi"]* j'jutan -j bon paf pojib 

fpijenbe on pa pmfrjian bjieoft -j ne ja be m on 

']; jepjut ne m on beji • -j eac fpijenbe pif on bon • 

HAMMANy"EL • BPONice- NOy" e pTAy^EPT. 

' This use of the singular is mere '. {xjMRMl' • Ni 'hTX, and unckr- 
carelessness. i stand the T as an J. 

-Head ><MIV!RW|'- NjlTX- 



dust into milk, drip thrice some lioly water upon tlnni, ijook T. 
administer this to drink at tliree hours, at undern, or ^'''- '^i^'- 
nine in the morning, at midday, at noon, hora nana, 
or three in the afternoon. If the disease be on cattle, 
pour that ilk dust into the mouth with holy water. 
A salve ; boil lupin, hedgerife, bishopwort, tlie red 
may the, harmala,^ cropleek, salt, in butter to a salve, ' P''<iii>ium har- 
smear it on the head and the breast. A drink ; put 
into holy water, vipers bugloss, alexanders, rue, lupins, 
hedgerife, bishopwort, maythe, cropleek, harmala, the 
wenwort which hath knees.^^ If a mare ^ or hag ride '' •^"''''"" 
a man, take Ivipins, and garlic, and betony, and frank- 
incense, bind them on a fawns skin, let a man have 
the worts on him, and let him go in to Ms home. 


1. Again, a drink against lent addle or iijplivs ; 
feverfue, the herb rams gall,^ fennel, waybroad ; let a 
man sing many masses over the worts, souse them 
with ale, add holy water, boil very thoroughly, let tlte 
man drink a great cup full, as hot as he may, before 
the disorder will be on him ; say the names of the 
four gospellers, and a charm, and a prayer, etc.^ Again, 
a divine prayer, etc., deeee]?- hand- |?IX' DEI^e]). 
HAND • ]?IN • thine hand vexeth, thine hand vexeth. 

Again, a man shall in silence write this, and silently 
pvit these words on the left breast, and let him not 
go in doors with that writing, nor bear it in doors. 
And also in silence put tliis on, Emmanuel, veronioa."* 

' As in niglit mare. 

^ Menyanthes trifoliata. 

^ Leliloth is an Arabic- 


(Freytag.) Cf. Alilat Herod, iii. 
' The imaore on the kercliief. 



fol 53 h. 


yi]) unjemynbe "j jnS by)-;5un;5e bo on ealo bij'ceop 
pyjit . elehtjian • berouican ]?a fuj'ejman jrmujlan • 
nefcan limbhioloSan • jyj^pijran • mepce • bpmce j^onne. 
Pi]? unjemynbe 'j bifjunje bo on eala capfiam • 'j eleh- 
tpan • bifceoppyjit • alexanbjiian • Jij^pipe • pelbmopan 
•j lialij pretep bpmce ponne. 


V iS jenumenum mete • jentm elelitpan le^e unbeji 
peofob fmj nijon mseppan opeji ■^ pceal pij> jenume- 
num mete leje unbep f yset • J7e j^u pille on melcan.' 
^tp ealo apejib fie • jenim ];a elehtjian leje on ]fa, 
peopep pceattap ]7?ep sepnef -j opep ]?a bupu "j unbep 
])one ]?epxpolb "j unbep f ealopset bo mib halij psetjie 
\>a, pypt on f eala ; 

jtp mete fy apypb "j anjehpsebe mylcen oSSe pilb 
o]?]7e bpyjpen • halja ];a pyj'te bo on -j unbep f pset • 
•j unbeji |?a bupu • bo elehtpan -j clipan • -j betonican 
•j bifceoppypt. 

fol. r>4 a. 


yi]) |;on jip hunta jebite mannan f ij- fpij^pa pleali 
J)py pceajipan neali pjiompeapbef lait yjman f blob on 
3peimne Iticcan h^ejienne peopp ponne opep pej aj^eg 
]?onne ne hip nan ypel. Gpt apleali ane pceappan ou' n 
]?am bolje jecnua Ijecepypt leje on ne bij? Mm nan 
ypel. pi]? jonjelpseppan liite • mm ?epep]?an nio]?o- 

' The Saxons used milk and pre- 
parations of anilk for the food of the 
churls family. Hence the churls 

cow is called his Meat cow, DD, 

187, 188, 


Ixvi Book I. 

Ch. Ixvi. 

Against mental vacancy and against folly; put into 
ale bishopwort, lupins, betony, the southern or Italian 
fennel, nepte, water agrimony, cockle, marclie, then let 
the man drink. For idiotcy and folly, put into ale, 
cassia, and lupins, bishopwort, alexanders, githrife, field- 
more, and holy water ; then let him drink. 


1. For the better digestion of meat taken ; take lu- 
pins, lay them under the altar, sing over them nine 
masses, that shall avail for meat taken; lay it under 
the vessel into which thou hast in mind to milk. If 
ale be spoilt, then take lupins, lay them on the four 
quarters of the dwelling, and over the door, and under 
the threshhold, and under the ale vat, put the wort 
into the ale with holy water. 

2. If meat be spoilt,^ and a good quantity of milken 

food, or a milking,^ or brewing, hallow the worts,^ put ' ^'^^ m- ^"' 
them into and under the vat, and under the door ; use 
lupins, and clifwort, and betony, and bishopwort. 


In case that a hunting spider^ bite a man, that is 
the stronger spider, strike three scarifications near, in 
a direction from the bite, let the blood run into a 
green spoon of hazel wood, then throw it over the road 
away; then no harm will come of it. Again, strike a 
scarification on the wound; pound leechwort; lay it 
on, no harm will happen to the man. Against bite of 
a weaving spider,* take the netherward part of seferthe, 

' Cf. Luke xiv. 34. Marshall. j appropriate for the Aranea taran- 
- By one of the henisons in the tula, the habits of which our 

ecclesiastical Manuale. : author had, doubtless, learnt. 
^ Salticus scenicus is now de- ' Aranea viatica, 

scribed by this name ; but it is very | 

144 L^CE P.OC. 

pefijibe "j ]'lah]?0]in • paje ahjiii; to hufre ;5e]>ren mib 
Imnije lacna ]3 bolh mih. pi]? liuntan bite blace fnejlaj' 
on hatt]\e pannan jeliypfce' ^ to bufte jepiibene • -j 
pipop • -j betomcan ete p buft -j bjimce ^ on lecje. 
PiS Inintan bite Nim ni];epea]ibne^ cottuc leje on 
]) bolli. Gpt ayleali • V. yceajipan ane on J»am bite 
"j }:eopeji janbutan peopp mib fticcan fpijenbe ojreji 


yi]) pebe liiinbej- plite ajjiimonian -j pejbjireban ;i;e- 
menje mib hunije -j aejep ■]> hpite lacna pa pnnbe mib 
]/y. pi]> hunbep bolje poxep elate • jjiunbefj^elje pyl 
on batepan fmijie mib. 6pt betomcan jetpipula leje 
on |:ione bite. 6pt pejbp^eban jebeat leje on. 6pt 
fol. .54 h. x:\'>a cipan obSe j^peo feoj? 3eb]ia?b on ahfan men;^ pi'S 

jiyple "j luinije leje on. Gpt jebtepne fpmef ceacan 
to ahfan yceab on. 6pt jemin pejbpseban mojian 
jecnua'"' pi]^ py]"le bo on ]> bolh J^onne afcjiyp'S hio \> 
atep apej. 


Zip mon fie to pjirone pyl hmbheolojmn on pilifctlm 
ealaS bjunee on neaht neptij. Gtp mon fie to nn- 
pppene ]'yl on meolce pa ilcan py]^t ponne apptenpt pu. 
Pyl on eope meolce ept hmbhiolopan alexanbjiian po]i- 
netep polm hatte pyjit ponne bip hit fpa Inm leopofc 

For j;ehy))jTc'he. 
' nijjepeapbe corrected to the masculine, MS. 
' secna, MS. 

LKKCIl Book. I. 145 

and lichen from Llie l)lackt1i()vn, dry it to dust, moisten Book I. 
with lioney, tend the Avound therewith. Against hite ^ ''• '^''^'"" 
of Inuititig spider, bUiek snails fried in a hot pan and 
rubbed to dust, and pepper, and betony, let the man 
eat the dust, and drink it, and lay it on. For l)ite of 
hunting spider, take the netherward part of mallow, 
lay it on the wound. Again, strike five scarifications, 
one on the bite, and four lound about it, throw the 
blood with a spoon silently over a wagon way. 


For bite of mad dog; mingle with honey agrimony 
and way broad, and the white of an agg, dress the 
wound with that. For wound by a hound ; foxes 
dote,-'' groundsel, boil these in butter, smear ihnve.w'iiU.'' Burdock. 
Again, triturate betony, lay it on the bite. Again, 
beat wayl)road, lay it on. Again, seethe two or tliroe 
onions, roast them on ashes, mingle with fat and 
honey, lay on. Again, burn a s wines cheek or jaw to 
ashes, shed this on. Again, take more or root of way- 
broad, pound it, put it on the wound witli lard, then 
it will scrape the venom away. 


If a man be too salacious, boil waiter agrimony in 
foreign, ale, let him drink thereof at night fasting. If 
a man be too slow ad venerem, boil that ilk wort in 
milk, then thou givest him corage. Boil in ewes 
milk, again, hindheal, alexanders, the wort which bight 
Fornets^ pahn,''^ then it will be with him as he would ' Uukuown. 
liefest have it be. 

' For Fornet or I''ornjot, see llie index of name.'?. 

144 L^CK EOC. 

peajihe ^ ylali]:'0]ni • ji.aje a^jiii; to bufre jej^ren mib 
Imnije laciia ]3 bolh inih. ])i]} liuntan bite blace fiiejlaj' 
on hatt]\e pannan jeliyjifce' 'j to biifte jejnibene • -j 
pipoji • -j betonican ete p bnft -j bjiince *j on lecje. 
Pi'S Inmtan bite Nim ni];epeapbne^ cottuc leje on 
\) bolli. 6j:t ayleah • V. j'ceajipan ane on ];am bite 
•j ):eopeji ymbutan peopp raib fticcan fpijenbe ofeji 


y\]) pebe Ininbej- plite ajpimonian -j pejbjifeban -^e- 
menje mib hunije -j tejey ]> hpite lacna ]>a pnnbe mib 
]'.y- P^l^ hnnbep bolje poxep elate • jjiunbefpelje pyl 
on butepan fmipe mib. Gpt betonican jetpipula leje 
on J^one bite. 6pt pejbpfeban jebeat leje on. 6pt 
fnl. 54 b. "cpa cipan oSSe j^peo feo]» jebjia^^b on ahfan menj pi'5 

pyple -j hunije le;5e on. Gpt jebrejme fpinef ceacan 
to ahfan yceab on. 6pt jemm pejbjifeban mopan 
^ecnua"'^ pi]> Jiyj'le bo on f bolh jjonne afcpypb hio ]3 
atep apej. 


Xi)- mon fie to p]ia^ne pyl hinbheolo];an on pilifcuni 
ealaS bjunce on neaht nepti;^. Glp mon fie to nn- 
pprene j'yl on meolce pa ilcan pypt };onne appanpt ]?u. 
Pyl on eope meolce ept hinbhioloJ>an alexanbpian poji- 
netep pobn hatte pyjit ];unne \n\> hit fpa htm leopoft 

For t;ehyji)Tc-be. 
' ni})epeapbe corrected to tlie masculine, MS. 
jecna, MS. 

LEECH Book. I. 1 4o 

and lichen from the blackthorn, dry it to dust, moisten Book I. 
with honey, tend tlie wound therewith. Against }»ite xlvui. 

of hunting s}jider, black snails fried in a hot pan and 
rubbed to dust, and pepper, and betony, let the man 
eat the dust, and drink it, and lay it on. For bite of 
hunting spider, take the netherward part of mallow, 
la}' it on the wound. Again, strike five scarifications, 
one on the bite, and four round about it, throw the 
blood with a spoon silently over a wagon way. 


For bite of mad dog; mingle with honey agrimony 
and waybroad, and the white of an egg, dress tho 
wound witli that. For wound by a hound ; foxes 
clote,^ groundsel, boil these in butter, smear tlierewith. "^'c'^'wA. 
Again, triturate betony, lay it on the bite. Again, 
beat waybroad, lay it on. Again, seethe two or three 
onions, roast them on ashes, mingle with fat and 
honey, lay on. Again, burn a swines cheek or jaw to 
ashes, shed this on. Again, take more or root of way- 
broad, pound it, put it on the wound with lard, then 
it will scrape the venom away. 


If a man be too salacious, boil waiter agrimony iu 
foreign ale, let himi drink thereof at night fasting. If 
a man be too slow ad venerem, boil that ilk wort iu 
milk, then tliou givest him corage. Boil in ewes 
milk, again, hindheal, alexanders, the wort vjJtich hight 
Fornets' palm,* then it will be with him as he would ^ l^ul^uown. 
liefest have it be. 

' For Foinet or Fonijot, see the iudex of names. 

146 LiECE BOC. 


Vi]? pseje peofan jiuban fpa jpene feoJ» on ele 'j on 
peaxe fmipe mib Jjone psejepeofan. 6f r mm jate hsep 
fmec unbeji );a bpec pi J? ]?8ep J^seje peofan. jtp hoh 
fmo popab fie . mm popnetef folm feo^ on paetpe 
be|7e mib f lim -j J^peali mib ^ lim 'j pypce yestlye 
op butepan fmipe tieptep ba]?e. 


On hpilce tib blob fie to popjanne on lipilce to 
fol. 55 a. Isetenne. bloblsep ip to popjanne ptptyne nihtum sep 

hlapmsejje -j septep pip -j J^pitij nihtum pop ]?on ]?omie 
ealle setepno J^mj pleoja}; "j mannum fpi'Se bepia^ • 
laecap Isepbon ]>a |?e pipofte psepon f nan man on ]?am 
monj^e ne bpenc ne bpunce ne ahpsep hif lichoman panije 
butan htp nybj>eapp psepe • -j j^onne on mibbelbajtim 
mne jepunobe poji |^on |?e fio lypt bi]> J^onne fpijioft je- 
menjeb. Romane him pop]?on 'j ealle fuS pole pophton 
eop]^ huf pop psepe lypte pylme *j setepneppe. 6ac 
pecjea^ Isecap 'pte jeblopene j'ypta |7onne fien betfte 
to pyjicenne je to bpencum je to pealpum je to bufte. 
JOu mon fcule bloblaefe on ];apa fix pipa selctim on 
monSe popjan -j hponne hit^ betft fie • Ipecap IsepaS 
eac ]J nan man on }?on ptp nihta ealbne monan "j ept 
X. nihca -j piptyne 'j tpentijef 'j yiy *j tpentijef -j 

' The idea is blob j-oplsecan, for bloblaese is feminine. 


, . Book i. 

IXXl. Ch. Ixxi. 

For the dorsal muscle, seethe in oil and in wax, rue 
so green, smear the dorsal muscle therewith. Again, 
take goats hair, make it smoke under the breech up 
against the dorsal muscle. If a heel sinew be broken, 
take Fornets palm, seethe it in water, foment the limb 
therewith, and wash the limb therewith ; and work a 
salve of butter, smear after the fomentation. 


On what season bloodletting is to be foregone, on 
what to be practised. Bloodletting is to be foregone 
fifteen nights ere Lammas,^ and after it for five and 
thirty nights, since then aU venomous things fly and 
much injure men.^ Leeches who were wisest, have 
taught, that in that month no man should either di^ink 
a potion drink, nor anywhere weaken his body, except 
there were a necessity for it ; and that in that case, 
he during the middle of the day should remain with- 
in, since the lyft or air is then most mingled and 
impure. The Romans for this reason, and all south 
folk, wrought to themselves earth houses, for the boil- 
ing heat and venomousness of the lyffc.^ Also leeches 
say that blossomed worts are then best to work, either 
for drinks, or for salves, or for dust. Here is set forth 
how a man shall forego bloodletting on each of the 
six fives in the month, and when it is best. Leeches 
teach that no man on the five nights old moon, and 
again on the ten nights old, and fifteen nights old, 
and twenty, and five and twenty, and on the thirty 

' August 1. 

- This refers to Italy and to its 
plumbeus auster, Autumnusque 
gravis, Libitinse qusestus acerbse. 

^ The Italian sirocco, per autum- 
nos nocentem corporibus. 

K 2 

14S L^CE EOC. 

Jjpitnjef nilira ealbne monan ne lisre blob ac betpeox 
])a]ia ]'ex ppa selcum • -j nif nan Ijloblaeytib fpa 50b 
fpa on ]:ojiej>eapbne lencten J^onne jni yjrelan pEetan 
)1. :>') 1). beoj^ jejabejiobe |)e on pmrjia jebjiuncene beoS -j on 

kalenbaf apjiilif ealpa j-elefc ];onne tjieop -j pyj^ta 
a?pefc tip ffijiyttacS ];onne peaxeS fio ypele jiUefcpe -j 
v^ p ypele blob on J^am holcnm j^sep lichoman. r'iy mon- 

ne]- l)lob bolli ypelije jentm ]7onne jeojiraeu leap apylle 
on ptetjie 'j be]7C inib • "j jccniia nioj^opeajibe leje on. 
Tip |hi pille on fnibe blob pojih^tan • ntni cerelef hpum 
;^e;5mb ro bufce pceab on ]^a punbe. Temin jnjen healm 
ept 'j bejien jebsejm to bufue • jip |m ne mtpje blob 
bolli appij^an 5en1"in hojipep tojib nipe abjure on funnan 
o'S^e be pypie je^nib to bnfre fpi];e pel leje }5 buft 
Ipij'e ]?icce on Imenne claS ])]n}> niib ]?y p blobbolh 
neahtepne. Jip ]n\ jeotenb tebpe nc niajje apjiipan 
jennn p ]'elpe blob Jie opypji'^i ;5eba3]in on Latum ftane 
•j jejnib to bufte leje on pa sebpe p buft "j ' appi''6 
fpiSe. Ttp mon ?et bloblpetan on fmpe beplea menj 
topomne j'eax -j ptc -j fceapen fmepa lege on cla8 ^j 
on p bolh. . 


V Qip men cnje hpilc hm ^^enim jnjen niela bo on ]> 
hm -j nane psetan • jip pu psetan bel'u to oppe fraejia 

A. oG a. pealpe ne mealit pu hit jelacnian -j ]'e man j'ceal fpipe 

I'tille beon py j-u pcealt hme lialue ;^ebon. 


V jhy peajrcuiu ^j pcajijiuui^ Gn lime • i^entni iinjjieuan 
•j hunijef peap menj tojsebejie bo on pa ])eaptan -j 

' So in Latiu Verruccc arc disiinguisiiod from Vari. 


nights old moon .sliouKl let blood, but betwixt eacli nl" ijook I. 

the six fives: and there is no time for bloodletting so ^'^- ^■"^^"" 

good as in early lent, when the evil luimom-s arc 

gathered which be drunken in during winter, and 

on the kalends of April best of all, when trees and 

worts first up sprout, when the evil ratten waxeth, 

and the evil blood, in the liulks or holloiv /ntme- 

vjorks of tlie body. If a lancet wound grow corrupt 

in a man, then take mallow leaves, boil them in water, 

and bathe therewith, and pound the netherward part 

of the wort ; lay on. If thou wilt stop blood running 

in an incision, take kettle soot, rub it to dust, shed it 

on tlie wound. Again, take rj'e and barley halm, burn 

it to dust; if thou may not stanch a lAooMeiting wound, 

take a new horses toi'd, dry it in tlie sun, or by the 

fire, rub it to dust thoroughly well, lay the dust very 

thick on a linen cloth, tie up for a night the blood- 

letting wound with that. If thou may not stanch a 

gushing vein, take that same blood which runneth out, 

dry it on a hot stone and rub it to dust, lay the dust 

on the vein, and tie up strong. If in bloodletting a 

man cut upon a sinew, mingle together wax, and 

])itch, and sheeps grease, lay on a cloth, and on the 



If for a man any limb of his become chinked or 
chopped, take rye meal, apply it to the limb and no 
wet ; if thou puttest wet to it, or a grease salve, thou 
mayest not cure it, and the man sliall be very still, in 
that way thou shalt make him h.ole. 


Against warts and callosities on a limb ; take sin- 
green, and juice of honey, mingle together, apply to the 

150 LMCE BOC. 

peajijiaf. 6j:t cealjrej" fceapn 'j ahfan jemenj piS eceb 
•j leje on. Gy- yipiey jimbe jebsepn to ahfan bo eceb 
to tpipula fpiSe "j leje on. 


y\]} fcujipebum nsejle • mm jecypnabne friccan pete 
on ]>one nsesl piS ]?a peapta pleah ]7onne f ^ blob 
I'ppmje tit • pypc Jjonne ]?ymel to -j lege ealb fpic on 
upan ]?one nsejl healb ppitij nihta pi]? psetan • Nim 
]^onne hpseten copn 'j hunij menj toSomne leje on bo 
]> to o]? f hal pie. 


yip 5ic]?an boccau -j pypm melu "j pealt' ealpa empela 
menj piS fupe pletan -j fmipe mib J?y. ])!]> jicj^an 
mm fcipteapo 'j ipijteapo ~j ele jnib tojeebepe bo 
Jipibban bsel fealtep^ fmipe mib ]?y. 

^ol- 56 b. .LXXVII. 

Zip ]7U pille ^ ypel fpile paSe utbepfte mm peax -j 
hemlic hatte pypt jebeat jepypmeb toSomne pypc to 
pealpe bmb on ])a fropa. 


vTip men unlui't fie jetenje • nime betomcan f pille 
}?py penejap jepejan bptnc on fpettim psetepe. 


Xiy mon ppam lonjum peje jeteopob fie bpmce be- 

' Sebon in the margin of MS., by later hand ; gebo on was meant. 
- After fealce)- add on. 


Avarts and the callosities. Again, mingle with vinegar ^^^qJ^ j 
calfs sharn and ashes, and lay on. Again, burn to Ch. ixxiv 
ashes withys rind, add vinegar, triturate thoroughly, 
and lay on. 


For a scurfy nail ; ^ take a granulated bit of vv^ood, 
set it on the nail against the warts, then strike, so that 
the blood may spring out, then work a thumbstall for 
it, and lay old lard above upon the nail, hold it for 
thirty nights against wet, then take wheaten corn and 
honey, mingle these together, lay on, apply that till 
all be well. 


For itch, take dock and worms reduced to meal, and 
salt, of all equally much, mingle with sour cream, and 
smear with that. Against itch, take ship tar, and ivy 
tar, and oil, rub together, add a third part of salt, 
smear with that. 


If thou shouldst desire that an evil swelling should 
rathely burst, take wax and a wort hight hemlock, 
beat them together when warmed, work to a salve, 
bind on the places. 


If to a man loss of appetite happen, let him take 
betony, so much as will weigh three silver pennies, 
and drink it in sweetened water. 

If a man is tired by a long journey, let him drink 

' Thus, " Ungumm scabritiem " ; Plin. xxx. 37. 

152 L^CE BOC. 

tonican on }''am liiSpenaii oxiimelle • jp' eceb bpenc 

])e pe te]\ bepojum pjiiton pi]? J^repe liealp beaban 


yip jwn }>e mon hme popbjiince. bjimce beronican 
on pcGCjie teji oj?epue bjiincan. €pr pyl betonican -j 
eo]l^ jeallan on hlurcpum eala'5 oj^j^e on fpilcjie pae~an 
I'pa he bjiincan I'cyle bpmce fimle neji mete. GjTu 
5en1"ni Ipmep lunjenne jebjiaeb -j on neaht nej-tij ^enun 
pip Ihseba fnnle. 


yip miclan celc mm netelan peo]? on ele I'mijie -j 
;i;nib ealne ]7]nne lichoman mib fe cyle jepit apej. 


Qip men I'le micel psgce jetenje popij jejnib on ele 
imipe Jnnne ■ji^litan niib -j J^one lichoman ealne pun- 
boplice pa]7e him bi]> fio pjiacce jeinetjob. 


1 o monnep I'cemne mm cejipillan -j pnbucejipillaii 
bifceoppyjit ontjpan • jjiunbefpeljean I'ypc to bpence on 
hlntrptim ealaS • xim j^peo fneeba butepan jemenje 
],>i(S hj'seten mela -j jepylte jjije mib j-y bpence bo f'pa 
mjon moji^enaf ma jip hip j^eapp fie. 

' i^jienc is piasculine, j^ may have I most likely ; or even as early as 
been written since ecei>, neuter, this, i> may begin lo stand for any 
comes as the next word, and so seems I gender. 

LKECll HOOK. ]. 


betony in the southern drink, oxyniel ; tlie acid driidc Book l. 
of whicli we before wrote in treating of the half dead ^ ' '^''''^' 


In case a man should overdrink himself; let him 
drink betony in water before his other drink. Again, 
boil betony and earthgall in clear ale, or in such 
drink as he, tlte drunkard, may have to drink, let 
him drink this always before meat. Again, take a 
swines lung/"^ roast it, and at night fasting take five =■^i. 
slices always. 


Against mickle cold ; take nettles,'' seethe them in •> See Catullus, 
oil, smear and rub all thine body therewith : the cold ^ 
will depart away. 


If to a man there betide much wakefulness, rub 
down a poppy in oil, smear thy foi'ehead therewith, 
and all thy body, wonderfully soon the wakefulness 
will be moderated for him.- 


For a mans voice ; take chervil, and wood chervil, 
bishopwort, " ontre," groundsel, work these to a drink 
in clear ale. Take three slices of butter, mingle with 
wheaten meal, and salt it, swallow this with the above 
drink ; do so for nine mornings, more if tliere be need 
of it. 

' No such disease had been men- 
tioned in this book ; it is found, II. 
lix, with the receipt for oxymel. 

- The change of pronouns is an 

error of the text. 

154 L^CE BOC. 


Zip mon \>un^ ete aj^eje butepan "j bjuiicc • i'e Jmnj 
jepit on )?a butejian. Gfx: pi]? Ipon franbe on heapbe 
aplea him mon pela fceappena on |7am pcancan Jjonne 
jepit iir '^ attep j^upli }?a pceappan. 


iTip mon punbije pi]? hif peonb to jepeohtanne frsej? 
fpealpan bpibbaf jefeoj^e on pine ete }?onne sep • o]>]>e 
pylle psetpe feoSe. 


yi]> miclum jonje opep lanb })y Isep he teopije 
mucjpypt nime him on hanb o}7]?e ho on hip pco }?y 
Isep he mejnje "j ]7onne he niman pille sep j-unnan 
upjanje cpe]7e ]?af pojib sepefc. Tellam^ te aptemepia 
ne lapfup fum ^ In uia • jefena hie ]?onne J7U up teo :• 


Zip mannep peax pealle pypc him pealpe mm ]7one 
miclan J^unj -j hajian fppecel -j eapypte nio]?opea]ibe • 
■j pepbpyjit . pypc op ]?8epe pypte -j op ]7ifum eallum 
})a pealpe -j op ]78epe butepan J^e nan psetep on ne 
come. Jip peax pealle apylle eopoppeapn -j be]?e f heapoh 
mib ])y I'pa peapme. pi]? ]?on jip man calu fie • pliniup 
fe micla Isece fej]? ]?ipne Isecebom • jentm beabe beon 
jebsepne to ahfan -j linfasb eac bo ele to on f feo}?e 
fpij?e lanje opep jlebtim afeoh }?onne -j appmje 'j nime 
peliep leap jecnupije jeote on ]?one ele • pylle ept 
hpile on jlebtim afeoh J?onne fmipe mib geptep ba]?e. 

' Bead ToUam. I -' Read fim. 

LEECn BOOK. J. 155 

l^^V- Book I. 

If a man eat wolfs bane, let him eat and drink but- ^^' ^^^^^"''' 
ter, the poison will go off in the butter. Again for 
that, let him stand upon his heid, let some one strike 
him many scarifications on the shanks, then the venom 
departs out through the incisions. 


If a man try to fight with his foe, let him seethe 
staith swallow nesthngs ' in wine, then let him eat 
them ere the fight, or seethe them in spring water. 


For mickle travelling over land, lest he tire, let him 
take mugwort''^ to him in hand, or put it into his shoe, Vol. I. xi. i. 
lest he should weary, and when he will pluck it, be- 
fore the upgoing of the sun, let him say fu-st these 
words, " I will take thee, artemisia, lest I be weary on 
the way," etc. Sign it with the sign of the cross, 
when thou puUest it up. 


1. If a mans hair fall off, work him a salve, take 
the mickle wolfs bane, and vipers bugloss, and the 
netherward part of burdock, and ferdwort, work the 
salve out of that wort, and out of all these, and out 
of that butter on which no water hath come. If hair 
fall off, boil the polypody fern, and foment the head Avith 
that, so warm. In case that a man be bald, Plinius, 
the mickle leech, saitli this leechdom : take dead bees, 
bm-n them to ashes, and linseed also, add oil iipon that, 
seethe very long over gledes, then strain, wring out, 
and take leaves of willow, pound them, pour the juice 
into the oil, boil again for a while on gledes, strain 
them, smear therewith after the bath. 

' Sand martins, hirundines riparia>. 


JOeayob 1)03]? pits ]70n • pelijej- lea]: pylle on psecejie 
Jjpeah mib ])f tep ]7ii hit I'mejiupe -j ])a leap cnua I'pa 
jefoben pjuj? on niht; on o]) f hio fie ' bjuje ^ ]m mseje 
I'meppan septep mib ]7?epe fealpe bo Ipa .xxx. nilita 
lenj jip hip ]?eapp lie. ^i]? ]?on J^e- hpep ne peaxe 
fo!. 58 a. lemetoan rejpu jenini jnib fmit on ]\a frope ne cymS 

]?a3p niBppe senij peax tip ; 

Tip hseji to j^icce lie jentm Ipealpan jebsejm unbeji 
cijelan co ahfan "j \?et: fceaban ]?a ahpan on. 


Pi]) hojipep hpeople • mm ]?a^ liapanpyjit cnua pel 
jemenj ]?onne pi8 pepfcjie butepan j^yl fpi8e on but- 
]ian bo on •]> hoji]' fpa hit: hatofc masje fmipe selce 
bseje bo fimle };a pealpe on • jip fio hjieopol fie micel 
jentm hlonb jehast inib fcanum ]?peah mib ]?y hlonbe 
fpa hatum -]5 hopf* ]?onne hit: bjnje fie fmipe mib 
])iepe pealpe lacua nine, Gpt; jemm pynian fealtr- 
l^eliset ])peah mib ];y • 'j Sonne bpije fie fmipe mib 
pipcep fmejipe. Jip hopf jeallebe fie • mm fej^elpep&nj 
jiypt: -j jotjjojmn • 'j majej^an jecnua j^el bo butejian 
to pjnnj pagrenbe ]mph claS bo hpit fealt on hpeji 
fjn])e lacna j'one jeallan mib. ]>iy hopj'ep jeallan ntm 
a?pc]7potan ^j jotpoj^an npepeapbe -j bojen eac fpa cnua 
tofomne yyl on pyple "j on butepan afeoh ]7uph claS 
fmipe mib, :• 

Tip hojip fie 6j:feoten o]>])e o].ep neat mm omppan 
fol. 5Sb. 3'ieb "j fcittifc peax jej-mje mon .xii. mpeppan opep -j 

bo halij ptetep on ]3 hopp o'SSe on fpa hpilc neat fpa 
hit fie hapa Se J^a pyjite fimle mib. 

Pih pon ilcan mm tobjiecenjie nseble eaje fcinje 
hinban on ];one byjilan ne l)i]) nan teona. :• 

' For fien. 
- Read p4' hon ]/. 
^ After ha a -word appears want- 

* Read jiynian fealrej", as before, 
xxxii. 2. ? 

LKEflf HOOK. I. ]')7 

2. A head bath for that ; boil willow leaves in water, Book T. 
wash with that, ere thou sinear it, and pound tlie ^'''- l^xxvn. 
leaves so sodden, bind on at night, till they be dry, 

that thou may after smear with the salve ; do so for 
thirty nights, longer if need for it be. In order that 
the hair may not wax ; take emmets eggs, rub them 
up, smudge on the place ; never will any hair come 
up there. 

3. If hair be too thick, take a swallow, burn it to 
ashes under a tile, and have the ashes shed on. 


1. For a horses leprosy,^ take the hare- 
wort, pound it well, then mingle with fresh butter, 
boil thoroughly in butter, put it on the horse as hot 
as possible, smear every day, always apply the salve. 
If the leprosy be mickle, take piss, heat it with stones, 
wash the horse with the piss so hot ; when it is dr}'', 
smear with the salve, apply also leechdoms inwardl3^ 
Again, take runnings of salt, heat them, wash with 
that, and when it is dry, smear with fishes grease. If 
a horse be galled, take stichwort, and goutweed, and 
maythe, pound well, add butter, wring it wetting it 
through a cloth, add white salt, shake thoroughly, 
leech the gall therewith. For a horses gall, take ash- 
throat, and the upward part of goutweed, and rosemary 
also, pound together, boil in fat and in butter, strain 
through a cloth, smear therewith. 

2. If a horse or other neat be elf shot,^ take sorrel 
seed and Scottish wax, let a man sing twelve masses 
over it, and put holy water on the horse, or on what- 
soever neat it be, have the worts always with thee. 

o. For the same ; take an eye of a broken needle, 
give the horse a prick luith it behind in the barrel, 
no harm shall come. 

' Grease in the legs ? 

- The Scottish phrase for this disease ; see the Glossary. 

158 LMCE EOC. 

Book 11. 

.1. J9as laecebomap belimpaS to eallurn inuo]pa met- 
cjiymnejjum. :• 

.II. Lsecebomaf pi]? majan yajie ealjia • x. -j jip fe 
maja a]?eneb fie -j hptet he j^icjean pcyle on jjsejie 
able. :• 

.III. Laeceboma]' be jefpelle *j j-ajie ]>2d\ majan hu 
him mon fcyle blob Isetan. :• 

.illi. Lsecebomap pi]? heajibum fpyle ]>8e]- majan "j 
fmepenej'pa -j hpfet he Jncjean j'cyle. :• 

.V. Lseeebomap pi]? majan a]?unbenepj'e -j hpset he on 
Jjsejie able J'lcje. :■ 

.VI. Lfficebomal" pi)? unlulre -j plsetan ]?e op majan 
cymS -j hpset he ]?iC5ean fcyle • nil. cpsepraf :• 

.VII. Lgecebomaf pi^S abeabobum majan 'j jip he pop- 
Ibjen fie -j tracn abeabobej' majan hu ]? ne jemylt ]? 
he Jjije]? • VI. IsBcebomap. :■ 

fol. 59 a. .VIII. Lsecebomap pi]? j'ape 'j unlufce ]?aBp majan pe 

}?e ne msej ne mib mece ne mib bpmcan beon jelacnob 
•j bitepe hjisecetunje J?popa5 • nil. cpseptap. 

.villi. Lsecebomaf pi]? mpimbe majan. :• 

.X. Lsecebom piS plsettan 'j to hsetenne untpumne 

majan ; 

.XI. Lsecebom pi]> a]?unbene]'pe majan pmbijjie -j 

ejjunje. :• 

.XTI. Lfecebom pi]? fpip]?an -j pi]? ]?on Se hiin mete 

unbeji jepunian nelle. :• 

.XIII. Lsecebom pi]? majan fppmje. :• 

.Xllli. Lsecebom pi"S ealliim majan untjmmneppum. :• 
.XV. Lsecebom pi]? ]?8e]- majan fpjiinje ]?onne ]?ujih 

luu)? bitejie h]i?ecS o]?}?('^ bealcet o]?]?e Mm on }?am 


Book II. 

Book n. 

i. These leechdoms belong to all disorders of the Contents. 

ii. Leechdoms for sore of the maw, in all ten, and 
if the maw be distended, and what the patient shall 
eat in that disorder. 

iii. Leechdoms for swelling and sore of the maw, 
how one must let him, the patient, blood. 

iv. Leechdoms for hard swelling of the maw, and 
smearings, or unguent'^, and what the patients diet 
shall be. 

V. Leechdoms for puffing up of the maw, and what 
the 'patient shall partake of in this disorder. 

vi. Leechdoms for want of appetite and for nausea, 
which Cometh of the maw, and what the patient shall 
eat ; four crafts, or skilful recipes. 

vii. Leechdoms for deadened maw, and if it have bad 
lymph, and tokens of deadened maw, how that digests 
not, which it eateth ; six leechdoms. 

viii. Leechdoms for sore and want of appetite of the 
maw, which may be cured neither with meat nor 
drink, and suffereth bitter risings in the throat ; four 

ix. Leechdoms for an inward wound of the maw 

X. A leechdom for nausea, and to heat an infirm 

xi, A leechdom for windy inflation of the maw, and 
for puffing up. 

xii. A leechdom for spewing, and in case that a 
'mans meat will not keep down. 

xiii. A leechdom for flux of the maw. 

xiv. A leechdom for all infirmities of the maw. 

XV. A leechdom for imtation of the maw when there 
is a bitter heart burn in the mouth, or there is belching. 


majan ye mete abit-e]iai5 -j ]'yje])^ ^ Im fio ablafmnj; 
|?a?j' inajaii cyin5 oj: ])am blacuin ODiuin. 

.XVI. La^ceboma]' -j taen Jnej- batan omihtan majan 
unjemer psej'ta "j ]?sey unjefceabbce cealban majan 
taen hu ]'e hata omihta ma^a unjemet ]?ujilt -j fpol 
l^jiopaS 'j nea)ionej'j'e *j jefpojunja "j jemobep tpeonunje 
unluf- je pla3tta • -j bii iSone cealban majan unjebc- 
bce metta]' lyfte • Ifecebomaf to bosm micle -j e]?ele • 
fbl. 59 ]>. ^ ]jQ lattjie meltunje fumpia metta. 

.XVII. L;ececpa?}:ta]" be bppe mipSenbce jecynbo -j 
.•ibliim -j liu bio on ])Si fpiSpan iiban apeneb bi|> o]> 
^ ]7one nufeo]?an • -j bu bio bi]> ptplieppebu • -j bii bio ip 
blobep timl)ep 'j bup -j jjte pex ];m;i; pypceap lipeji- 
pcBjice "j lacnunj J^ajia ealjia "j fpeotol tacn ]?a]ia ealjia 
;^e be micjean ^e be unlufce • je be bip Inpe • -j 
(/j^jiiim manejum tacnnm. 

.XVIII. LfBcap laepaS ]?ipne kecebom pip* bpjie fpyk' ^j 
ajninbeneppe. :• 

.XVIIII. Lssceap fecjea]; ]?ap tacn be afpollenjie ^ 
jepunbabpe bppe • 'j Ifecebomaf pr5 ]?on • 'j be ]ja3jie 
bpjie beajibunge. 

.XX. Lsecap lfepa'5 jnj- pi]? )>Depe bppe punbe ]?onne 
pe fpyle je pypmp tobyjift. 

.XXI. LfBcebomap "j tacn abeapbobjie bppe • ^ ablaj'- 
enju' on manijpealbe pifan je on ]>am Ineppum je on 
pam upejuim je on ]?am pibneniira je on ])am liolcum 
])m\\e bpjie. 

.XXII. Lfecebomaj' yij) jTOjie jepelan" lieajibneppe ];repe 
fol. coa. lipjie 'j ]-ealpa -j j^yptbjiencaf o]?]?e jip bio tobyjifu -j 

nipeji J,e]nz oS'Se upaftihtS o];]'e to Lanjfiim ]>y]iS I'lo 
iinjefele abeajibnn^ ];a^pe bpjie ; 

' The text has j-use'S. j llie full text we cannot alter to 

- As the same reading occurs in | unj;e|elfln. 

LEFX'Tr ]]ooK. rr. 161 

or if the meat turns bitter in the maw and lie hie- Uook II. 
kets, and liow the upblowing of the maw Cometh of Contents. 
black bile. 

xvi. Leechdoms and tokens of the hot inflamed maw, 
immeasurably fast, and not to he moved, and of the 
unreasonably cold maw ; tokens how the hot inflamed 
maw suffers infinite thirst, and swealing heat, and op- 
pression, and swoonings, and vacillation of the mind, 
loss of appetite or nausea ; and how variety of meats 
pleases the cold maw ; leechdoms for both, mickle and 
noble ; and of the late digestion of some meats. 

xvii. Leech crafts of the various nature and disorders 
of the liver, and how it is extended on the right side 
as far as the pit of the belly, and how it is five lobed, 
and how it is the material and home of blood ; 
and that six things work acute pain in the liver, and 
the cure of all these, and a plain token of them all, 
either by the urine, or by loss of appetite, or by 
tJie mans complexion, and l^y many other tokens. 

xviii. Leeches teach this leechdom for swelling and 
puffing up of the liver. 

xix. Leeches speak of these tokens of a swollen and 
wounded liver; and leechdoms for that; and of harden- 
ing of the liver. 

XX. Leeches teach this for wound of the liver, when 
the swelling or matter bursteth forth. 

xxi. Leechdoms and tokens of a hardened and })uffed 
up liver in manifold wise, either in the lobes, or in 
the margins, or in the membranes, or in the hollows, 
of the liver. 

xxii. Leechdoms for the sense of hardness of the 
liver, and salves, and wort drinks, or if it burst and 
descend downwards or mounteth up upwards,^ or if 
the insensibility and hardness of the liver become too 

' All the viscera were supposed to get out of place. 
VOL. 11. L 

102 L^CE BOC. 

.XXIII. Lsecebomaf hyvet him fie to popjanne on 

lipep able hpaet him fie co healbanne je on Isecebo- 

\/ mum je on mete • -j tacn ]3 ]^e fpile J^pinan ne msej 

ne utypnan on J^repe hppe. :• 

.xxiiii. Lsecebomaf -j pyptbjiencaf pij? eallum hpeji 
psepcum ealjia ]7peotyne "j pj: Lfep peaxe, 

.xxv. Lsecap eac be eallum pambe coj^um 'j abltim 
fpeocol tacn funbon -j Isecebomap 'j hu mon ]?a yj:elan 
pa3tan j)fepe pambe lacnian fcyle -j ];onne abl to )?fepe 
pambe pile pop j^sepe yjrelan omihtan psetan cneop 
hatiaS^ lenbenu hepejiaS yapiaS Jmjia lenbena lipan • 
tojeotep betpeox fculb]ium utjonj jemenjeb. 

.XXVI. Lijecebomaf ^ip fio pamb punb biS hu f mon 
onjitan ma^je -j jelacnian • v. cpseptaf. :• 

.XXVII. La3ceboma]' be pambe mipSenlicpc jecynbo 
o];J>e mijfbypbo hu p mon ma35e onjitan "j jelacman 
-j be pambe hattpe jecynbo • -j be cealbjie -j psetpe 
fol. GOb. jecynbo -j be hattjie "j bpijjie jecynbo -j f h?emeb ]>n\^ 

ne buje • J^yppum lichoman -j ne fcejjej; hatum ne 
palatum • feopon cpa3ptap -j ^^te hsemeb j^mj fpiSoft 
e^laS ]?am Se hopn able habbaS. :• 

. XXVIII. Laecebomaf pi]? J?on j?e monnej- f upe]ipe hjup 
fie ;5epylleb pi^ ypelpe paetan "j be ptnbijpe pambe. 

.xxviiii. Lsecebomaf pi}? ]jon pe mete untela mylte 
•j cijijie on pule -j yple pastan o]?]?e pcittan. :• 

' Read healria'S ? but hacia'S is in i 2 JJe^^J cosetcep from the full 
the full text. tost. 


xxiii. Leechdoms, telling what the sick man hath Book 11. 
to forego in hver disorder, what he hath to hold by, Contents. 
either in leechdoms or in meat, and tokens that the 
swelling may not dwindle nor run off in the liver. 

xxiv. Leechdoms and wort drinks for all liver pains, 
thirteen in all, and if the liver wax. 

XXV. Leeches also have found a plain token for all 
wamb ' diseases and disorders, and leechdoms, and how 
a man shall treat the evil humours of the wamb, and 
when disease will be at the wamb, for the evil in- 
flammatory humours ; the knees " are hot,'' the loins are 
lieavy, the sinews of the loins are sore, there are 
spasms between the shoulders, the discharge is of a 
mixed nature. 

xxvi. Leechdoms if the wamb be wounded, and how 
a man may understand that, and lioiv cure it ; five 
crafts or receii^ts. 

xxvii. Leechdoms regarding the various nature and 
misbehaviour of the wamb, how a man may under- 
stand and how treat that, and of the hot nature of 
the wamb: and of its cold and moist nature, and of 
its hot and dry nature,^ and how the congressus 
sexuum is not holesome for a dry body, and how it 
scatheth not a hot nor a wet one : seven crafts : and 
that swiving most severely hurteth them who have 
the disease of foul humours. 

xxviii. Leechdoms in case that the upper part of the 
belly of a man be filled with evil humour, and of 
the windy wamb. 

xxix. Leechdoms in case that meat digest not well, 
and turn to foul and evil humour or feeces. 

' The maw is the organ of di- 
gestion, the stomach ; the wamb 
is the venter, -whatever that may 

3 The " hot and cold, wet and 
" dry " theory was an attempt of 

the " rationalis disciplina " of the 
Hellenes to arrive at scientific 
generalizations ; it is traceable 
among the works attributed to Hip- 
pokrates and in Aristoteles. 


16-i L^.CE BOC. 

.XXX. Lfecebomaf jij: ]m jnlle ]3 ]nn pamb fie 
fimle jefimh -j be co'Se 'j fape be pambe co\Se -j mne- 
}:ajuiu lajie -j to pambe jemetlictinje fyxtyne cptep- 
taS. :• 

.XXXI. Lseceboma]- "j taenuiij on J;am poppe -j fmcel 
]>ea]\me 'j on utjoiije hu liie JjjiopiaiS opma^'cne }>upfc • 
•j unlult . -j be hiopa hipe -j ]?am naj:olan -j jisejpeofan 
-j bsec ];ea]iine -^ nipefeo}?an --j mike' pcape -j bu un- 
Irecaj- penaS p •]' lie lenbenabl o]>]7e milu pasjic -j lipaep 
pa pamb feocan ]\a able |?]io]nen ^ hu liim pie • -j liu 
fol. Gia. hiopa mon tilian ycyle peopep ]npa." :• 

.XXXII. Ltecebomap bvi mon I'pa jepabne man lacnian 
pcule • je mib blobltepe "j pealpe -j ba6o "j lacnunj on 
]' lipip to Senbanne • -j ];ap liBcebomap ma^on piS 
leiibenece • -j jip mon fonbe mije • ]n|? nt; piiepce • piS 
majan ablum -j c-lapunja "j pij:a beb-epneppum • -j be 
]>a3pe coSe hu man lyfce utjan -j ne mjej • -j jip pe 
ucjanj fie pinbi;j; 'j psetepij "j blobij . xii. pifan. 

. XXXIII. Lseceboma]- pr6 j^asjie ppecnan co8e J>e fe 
mon hip utjanj ]mph 'Sone muS liim ppam pypp^) "j 
afpjipan jx-eal • ^ pib [nnobpunbum 'j fmpel ];ea]ima 
fajie • -j ]n8 tobjiocenum mnoj^um "j ]n|j poptojenepj-e 
mnan • ^ piS ]?riepe pambe ];e late my It -j j-e ]?a)ia lajce- 
boma ne jimS ];onne becym"(5 hirn on paiteji bolla lipeji 
psepc milte]' ]'a)i mic;^ean pojiha?pbnep pambe ablapun^ 
lenbenpa'jic fonb -j f-anaf on bla-bpan peaxaS j'jieotyne 
cpa3ptap. :• 

' Head milte ■]. j - I3ef'ore erasure, jnj-an. 

LEECH LOOK. u. 165 

XXX. Leeclidoms if tliou will that tby wamb Ix; al- pook II. 
ways sound, and of disease and sore ; and of disease of ^^^■^^''• 
the wamb and • sore of the intestines, and foi- the 
moderation ' of the wamb ; sixteen receipts. 

xxxi. Leechdoms and symptoms marking of the ro])e 
gut and small gut, and of the ftocal discharge ; how 
they suffer unbounded thirst and loss of appetite; and 
of their complexion or hue, and of the navel, and the 
dorsal muscles, and rectum, and pit of the belly, tvnd 
milt, and share or puhes, and how bad leeches ween 
that that is loin disease or milt wark, and where the 
warnbsick suffer the disorder, and how it is with them, 
and how a man shall treat them : four methods. 

xxxii. Leechdoms how a man shall cure one so 
afflicted, Avhether with bloodletting, and salve, and 
baths, and Icoiv to send curatives into the belly. 
And these leechdoms are efficacious against loin ache, 
if a man mie sand, for dysentery, for diseases of the 
maw, and gripings, and womens tendernesses, and of 
the disease where a man would evacuate and is not 
able (tenesmus), and if the discharge be windy, and 
watery, and bloody. Twelve methods. 

xxxiii. Leechdoms for the perilous disease in which 
a man casteth from him and speweth, as they sa}^, his 
excrement through the mouth ; and for wounds of the 
inwards, and sore of the small guts, and for laceration 
of the inwards, and for inward spasm ; and for the 
wamb which digests late, and the man who is not 
affected by the leechdoms ; there cometh on him 
dropsy, pain in liver, sore of spleen, retention of urine, 
inflation of belly, pain in loins, sand and stones wax 
in the bladder. Thirteen receipts. 

' The " temperies " and " commoderatio vcutri;-," that it be neither too 
hot nor too cold. 

166 L^CE BOC. 

.XXXIIII. Lsecebomaj- "j be j;{x?]' manne]' mihtum fceal 
fol. 61 b. mon ])a Iseceboinaf j'ellan |>e ponne jejroje lynb • je 

heajzbe • je heoptan • "j pambe • *j blaebpan "j pojejnm. 
-j hu jeajiep hit fie be lipeto -j cele -j ])i]; lattpe inel- 
tunje • o'SSe jtp pamb pojipeaxen "j pojipunbob fie • 
■j jip mon fie mnan pojiblapen • -j pi8 jniinbe ppmum ' 
■j jicjmm* nyjaii pipan. :■ 

.XXXV. Lsecebomap be cilba opeppyllo 'j.paiiibe "j pp 
htm mete tela ne mylte -j htm fpat opja 'j ft nice 
pule. :• 

.XXXVI. Laecebomaf be milte psepce "j f he bi5 on 
])a pinptpan~ fiban "j tacn Ssepe able hu hijeleafe hi 
beoS "j hu lanj fe milte fie "j be 'psdy miltep pilmene 
on ]?a pmfcpan healpe be hleahtpe ]7e op milte cyiiiS • 
hu pe milte sejhpset ]?popaS Jjsep l^e oJ?ep limo je hat 
je cealb • -j be bsecSe ^j hpemeb J^mje "j hpanan fio 
hseto cume -j cele J^aep miltep eahta cpseptaf :• 

.XXXVII. Laecebomaf hu mon fcyle ]7one monnan 
Innan -j utan mib cealbum -j hatum Isecebomum lac- 
fol, 62 a. man 'j hpilc mete him fie to J^icjenne -j hpiJc him fie 

to pojijanne. 

.XXXVIII. Laecebomaf hu mon pceal J?a psetan -j pon- 
pceapta utan lacnian *j be ];am psetum yplum pajp 
miltep 'j jnS plipunje ptetan J^sep miltep. :• 

.xxxviiii. Lsecebom pij? pinbijpe a]mnbeneppe hsey 
miltef fio cjm^ op ?epla sete -j hnuta • --j pyfena • "j 
hunijej- iete "j ];one jiop -j mnepojian 'j pambe -j 

' jtyjimum in the full text. | - jnntjjan, MS. 


xxxiv. Leechdoms; and the leeclidoms which are Book II. 
suitable to the case sliall be administered accordino- to ^^^'^'^^'^^- 
the mans powers, whether in head, or heart, and of 
wamb, and bhidder, and lynipli; ^ and according as 
the time of year may be, in regard to heat and cold; 
and for late digestion, or if the wamb be overgrown 
and wounded ; and if a man be blown out inwardly ; 
and for prurience, and itchings of the wamb ; nine 

XXXV. Leechdoms for the overfilling 07' surfeit of 
children, and for their wamb, and if their meat digest 
not well, and if sweat pass from them and stink 

xxxvi. Leechdoms of pain in the milt, and that 
the milt is on the left side, and tokens of the disease, 
how reckless the sick are, and how long the milt 
is, and of the film or membrane of the milt on the 
left side, and of splenetic laughter, which cometh of the 
milt, how the milt suffereth everything of that which 
other limbs suffer either hot or cold; and of the bath, 
and of sexual commerce, and whence the heat cometh 
and the cold of the milt : eight receipts. 

xxxvii. Leechdoms how a man shall tend the man 
within and without with cold and hot leechdoms, 
and what meat he is to take, and what he is to 

xxxviii. Leechdoms how a man shall cure the hu- 
mours and the livid complexion by external applica- 
tions, and of the evil humours of the milt, and of the 
lubricity of the humours of the milt. 

xxxix. A leeehdom for a windy swollen state of the 
milt, which cometh of eating of apples, and of nuts, 
and of peas, and of honey, and which pufFeth up 
throughout the rope gut, and the intestines, and the 

Gastric juice. 

]68 L^CE EOC. 

ma^^uu ]ja ^(ionb blapab • -j pit) yo5e]7au "j feaban )?e oj: 
milte cymS • 'j Im iio abl jejK'iit; on pa^rep bollan 
eallep tyii cpjcftaj'. :• 

.XL. Liecebomaf be ablapunje -j alieajibunje j^ael' 
blobef ou pain milce. : 

.XLI. Lsscebomaf pi]> ]>se]\e lieajibnej-pe -j I'ajie inilrc]- 
■j liii mon nipej fpinej- blsebjian inib ecebe jepylbjie 
jelmepcan j^a Iieajibnepj'e -j pi]? ealluni niablum ]>]iy 
cjiiuptaS. : • 

.XLii. Lsecebomaf jtp omihtjie blob 'j ypele ptetari 
on ]7am milre pyn }?mbenbe ponne j^ceal him inun 
blob Iseran on ]ni]- pipan pe ])eop Ireceboc ^ej]) • "j 
be ]70ep blobep liipe. :• 

.XLiii. Lsecebomap lipeer hnn on j^sejie able to |nc- 
fol. G2 b. jeune fie hpset; to pojijanne. 

.XLiiil. Laicebom eft pe pe p ypel uttih'S op ];ani 
milte fpi8e a^J^ele * 'j pe eac beah pi]; majan ablapunje 
•j Inno]ni Imej-ce]) Jja pambe ])ynna]:> j?a oman • bitejie 
hjitecetunje apej be]; -j bjieoft co]>e • -j pib ptepc • 'j 
lipeji able "j milte pcTpc • -j pambe pmb eal ])a liht. : 

.XLV. La3ceboma]- 'j ipi&bjienc pijj aipollenum. :• 

.XLVI. Lsecebomai" jnj; 5elip?e];eji]ie fiban pajie 'j tacn 
punboplicu lipanan lio cume 'j hu fio abl topeapib lie • 
•j liu mon papa tilian pcyle. :. 

.XLYii. Lsecebomap pa Se ]?ynnun3e lisebben -j fuial- 
iinje msejen • ];am lichoman pe pa ha^to mebmicle 
oppe itjianje ppopien -j hu mon icyle fpinel" blsebpan 
on bon. :. 

.XLViii. Laecebomal' pelpan jip pap op'pe helpe ne 
I'yn hu him mon eac blob pcyle l?etan. ;. 

.XLViiii. Laecebomal" 'j peax pealpa -j pceappunja pip 
liban pape "j lij?ajt he j^icjean ]"cyle. ;. 


waiii]i or venter, and the maw or stomacJt, sobbing Book II. 
and Avatery congestions which come from the milt, 
and how the disease turneth into dropsy : in all ten 

xl. Leechdoms for inflation and for hardening of the 
blood in the milt. 

xli. Leechdoms for the hardness and sore of the milt, 
and how a man may with a swines bladder lilied 
with vinegar, make nesh the hardness ; and for all 
its inward diseases ; three recipes. 

xlii. Leechdoms in case inflammatory blood and ill 
humours in the milt are enlarging it : then shall the 
sick be let blood in these ways which this Leech book 
saith ; and of the hue of the blood. 

xliii. Leechdoms telling what during that disorder 
is to be the diet, and what food is to be foregone. 

xliv. A leechdom, again, a very noble one, which 
di'aweth out the evil out of the milt ; and this leech- 
dom is also efficacious for puffing up of the maw and 
of the inwards ; it maketli nesh the wamb, it thinneth 
the hot secretions, it doth away bitter throat risings, 
and breast disease, and side pains, 'pleurisy, and liver 
disease, and milt pains, and wamb wind ; all them it 

xlv. Leechdoms and a powerful potion for the swollen. 

xlvi. Leechdoms for sore of either side, and wondrous 
tokens whence the disease cometh, and how it is 
imminent, and how it should be dealt with. 

xlvii. Leechdoms which have the main or virtue of 
thinning and smalling or small rnaJdng; for the bodies 
which suffer a moderate or strong heat, and how a 
swines bladder should be applied. 

xlviii. Better leechdoms if these others are not for 
a help, how, also, the patient shall be let blood. 

xlix. Leechdoms, and wax salves, and scarifications 
for sides sore, and a declaration what he, the sick, 
shall take for diet. 

170 L^CE BOG. 

.L. Lsecebomaf ejrt ]n8 fiban ]-ape. 

fol 63 a. . LI. Lsecebomaj- pi^ lun3;eTi able "j la]?licu tacn hpanan 

fio abl cume -j liu mon lacnian fcyle • bpencaj' 'j yealjra 

'j bjiipaf je piS lunje punbe -j jip lunjen bpeo]?e • -j 

jip liinjen bpujije an "j tpentrij cpsefca. :• 

.Lli. La3cebomaf -j fpij'ebpencap mannum to hiele -j 
jtp man liine opeji ^emet bjiece to fpi]>anne -j eft 
pece hjienc o]>]>e jip bjienc op men nelle eallef tpentij 
bpencea. . :• 

.Liii. Lrecebomaf 'j leolite bpencaf mannum to hpelo 
■j tinfpmle bpenceap pi]> untpumum mnojmm eahta 
cp septal'. :• 

.Liiii. Lfecebomap ^ bpencaf prS mfcice -j jip ftice 
butan inno];e fie. :• 

.LV. Lsecebomaf *j bpencaf pp mon mnan pojiliaepb 
fie -j pi]) inco]>e "j p;ep co]:ie. :■ 

.LVI. LfBcebomaf jip mon fie on utpsepce *j tacn be 
utpibte je on j^am upeppan hjiipe je on J>am m|;eppan 
•j lipanan fio abl cume 'j liu mon hie pcyle lacnian -j 
lippet mon Jncjean fcyle -j ept pi]? ]?on jip mon blobe 
ane utyjme "j pi]) miclum pape -j ablauneppe ])SRp in- 
fol. 63 b. no]7ep o]?])e j'Tp mon pop poppep untpumnej-pe utypne 

oppe pp hpa blobpyne J^popije on J)am ni]?eppan bjelum 
hip lichoman o]7])e jip hpam pie micje on blob jip hio 
jehj'ypp]) • oS8e jip mon utjanj nsebbe *j ept ut- 
ypnenbe lipip ptp -j hunb feopontij Iseceboma. :• 

.LVii. LaBcebomap pi J; ]7eapmep utjanje -j jip men 
bilyhte fie ymb ];one ];eapm 'j pi6 bla3C * Jjeapmef 
utjanje nijon pij-an. 

' Read baec. 


1, Leeclidoms again for sides sore, that is, pleurisy. Book ii. 

li. Leechdoms for lung disease and loathsome tokens CoNxi-NTfe. 
oi' symptoms, whence the disease cometh and how one 
shall cure it ; drinks, and salves, and brewits, bo it for 
lung wound, or if a lung perish, or if a lung get dry ; 
one and twenty crafts or recipes. 

lii. Leechdoms and spew drinks for men for their 
health : and if a man strain himself above measure to 
spew, and again a weak drink, or if a chink or draught 
of medicine will not pass away from a man. In all 
twenty drinks. 

liii. Leechdoms and light drinks for men for their 
health, and unspewing drinks, or potions not emetic, 
for infirm inwards ; eight crafts. 

liv, Leechdoms and drinks for an inward stitch, 
and if there be a stitch outside the inwards. 

Iv. Leechdoms and drinks if a man be inwardly 
bound up, and for inward disease, and sudden disease. 

Ivi. Leechdoms if a man be afflicted with painful 
evacuation, and tokens of dysentery, either in the 
upper part of the belly or in the nether, and whence 
the disease cometh, and how a man shall cure it, and 
what a man shall take for diet; and again in case 
that a man evacuate with blood only, and for mickle 
sore and upblowing of the inwards, or if a man, from 
infirmity of the rope gut or colon, have diarrhcea, or 
if one suffer a bloodrunning in the nether parts of his 
body, or if any ones mie or urine be of blood, or if 
it turneth,' or if a man have no evacuation, and 
again an outrunning brewit for diarrhcEa ; seventy- 
five leechdoms. 

Ivii. Leechdoms for outgoing of the gut, and if Prolapsus. 
boils come on a man about the gut, and for outgoing 
of the gut ; nine methods. 

> Cloudy. 

174 L^CE EOC. 

lol. 64 b. iirpsejice • -j jij: mon blobe fpij'e • -j yip blobpyne • -j 

jip lim fsepmja ace • "j pi]> blasce on -jplitan. :■ 

.LXiiii. LaBcebom j-e monian^ pi]? mnoj^ep poplisspb- 
/ neppe -j jutomori'- pi-S milce ptepce "j frice *j fpican 

]n]) utpilitan *] bpacontjan pi]? pule hojiaj- on men • -j 
alpaii pi]? mitpymneppum • 'j jalbanep pi]? neappiim 
bjieoicmn • -j balzaman fmipmj pi]? eallvim uncpuin- 
lu'ppuni 'j petjiaoletim ro bjimcanne anpealb pij? innan 
-ybejmeppe -j utan to fmejipanne • -j typiaca ij* 30b 
bjienc jn]? mno]? tybepnepj'um • -j pe lipica fcan pi6 
ealliim uncu]?um bpocum. .. 

.LXV. La3ceb6m ^ip liojif pie opl'coten *j pi]? utpsejice- 
■j jtp utrjanj popfeten j'le • "j pi]? lencten able • apt 
pi]? utpsepce -j pi]? unlybbum -j pi]? ]?8epe jeolpan able 
•j jip men fie pfeplice ypele "j to jeliealbanne lichoman 
licelo -j pi]? 5ic]?an "j ailue -j pi]? lonb able -j jonjel- 
pseppan bite • "j piS utpiliCe "j lieapob pealpa. 

f^j g5 j^ .LXVI. be |?am Itane ]?e jajatej- liacte, 

.LXVii. Be pa^je ele]- -j o]?e]ipa mipSenlicjia ])in3a. 

Alexander P^Y ^^^'^ ''^'^^^ abliep majan • sepeft jelome fpsetunja 

Trailianus, lib. oSge hpsGCunja • cipnef -j ]-e man hme jelome to fpi- 

R. Stephaui, panne • "j he onpmbe]? fpile "j ]? ]?a oman beoS mne 

^■^48. betynbe ]>up]i ]?a ablapun^e • "j him biS unej?e ]?upfc 

jetenje. 6ac op })5Bp majan able cumaS momje -j 

mipSenlica abla jebopfcena punba "j lipamma h pylle 

pu'pc "j pienba abl • -j luicla mupnun^a 'j unjiotnepj'a 

butan J?eappe "j oman -j nnjemetlica mete j-ocna -j 

unjemetlice unluftaf "j cipneppa • "j fapa mable on pipep 

' Kead j-camoinan, Avliich is mentioned elsewhere iu this book II. iii. 3., 
and is a strong purgative. 
-' Kead jut amnion. 


blood, and for blood running ; and if a limb suddenly Book II. 
ache, and for a blotch on the face. 

Ixiv. A leechdom ; scamony for constipation of 
the inwards, and ammoniac drops for pain in the 
milt, and stitch, and spices ^ for diarrhoea, and gum 
dragon for foul disordered secretions on a man, and 
aloes for infirmities, and galbanum for oppression in 
the chest and balsam dressing for all infirmities, and 
petroleum to drink simple for inward tenderness, and 
to smear outwardly, and a tryacle, that is a good 
drink, for inwards tendernesses, and the white stone, 
lapis Alabastrites, for all strange griefs. 

Ixv. A leechdom if a horse be elf shot, and for pain 
in evacuation of the fseces, and if the evacuation bo 
stopped, and for the " lent disease,'' or typhus ; again 
for pain in evacuation, and for poisons, and for the 
yellow disease or jaundice, and if sudden evils come 
on a man ; and to preserve the bodys health, and 
against itch and elf, and for " land disease " or nos- 
talgia, and for bite of the gangway weaver, spider, and 
for diarrhoea and head salves. 

Ixvi, Of the stone which agate hight. 

Ixvii. Of the weight of oil, and of other various 

These are tokens of diseased maw ; first, frequent 
spittings or breakings, choiceness or a daintiness about 
food, and for the man to spew frequently ; and he will 
have a sense of swelling, and that the hot inflamed 
humours are shut up within him by the inflation ; and 
an uneasy thirst is contingent upon him. Also from 
disease of the maw come many and various diseases of 
bursten wounds, and cramps, and epilepsy, and fiends 
disease, and mickle murmuriuii'S and uneasiness without 

Cinnamon is much administered. 



jecynbon "j on ):ot:nm -j lila^hjinn • *j on unmobe • *j 
on iinjemet: pteccun^' 'j iin^jepitlico pojib • ye maja bi]? 
neali \\V]\e lieoptan -j |)3S]ie jelobji -^ "j jeabojitenje )>am 
bjiffi5[en]e • oy [am cumat) ]?a abla fjn];olu Of ];a3p majan 
incmjan "j on^ yplum ]'eapum pretan attepbepenbum • 
jjonne 5a pa^tan^ ])a ypelan peo]i]7a]7 jejabepobe on 
]?one inajan • 'j J'ffiji jiixiaS nnb pceajipunja ninan • 

fol. 65 b. fpijjofr on ]?am monnum ]>e habbaS fpijje jepelne "j 

fajicjienne majan fpa ]3 Lie fume fomnunja fpelra]? • 
ne rnajon abejxan ]ja Icjianjan pceajipmja ]?0epa 
jEtejma psetena • hpilum pypmaf op ]?am mjjeppan ^ 
brelvim 5e]'ecaS ];a npejijian btelap to }mm majan • "j eac 
lieoptcoj^e ])ypceao • -j anjnej'j-a -j 5efpo])un5a ipa 'pte 
hpilum fume men ppam j^ajia pyjima plitunje fpelraS 
"j poppeop|?a8 • poji ]>on j^sem mannurn beah ■]) him mon 
on pjiuman ]?a mettap jipe ]?e celunje -j fujianjunje 
ma'jen ha^bben fpa fjni" beo]? feppla naiej- to fpete 
eallep ac ]-upmelfce -j pejuiii -j pepfucaj- -j hlap jebon 
on cealb ])a;te]i o]?|?e on luit be ]?se]ie jelicunje ])?ep 
majan pe ]:>a ^^pelan jnietan fceoppenban 'j fceappan 
haspS. pip beali eac on pjiuman ]?am Se |;a heojiCcoSe 
■j f jefceopp c3popia5 relcpa jejiifc ]3 him mon lytlum 
ba mettap j'elle Jja ]>e late melten • leax'' 'j Jja pixap 
J>a Se late meltan joj'e mneple^ -j fpmef pet J)a '5e 
nifBjen pi]? habban" ]?am yjrelan psetan • -j J?onne him 
pel fie ]7onne ]?icje he fpetjian mettaf • ne \n]> hmi 

fol. 66 a. nanpuht pelpe J^onne lie ]?a j^icje ]ja ];e late melten '" -j 

' The construction is faulty ; it 
should be ~j unmoh t unsemerptecce. 

^ Iveacl j;elob)ie ? See Lye in 
Seloba. Also b))cet;e, LIS 

•■* Read o)-. 

•» At this point our author skips 
over seven folio pages and goes on 
at lib. vii. cap. id, p. 114, ed. 1548. 

■' The interpreter omits ol t?/s poas 
KoicKot, the seeds of the pomegranate, 
and ^oSd/ciw, nectarines, and »? avff- 
Ti)phv Kcu t]ivxp^v txouira ffTa(pvK-r], 
(/rapes of a <lr?/ and cold Jlavoxir . 

''" Read nij^ejipan. 

" The interpreter takes iVi/cot for 
salmon, csoces, as was and is usual ; 
and he neatly escapes Pov\$a, 
aripviov, affraicoi, craij Jislt, KTivia, 
scallops, KTipvicta, conch shellfish. 

" Jicad mnclje. 

" Read habban ]n\<. 

'" Our interpreter here varies from 
the printed text, which recommends 
frequent snacks of food ; very 

i.i:i':('ii BOOK. II. 177 

occasion, and eiysipelaton.--. ca-uptions, and immoderatu Uook ir. 
desires for meat, and innneuse want of appetite, and * '■ 
daintinesses, and sore internal diseases in foemina^ natu- 
ralibus, that is, tlie uterus, and in the feet, and in the 
bhidder, and despondency, and immoderately long wak- 
ings, and witless words. The maAv is near the heart and 
the spine, and in communication with the brain, from 
which the diseases come most violently, from the cir- 
cumstances of the maw, and from evil juices, humours 
venombearino-. Then the evil humours cct gathered 
into the maw, and there they rule with excoriations 
within ; esj^ecially in the men v/ho have a very 
sensitive and soon sore maw, so that some of them 
suddenly die ; they are not able to beai- the strong 
excoriatino- effects of the venomous humoiu"s. At Avhiles 
worms from the nether parts seek the upper parts, uj) 
as far as the maw ; and they also work heart disease,' 
and oppressive sensations, and swoonings ; so that some- 
times some men by the gnawing of the v/orms die and 
go to the dogs. Wherefore it is well for those men, that 
at the first the meats lie given them which have the 
virtue of cooling and strengthening, such as be apples, 
by no means too sweet, but by all means sourish, and 
pears, and peaches, and loaf bread put into cold water or 
into hot, according to the liking of the man which hath 
the evil humours scarifying and sharp. This also is of 
importance in the first place to them who suffer the 
heart disease" and the abrasion ; it is fitting that one 
should give them by little at a time the meats which 
tardily digest, as lax or saltnoii, and the fishes which 
slowly digest, goose giblets, and s wines feet, and such Contradicts 
as have a virtue against the evil humours ; and when 
he ^ is better, then let him partake of sweeter meats. 

' Tlie Saxon version misses tlic ;nU]i;)i- had liinisclf many times 

meaning of icapoiaKus SiafleVeis. said. 

- KcpoiaXyiaf, d/seafte of tin' ■'• The previous cdauses were plural 

diyeslive onjun, as the Hellenic unless "tipopia'S stand for tiiiopa"?!. 
VOX,. If. M 

178 L^OE TiOO. 

fpa j^eali ne lynb icitole • j^icje to unbepne]' hiaj: ^e- 
bjiocenne on hat pseteji' o]>]>e seppla bejimbebe.^ 6ac 
bi]? 30b jzulcum on jobum pyjitbjiencum fpa Isecap 
pypcaS • op ecebe 'j op pmolep pypttpuman -j op jimbe • 
•j op alpan -j op bopan hunije -^ jemenj f -j pele Jjsep 
cuclep pulne o]jJ>e tpejen ]?onne hnepcaS f J>a pambe -j 
Cpyme]? • "j f beah yip bpeoft psejice -j pi]? lieoptco]?e 'j 
piS pellepsepice • -j pi^ ]?on ]je mon fie 'on ]?am majan 
omi^pe psetan jepylleb • -j pi8 manejum ablum f beah • 
^a ]?e cumaS op opeppyllo • -j op mifj'enhcum yplum 
Alex. Trail, psetum. jip hie cumen op opeppyllo mib fpipe ]?an* 
cap. iy., ed. j^y ^^^ y^^^i lythan. jip hie ]7onne cumaS op o)?pum 
bifcepum -j ypelum psetum ]?a J^e pypiceaS oman ]?onne 
beo]7 J?a elcpan to fciUanne o]?^ J^e hie unftpanjpan 
peop)?an • fpi]?oft ;<;ip )?a psetan beoS ]ncce -j plipejpan. 

be pambe coj^e o]>]>e jtp op \>se]\e pambe anpe j;a 
ypelan psetan cumen -y ne opepypnen ealne j7one licho- 
man f mon pceall mib halpenbum mettum anum lac- 
fol. 66 b. man -^ jip ]?onne fio ypele psete op J^sepe pambe opep- 

ypne]? ealne ]?one lichoman ]?8ep mon pceal mib mapan 
lacnunje tilian • hpilum Mm mon pceal op febpan blob 
Isetan jip J^sep blobep to pela jnnce -j jjsepe yplan psetan 
•j eac pyptbpenc pellan. Ac sepeft mon pceal blob 
Isetan septeji |;on pyptbpenc pellan. 


Pi]? papum -j a])unbenum majan jenim ele -j jebo 
hpit cpiiba 'j bile -j fu])epne pepmob on ]?one ele 

' iidaip Tpvxp6i'. Al. Trail. 1 ' fj.4\iros arriKov, A. T. 

-' ^ firiXou 7^ KiTpov cKrhi- tuv AeVoi/y i ' Not very litei'ally. 
uvTov, A. T. I " Alex. Trail, has more words. 

LEECH HOOK. If. 179 

Naught is better for Lini than that he take those ^^°^ ^}- 
which digest late, and are notwithstanding not purga- 
tive ; let him eat at undern, or nine o^cloek, loaf bread 
broken into hot water, or apples peeled. There is also 
good support in good wort drinks, as leeches work 
them, of vinegar, and of fennels roots, and of its rind, 
and of aloes, and of dumbledores^ honey; mix that up 
and administer a spoonful of it or two, then that 
maketh the wamb nesh and firm ; and it is efiicacious 
against breast wark, and heart disease, and epilepsy, and 
in case that a man be filled with inflainmatory hu- 
mour in the maw, and that is valid against many dis- 
orders which come of surfeit and of various evil 
humours. If they are come of surfeit with spewing, by 
that remedy shall they be lessened. If however they 
come of other bitter and evil humours, which work 
inflammations, then are the latter to be stilled till that 
they become less strong ; chiefly if the humours be 
thick and rather slippery.^ 

2. Of wamb disease, or if the evil humours come 
from the wamb alone and do not overrun the whole 
body, that case shall be treated with healing meats 
alone. If moreover the evil humour from the wamb 
overrunneth the whole body, this shall be dealt with 
by means of the stronger remedies : at whiles one shall 
let him blood from a vein, if there seems to be too 
much of the blood and of the evil humour, and also 
give a wort drink ; but he shall first be let blood 
and after that have the wort drink given him. 


1. For a sore and swollen maw ; take oil, and put 
mastic, and dill, and southern wormwood into the oil, 

' Attic. 1 - y\i(TXP'>i- 

M 2 

1 so {..Y.OK V.CiC. 

\iv.~ I'raubaii pjuM nihc -j ;^ebo \> ]k\ I'Vjita yyn j^t- 
j'obene ou ];aiii fk' • Jt^bo L)onu(^ uii hnt- j'ce puUe 
i'mijie l^one maT;au inib. Bpt jnj> )>on iloaii ^emui 
ealbne pyyle i;eL;]npila on 'cjieopeniiiii mopce]ie ineui; 
yrh sejel' \) lipite bo on clab leje on. pij' pajVuin 
inaran eyx: ^ebo on peajunne elf ]>a j'Vpt; • ]^e hactc 
}:eno5)iecum -j lanpep cjioppaii j bile fmipc ]>one 
majan mib |;y. 

fol. C7 a. ]hp pajium niajan pe^bjirebau peap -^j cceb bo on 

cla'6 lege on. 6pt; jip pe maja ajpunben f"ie o]>\e a]?eneb • 
[^emni ]?££]• pelefcan ])inef 'j jpenel' elep Ipilc healp feo]' 
pejimobep cpoppan bo on Imepce pulle fmipe mib. Sellt 
him ])onne plaepc e~an lyceljia puhta I'mjieljia pnjla ^epo- 
benjia -j ^ebpsebjia -j manijpealb a?ppelcyn pepan fppenm- 
i^ap' pi San op];a3nba -j jefobena on ecebe 'j on jjjierpe 'j on 
pme ])el fceappum. ]?i]? j-apnm majan • pofan leapa .v. 
o]^];e .vii. oS'Se nijon -j pipopef copna empela jei^nib 
fmale "j on liatjuin ptccepe pele bjimcan. Bpr pi]> ]on 
ilcan 3;enrni oj: puihnyrc .xx. ;<;(*cl<ciiibbpa cyjincla "j 
cymene]* fpa nuccl fpa jni niajje nub j^jum pinjjinni 
po]iepeapbuni 7;eninian jecjiipula jionnc bollan pulne 
pyl on moprejie jebo cealbef pserepep to .II. jobi^ 
bollan pnlle pele Sonne (lejiefc ]> liealp to bjimcanne. 
Gy.~ ip onlejen' ro trpymmanne ]?one niajan "j to 

fol. G7 b. Inubanue jeptep utj-ihtan o])])e i^pteji pyp'cbpence je- 

ha'jmebne hlap chenne ieo]? on ealbum j'nie ^ip ];u 
htebbe • jip Int lie furaop co pejiniobei' febef bupt to 
feoj; a't^a?bepe bo on claS opejdmit mib ele leje on 
})one majan • ;i;ip hit fie pmteji ne ];eappt |;u ];oiie 
pepmob to bon. 


I^e i;efpel]e -j j-ajie ])8P)- mai;an« ^}y iV man p miejen 
hffibbe Iff't liim ))lob toptep j^oii mib py ele fmijie |>e 


LEKCll HOOK. II. 181 

let it .stand three uigiit;s, .-ind aiTange tliat tlie worts Bonk 11. 
be sodden in the oil, then })nt tluU vi\nn\ nesh wool, ^' "' 

^niear the rnnvv therewith. Again, for that ilk ; take 
old lard, triturate it in a treen mortal', juingle there- 
with the white of an egg, })iit on a cloth and lay on. 
For a sore maw, agaiii ; put the wort into warm oil. 
which hight fenugreek, and hunches of laurel HoM'er.s, 
and dill ; sniear the maw with that. 

'1. For a sore maw ; put on a cloth juice of way- 
broad and vinegar ; lay on. Again, if the maw be 
swollen or distended ; take some of the best wine, and 
of green oil half so much, seethe the heads of worm- 
wood tJoerein, put this on nesh wool, smear therewith. 
Then give him the flesh to eat of little creatures, as 
of small fowls, sodden and roasted, and manifold kinds of 
apples, pears, medlars, peas moistened and sodden in 
vinegar and in water, and in pretty sharp wine. For a 
sore maw ; leaves of rose, five, or seven, or nine, and of 
pepper corns as many, rub them small, and administer 
in hot water to be drunk. Again, for that ilk ; take 
twenty cleansed kernels of the nuts of the stone pine, 
and of cummin so much as thou mayest take u]» with 
the tips of three fingers, then triturate a bov/1 full, ]"»oil 
in a mortar, add of cold water two good bowls fidl, 
then give the half ihercof in the first instance to be 

■j. Again, here is an onlay ■' or apijlicailou to com- = ini(>^fj.s.. 
fort the maw, and to bind it after the diarrhcna, or 
after a wort drink ; seethe clean toasted bread in old 
wine, if thou have it ; if it b(^ summer, add dust of 
the seed of wormwood, seethe together, put on a cloth, 
smudge over with oil, lay on the maw ; if it be winter, 
thou needst not apply the wormwood. 

Of swelling and soiv of tlie maw; if the man have 
Lhe strength lo hrar if, let liim blood; after that. 

182 ].MCE BOC. 

];a pyyi'ca lyn on jeyobene |?e pe eeji nembon • jeptep 
|70n mib hate hunije fmijie -j opejipceabe ])oime mib 
hpirey cpibuep -j alpan bufce ^ pipopep hyse'c hpeja • 
opeplecje • ]7onne inib Imene claSe oS6e mib eopo- 
cijpe puUe -j pele pejimob on peapmum psetepe tpam 
mhtum sep opjotenne f ye }pam omtim fcille • *j pele 
J70nne gepipopobne pyprbpenc* "j Sonne pceal mon J>am 
men mib bpium hanbum on mopjenne -j on aepenne 
fol. 6 J a. ]7a hanba *j ]?a pet jniban fpi'Se *j ])yn • -j 51F hit fie 

50b pebep he Wm on imbepne jife • janje him ut 
hpibep hpeja fume hpile • ^ip hit ne fie pebep janje 
htm m jeonb hip huf. 


Pi]? heapbum fpile ]?tep majan j-ele ]>u liim pealte 
metta]' -j hapan plsej^c "j eopopef • puban pypttpuman • 
■j ceppan • 'j pcip pm • *j eaSmelte mettaj' -j onlejena 
utceonbe ]?one heajiban fpile • -j b?eS |7enba fmeppunja 
pypce op ele -j op pepmobe • -j op hpitum cpibue -j pme • 
hepe "Sonne fmijie mib ];y • opleje ]7onne mib eopecijpe 
pulle -j befpe]?e • jenim eac milfce jeppla jebo neah- 
tepne on pm -j Jjonne jefeoS • jefpete ]?onne f pop 
mib hunijef teape -j jepipepa mib .XX. copna pele 
him )>oTiTie on mopjenne lytelne bollan pulhie oSSe 
cuclep pulne ]?up jepophtep bpmcan. 


Lsecebom pi]? J^sep majan a]?unbenne]'pe • ]?8ep mannep 
pet -j hanba man )-cea] fpi];e on mopjentibum J^^n • 
•j hme mon pceal fpiSe hlubc hacan jpteban oSSe 


smear with the oil ou which the worts, which we ere Book ir. 
named, have been sodden ; after that smear with hot ^^' "'• 
honey, and sprinkle over with dust of mastic and aloes, 
and somewhat of pepper; then overlay this with a 
linen cloth or with ewes wool, and give him worm- 
wood in warm water, ponred off the worimvood two 
nights (days) previously, that it may still the inflam- 
mation,' and then administer a peppered wort drink ; 
and then one shall at morning and evening rub 
smartly and squeeze the mans hands and feet with dry 
hands, and if it be good weather let him at undem, 
that is at nine in the morning, by Gods grace, go out 
somewhither for a while ; if it be not fair weather, 
let him walk about within liis house. 


For a hard swelling of the maw ; give the sick salt 
meats, and hares and boars flesh, roots of rue, and 
cresses, and sheer {clear) wine, and easily digested 
meats, and applications drawing out the hard swelling, 
and baths ; work moist smearings, that is, lotions, of oil 
and wormwood, and of mastic and wine ; bathe him, 
then smear with that, then overlay with ewes wool, 
and swathe up ; take also mild apples, put them for 
the space of a night into wine and then seethe them ; 
then sweeten the wash or infusion with virgin honey, 
and pepper it with twenty peppercorns ; then give him 
in the morning a little bowl full or a spoon full of 
the thus wrought 'potion to drink. 

A leechdom for swelling of the maw ; one shall in 
the morning hours squeeze hard the mans feet and 
hands, and one shall bid him cry or sing very loud, 

' fK^jfiovr], I suppose. 

184 LMCE BOC. 

I'lnjau -J liuie mou j-cel uealitrnej-cijue ' cylicaii 'j jjie- 
niiau to fpipanue • 'j on iiiojijen iinijicpjin mib elf on 
)?aiii Se fie jeyoben jiube 'j j^epmob 'j ]ni ieji jeiiem- 
neban metray ]nc^e. 


' y\]) uiiliifce -j j'lcBttan ]?e op majan cymS -j be liip 
mere • ]-ele liini neahtnelbijum pepmob oS5e ]?]ieo- 
bpeab" jeboii on pceajip ptii pele neahrnepcijum • 'j 
tepCeji ]7on pealre mectaf niib ecebe jel'pere • ^ ^ejienobne 
I'enep -j jisebic jjicjen "j ealle |)a merral" je bjuncan 
]>a ]7e habban hat; ma^jen -j Iceapp ]'ele picjean • 'j 
jebeoph f hie unjemelrneppe ne J^popian • 'j job ptn 
gehser -j hlutto^ Jncjen on neaht nejTij • 'j neaht. 
neptije lapien on hunij • "j j-ecen him bjioc on onjiabe • 
■J on p^ene ob"6e on ])on j^e hie a ]:>]iopian masjen. 
6pt; pij? mete)- imlufue • jenim luj^epne cymen op]7teiie 
mib ecebe abpij^e 'Sonne • -j jejnib on mojitejie • 'j 
pnolef pfebep • -j bilep pjieo cucleji msel jejnib eall 
tojiebepe jeece pipojiej" j^jieo cucleji m.'el -j jiuban 
leapa .Vii. cucleji mrel 'j ]>a?p leleptan hunije]- afipenej- 
an pimb • jetjiipuhi eal to^^tebejie • yce J^onne nub 
ecebe I'pa j^e ])ince ]> hit lie on J)a onhcnejye jepopht 
])e lenop biS ;i;ecemp]iob to mpil'an • ^ebo ]?onne on 
;5laip ptet • -j j^oiine mib hlape oSSe mib i'pa hpilcum 
mete fpa ]m pille lapa on ^ nytta je );eah ]m inib 
cuclepe ]> lupe ];8et hylp]; • jnj'e]- |ni nytta je on 
lupenne • je on iinbepne • nip ]j pi]? ];am nnlufte anuni 
job J;a?j- inajan • ac eallum J?am hchoman p beah. 

Pij? metep unlufce bpeopje bpopthm on psetjie oy- 
J^aeube • jejnib mib ecebe pele bpmcan piIS plajtcan. ])i]y 

' iieahcejTisne, MS. lianus, lib. vii., cap. 7, pp. 108, 10'.» 

>,,,/.. I'd. l-^>48. 

- Avopefitt. In tlic iir: t .icntciic'c .. , . ^ .. , . ,, , 

"^ ' .> bcabjicab . Tr^yrroAiy is one of the 

, are some traces ol' Akxandcr 'I'ral- in;jr<.vlic'nts in A. I. 


and one shall exhort him aJ'ter lii.s iiij^-his fast, and put- I'.nok II. 
voke him to spew ; and in the morning smear him ^''^' ^'' 
with oil on which has been sodden rue and worm- 
wood, and let him diet on the before named meats. 


Against waiit of appetite and nausea which cometh 
from tlie maw, and from the mans meat ; give him after 
his nights fast wormwood or beebread, put into sharp 
wine ; give it him at night fasting, and after that salt 
meats with sweetened vinegar, and prepared mustard, 
and radish to eat, and make him eat all the meats 
and drinks whicli have a hot and sharp quality; and 
beware that " they " suffer not indigestion, and let 
them take at night fasting good wine heated and clear ; 
and let tliem after the nights fast lap up honey ; and let 
them seek for themselves fatigue in riding on horse- 
back, or in a wain, or such conveyance as they may 
ever endure. Again, for want of appetite for meat; 
take southern or Italian cummin, moisten it with 
vinegar, then dry it and rub it to pieces in a mortar, 
and of fennel seed, and of dill, three spoon measures, 
rub all together, add of pepper three spoon measures, 
and of leaves of rue seven spoon measures, and of the 
best strained honey one pint ; triturate all together ; 
eke it out then with vinegar as may seem fit to 
thee, so that it may be wrought into the form in 
which mustard is tempered for tiavovuing ; put it then 
into a glass vessel, and then with bread or with what- 
ever meat thou choose, lap it up, and make use of it ; 
even though thou shouldst sup it up with a spoon, tliat 
will help. This use thou either at even or at nine 
o'clock. The 'remedy is not good for want of appetite 
of the maw only, but il is valid for all the body. 

For want of appetite for meat ; rub up Avith vinegar 
pennyroyal moistened in water, give it to be drunk 
against nausea. For wa.nt of a]i[>etite a/rain : give to 

186 LyECE BOO. 

unlufre ej-'t mtntan -j pipojiej* ni^an cojui jejniben on 
pme j'ele bjimcan. 


'Arofict, want y\y fceal pi8 abeabobum majan • jemm himijej' ^ 

fe?,s,'o^' A\^^' ^ceb tojsebepe jemenjeb "j ^ebeatenne pipoji j-ele on 

Trail, lib. vii., mopjenne cuclep pulne nealitnej-tijum nyctije fceap- 

ihi^ 15, ed. ' pepa bpmcena • -j metta* -j i.Q'z baj^e mib fmope jnibe "j 

1548. fmeppe. Sele hmi eac neahcnepcijum })ip • jenim eceb 

fol. 69 b. j,ij, jlgebenan jemen^eb hpsethpeja -j lanjep pipopej- .x. 

copn o\\e cpoppan -j fenep menje eall to^sebepe • -j 

■4 t;pipoli5e pele nihtnefcijum an cucleji msel • jepenc Sn 

]?onne hp?e]?pe j?te ealle |'a sep jenemneban Igeceboma]- 

■j ]7a 86fCe]\ ppicenan ne fculon on ane J'paje to lanje 

beon CO gebone ac fculon psec habban berpeonum "j 

jiefre • hpilum cpejen bajaf hpilum ]?py • -j ]?onne him 

mon blob Isete on ?ebpe on pam bajum ne bo bim mon 

nanne oj^epne leecebom Co • nym]?e ymb .v. nihc o]7]?e 

ma. pi]? popfojenum majan oJ^J^e a]7unbenum • jenmi 

lipyj^epen plsepc jepoben on ecebe -j mib ele jepenob 

^ raib pealce • "j bile • -j pop J'lcje ^ feopon mliC ];onne 

lihc ^ J>one jefpenceban majan • bip fynb Caen abea- 

bobep majan ^ be \i-^ ne jemylc ^ • ac pe jejjijeba 

meCe bepeja]; ]>one majan "j lie ]jone pammelcan f>uph 

8a pambe uCpenC. 


Pi}? j-ape -j unlufce ]?8ep majan fe \e ne mse^ ne 

mib meCe ne mib bpincan beon jelacnob -j biCepe 

hpgececunje • Ntm cenCaujuan ]> ij- pelceppe fume • 

fol. 70 a. haCaS hypbe pypc • fume eo]i8 jeallan jesnib an punb 


drink mint unci niue corns of pepper rubbed tutudt in Jiook li. 
wine. ^^- ^'• 


This shall apply for a deadened maw;^ take some 
honey and vinegar mingled together, and pepper beaten 
up, give in the morning a spoon full of it to the man 
after his nights fast, let him employ sharp drinks and 
meats; and at the bath let him rub and smear him- 
self with mustard. Give him also, after his nights fast, 
this : take vinegar mingled with somewhat of gladden, 
and of long pepper ten corns or clusters, and mustard ; 
mingle all together, and triturate; give him after a 
nights fasting, one spoon measure. Then consider thou, 
notwithstanding, that all the aforenamed leechdoms and 
the after written ones, shall not be to be done at one 
too long season, but must have space and rest between 
them, whilom two days, whilom three ; and when one 
lets him blood on a vein, on those days let none other 
leechdom be done to him, except about five days later 
or more. For a stomach troubled with hicket or puffed 
up, take beeves flesh sodden in vinegar and with oil, 
prepared with salt, and dill, and porrum, let the sick 
diet on that for seven days, then that relieves the 
labouring maw. These are tokens of a deadened 
maw ; what he taketh, that melteth or digests not, 
but the meat swallowed oppresseth the maw, and it 
sendeth out the half digested food through the wamb. 


For soreness and loss of appetite in that maw, 
which may not be cured neither with meat nor with 
di'ink, and for the bittei' breaking or retching ; take 
centaury,^ that is fel terrse, some call it herdsmans 

Now called a torpid liver. | - Eri/thraa cantaureum. 



•;] jebo j'tejion luicej- piecejiel' .IIII. boUan ):ulle yele 
htm neaht iiej^ci^uiu hjimcau ]>]\y bajaf. 

Syt jcmm ]>a jieabe netlan ujrepeajibe litebbenbe 
j'teb aj'peah citene 'j pyjitie Co liipanne. 6j:t: jpenef 
mepcej** jecpipiilabej" ]"eap "j ai^jiunjenep ]ele bjimcan- 
•j on ]ja ilcan pijan pele liiiu bpmcan huiian j-eap. 
BfC pi(S inajan pajie piiban -j nuncaii • bile • bpeojije 
bpolclan • ajpiinoniaii lunie liacaS jajicbpe • -j ceplari 
jecniia ealle on pine o]>]^e on ealaS pele a^lce bteje Co 


yi\y Inpunbe niajan • mm gate meoliic ];onue hio 
pupjjum amolcen fie pele bpincan • fume peapme eopo 
meoluc bpmcati pi|; raajan fape • fume |;one yelefcan 
ele jei^ypmebne • fume yip j'a jate meoluu menja'S o|? 
f hie f])ipaS p hi ^e yj? fpipan majon. 


• 1^ pla^^ctjin -j ro hroranne majian • pjoteji bepoben 
fin pejnnobe • -j on bile o]? J^one |7pibban ba3l pele f 
fol. 70 h. bjimcan ■]> pyjiin^ ^j heajiba]? jjone majaii. 


■'- nphi t/iTviv- ' ])]j> jijmnbeneppe ^ ejiunje majan • pinolep pypttpu- 
LiirceTiv. Alex. ,• ^ ^ i^ j- k^ i 

Trail, lib. vii. "^^'-^ '^ iiiejicel op jeot: inib lci]ie pine ealbe 'j op j'on 

cap. 10; p. 112, jele bjiincan nehrnejTijVim .11. bollan pulle lycle. J7ib 

ed, 1548 ; hut ^- c , t i i 

the remedies pmbijjie apunbeiicpj'c niajaii to j'yjunanue ]>oiie ceal- 

differ. ^.^1^ iiia^aii • puban • ^-j bile • mmtan • -j mepce fynb- 

^ juje j'ceapaf jeieo'iS on ]>]iini ceac* jruilum jni'tejief •]> 

j)8e]i ne fie butau an pul fele j^onne jj paateji bjvincan. 

' The method of Alex. Tral- 
jiiinus i.s, it seeni.s, kept in view; 
\]ep\ rSiv 5(' auarpov if/O^ii' vy<'piK~ 

TowTiiv, lib. vii., cap. 7 ; p. 109, ed. 
] .'■)48. 
- ceacuni '' 


wort, some earth gall, ral> small a poun<l of it. .iiid HiiokJi. 
apply tliereto four bowls full of liot water; give it to * ^"'' 
the sick to drink for three Jays after his nights fast- 
ing. Again, take the npper part of the red nettle, 
while having seed, wash it clean, and work it up to 
sup. Again, administer to drink juice of green marehe 
triturated and wrung out, and in the same wise, give 
liim to drink Juice of /to/vdiouud. Again, for sore of 
mav\^ ; rue and mint, dill, dwarf dwosle, agrimony, 
some call it garcliff, and cress, pound them all in wine 
oi- in ale, give of fhis each day to drink. 


For an inward wound of the maw ; take goats milk 
just when it is milked, administer to be drunk. Some 
drink for sore of maw warm ewe milk, some the 
best oil warmed, some mingle that with the goats 
inilk till they spew, that they may spew the more 


For nausea and to heat the maw ; water sodden on 
wormwood and on dill, down to the third part, give 
the man that to drink ; it wai'meth and hardeneth the 


For puffing up and blowing of the maw ; overpour 
roots of fennel and marehe with clear old wine, and 
of that give the dck to drink after his nights fast two 
little bowls full. For a windy ]iuffing up of the maw , 
to warm the maw, rue and dill, mint and marehe ; 
seethe bundles of them separate in three jugs full (S 
water, and continue seething so tliat there be only one 
cup ; then administer the M^atei- to be drunk. 

100 LyECE VA)(:. 


* n/jos t/uEToj/. * Vi-S fpip];an 'j piS J?on ]?e htm mete unbep ne je- 
punije • jemm finfullau jejnib on fceapp pm pele 
bollan pulne to jebjimcanne septeji sepen jepeojice • 
jeriim pij> ])oii ilcan pinolej- peapep tpejen bselaf liuni- 
jep aenne feo]? o]? ^ p hsebbe liunijef J^iciieppe pele 
|jonne neaht neptijum cucleji msel pull • f plsettan 
V jeftnpeS f lunjenne bet ]> lipjie lirel^. pi^ miclan 
fpipe]?an *j he ne mas^e nanne mete jehabban • jentm 
fol. 71 a. bilep psebep ane yntj^an • pipojiep peopeji • cymenep 

]?peo jejnib fpi]?e fmale • bo J'onne on peetep j^e paepe 
nnnte on jepoben -j fupe seppla o^^e pmjeapbep tpiju 
upepeapb meppe jip pe mon ne fie on peppe yce mib 
pme *j pele bpmcan ]?onne ne to pefte jan pille • "j le^ 
utan on ]?one majan jefobene pubu sepia -j hlapep 
cpuman -j fpilce onlejena. 


"Pev/xuTta-iuik. JJonne pceal ]7ip yip ]?8e]' majan fppmje Sum pype 

eyn hatte lenticulaf ece J>apa hunb teontij hpeappa. 
6pt pceappep ecebep jefupe ]>peo cuclep mtel ]?onne he 
plapan pille on sepen. 


yip eallum majan untpumneppum • jentm pmolej- 
pypttpuman utepeapbpa f J'seji msepj'oft fie abo op 
]?am pmole fpa micel fpa o]>ep healp punb fie • jeot 

' The method of Alex. Trallianus i naxov dir^fiovvra r)]v Tpocpyju, p. 1 12, 
is still preserved; he has a short | ed. 1548. 
chapter, lib. vii. cap. 9, Uf)hs ari- \ - For lege. 




For spewing, and in case that a mans meat will 
not keep down ; take sinfulle, rub it Jine into sharp 
wine, give the man a bowl full to drink after evening 
work. Take, for tliat ilk, two parts of juice of fennel, 
one of honey, seethe or boil dotvn till the mixture 
have the thickness of honey, then give after a nights 
fast a spoon measure fall ; that restraineth nausea, 
that bettereth the lungs, that healeth the liver. For 
mickle spewing, and in case a man may keep in his 
stomach no meat; take one ounce of seed of dill, four of 
pepper, three of cummin, rub very small; then put 
into water in which mint has been sodden and sour 
apples, or the tender upper part of the twigs of a vine ; 
if the man be not in a fever, eke it with wine, and 
give it him to drink when he willeth to go to bed; 
and lay outside on the maw sodden wood apples 
{crabs), and crumbs of bread, and such applications. 

Book II. 
Ch. xii. 


Besides, this shall be good for Hux ^ of the maw ; 
one sort of peas bight lentils, let the rnan eat of them 
raw one hundred. Again, let him sip three spoon 
measures of sharp vinegar, when he willeth to sleej) 

at evening. 


For all infirmities of the maw ; take of the out- 
ward parts of the roots of fennel, what is there most 
tender, remove from the fennel as much as may make 

* For this translation I partly rely 
on the guidance of Alexander 
Trallianus, who has remedies irphs 
ffrdfjiaxov pevnari^dfj-ei/ov ; lib. vii., 
cap. 8 ; p. 1 1 1, ed. 1548 ; p. 337, ed. 
1556. Properly pevfiarifffihs is of 

the wamb, or venter, not of the 
maw ; and Aretajos says as much, 
Chron. lib. ii., cap. 6. But other 
authors have the same expression 
as Alex. Trail ; for instance Cselius 
Aurelianus, Chron. lib. iii., cap. 2. 

1 fi2 L.^DOE p.or. 

l'.)niit I'cehej- on \'\k\ o|>eji lic^al}: p'j-rt-p fie l:ot |>oiine 
j'jU'O nihc fcanhan fpa serjrebejie • u^jiTeji ]>on opejifeo^ 
])a pypttrjniman hpref hpeja on ];am ecebe 'j appm;i; o): 
fol. 71 b. ];am ecebe cleene • jebo |>onne on f eceh Imnijep mib 

j/j^ ecebe • jebo j'onne a] pan jobne bsel Jjsep on ^re 
yncian jepeje Ocibe ma -j o]:'ep Ipilc lipitep cpeobopep 
•j ameo)- liatrce fuj^ejine J'ypt: o]>ep apajiu bo ]?a]ia ]?ep 
;^emenje li])te]7ejie ealle tojfebeju' 'j ]>onne pelle him 
)>peo cucleji mrel. bo })ip pi'6 ma^an bjiyne -j ]>npfrt- 
placo ]>fece]i menT;e pi'S ]>one ieleptan ele ]-ele bjimcan 
]> f-yjiS ' j^am |>ujifcre. 


])i]) ])£CY ma^an Ipjunje ]?onne ]mph mnS bicepe 

« 'ohpeyuiu. jjjifecS-'^ oj^j^e bealce" oSCe him on ]>am ma;^an fujeS • 

^enmi pipopef fpilce an myner ^epeje • bilef prebep 

'^^ fpilce .HIT. mynet jepejen • o|?ep fpilc cymenef jegnib 

eall -j pele on pme cvicleji msel Jjonne he plapan jan 

pille. Sio a]7enun5 p'sep majan 'j fio ablapunje hoeco 

cymeS op 'pam blacum omvim • ae 3;enim jjonne fpjun- 

^ ;^eau- jebo on pceajip eceb jepsete fpiSe leje ojiep 

|;one majan ])onne liic fpilc fie. jSpteji );on jip j^aE^p 

fu!. 75 a. ne pele leje oj^pa oulejena on frpenjpan -j apeppau 

fpa fpa 'iy pap'^ 6m piS hiinii; jemengeb 'j Von ^ehc. 

fpa Isecap cunnon. 


])ip i'mt caen ]Kcy hatan mai;aii omilitan nnjemer 
pffifchcan • -j |>a^p opepeealban • pa^p liatan mai;an un- 

' From Kreopan. 

'^ Understand as fpouj;ean from 

the Hellenic. Alex. Trail., lib. vii., 
cap. 8; p. 110, foot, ed. l.'i^e, 
'■' Read ap. See the Glossary. 

' Full of (pXcynovTi. 

- The diet is drawn from a pas- 
sage thus headed ; Qepaireia rf/s Sia 
6efijj.riy acrOevo{ia7]s Svydfxiws. UiiSe- 

mec] asiT, uiij;emecj-ae)'chc are there- 
I'ort' the opposites of KadfKTiK6s ; 
and not what Somner supposed. 

("h xiv. 

i.EEr'if nooK. II. 198 

a pound and a half, tlion pour on of vinegar as ftiJ*^*^..'^' 

mucli as be a sextarius and a half, then let these 

stand thus together for three nights ; after that seethe 

the roots somewhat in the vinegar, and wring them 

clean from the vinegar. Then put into the vinegar 

some honey with the vinegar ; then put a good deal 

of aloes therein, so much as may weigh an ounce or 

more, and as much more of mastic and of ammi, as 

a foreign wort liight ; or asarabacca ; put in less of 

them, mingle, however, all together, and then give him 

three spoon measures. Do this against burning of the 

maw and thirst ; mingle lukewarm water with the best 

oil, give to drink, that checketh the thirst. 


For irritation of the maw when fJ/c man through the 
mouth has l)itter breaking or belching, or there is an 
ill lymph in his stomach ; take of pepper as much as one 
coin may weigh, of seed of dill as much as may weigh 
four coin, as much besides of cummin, rub all fine and 
administer in wine a spoon full when the man willeth 
to go to sleep. The swelling of the maw and the heat 
of the puffing up cometli from the black flegms ; but 
then take sponges, put them into sharp vinegar, wet 
it thoroughly, lay it over the maw, when it is such. 
After that, if it feel not this, or he insensible io these 
remedies, lay on some other applications, stronger and 
more austere, such as is copperas mingled with honey, 
and the like of that as leeches know. 


XV i. 

1. These are tokens of the hot fiegmatic ' maw, irre- 
tentive,^ and of the overcold. Of the hot or irretenti^■e 

194 LMCE BOC. 

jemetpfBjfcan tacn finbon ];onne he bi'b raib omum 
jefpenceb |?am men bi6 {;upfc jecenje 'j neaponef -j 
jefpojunja -j mobe)" tpeonunj "j unlufc "j pliBttra • liim 
1]" nyt' f he hlap jpicjen" on cealbum psetjie oS8e on 
ecebe^ -j fpiSe pgefte jej'oben sejjia o]7j7e jebjisebbe to 
unbejinef -j pyjica • ^j lactucaf f ly leahtjiic "j mealpan 
*j hgenne plsepc nasp fpipe ^^ej'oben • -j jofe ]?a ycmep- 
tan hmo • -j pixap J^a ];e heapb plsej'C habban*^ *j 
1/ pme pmclan • -j ofcjian -j o}?pu pjyena cyn -j mylfce 

jieppla 'j bse]? op fpetum pejifcum psecepum fceal beon 
jepoplit hat b99]7 him ne beah. Taen^ |?sep opejiceal- 
ban majan f ]?a men ne J^ypfc ne hi fpol jepela]? on 
majan -j ne bi]? him lenij peapm j^jiopunj jetenje. 

fol. 72 b. Ac hy jijmaS metta fpi]?op j^onne hit jeTiclic fie -j jip 

htm opfconbej? on Innan seniju cealb paste )7onne 
fpipa'5 hie f hoph -j ]>a mettap jehabban ne majon 
pie hie jej^icjeaS • 'j septep j^am fpipaS^ pona htm to 
jipanne bibba^ • ]7a men }>u j'cealc fmeppan mib ]?y 
ele ]?e mon pepmob on feo'Se • *j J;a j^iccan jeupnen 

"rhpiga? on -j ]?a pliprnja-'^ psetan on J7am majan -j ]?a acoloban^ 

•j f opfcanbene ]?icce plipije hoph J;ii j-cealt mib ];am 
seji jenemneban Isecebonmm pyjiman -j J^ynnian. Pypc 
liim jjonne pypfcb]ienc op pinolef pypccpuman pmbe 'j 
^ meppoft pie pte j-ix yntfan ^epeje -j ecebep anne pep- 

tep • 'j alpan jjjieo yntfan • yeop ]>onne on j^am ecebe 
]7one pmol o]y f hit fie pel ^epoben appmj |?onne ]?a 
pypta op l^am ecebe jebo ]7onne to J'am ecebe clfenej' 
huni^ef punb yeo]) ];»onne setjsebepe o]) f hit pie fpa 
]?icce fpa hunij fceab jwnne ];a alpan on pel jegnibene 

fol. 73 a. "j r^le ]?peo cucle]! msel mib psetepe p beah pi]? heopt 

ece "j pi]? pelle psepce. 

' Alexander Trail., lib. vii., cap. 5 ; 
p. 106, ed. 1.548 ;cap. .'3, p. .323, ed. 

'' oarpaKoSepficcv, ftheU finh . 

■' From Alexander Trail., lib. vii.. 

1556. I cap. 5; p. 105, ed. 1548 ; p. 319, ed. 

- Head J^icge. i 1556, for a few lines only. 

^ Gr. fls &KpaTov, dipped in xvine '' T?ead fpipban ? 

unmixed with wafer, (as if brandy). ! 

LEECH I'.OOK. Tf, 1 9o 

maw are tokens, when it. is vexed witli inflammations, i^ook il. 

thirst is incident to the man, and oppression, and 

swoonings, and vacilkition of mind, and loss of ap})etite, 

and nausea. It is beneficial for liim that he should 

eat bread in cold water or in vinegar, and eggs very 

hard boiled or roasted, (at nine o'clock in the morning,) 

and worts, and lactucas, that is lettuces, and mallow, 

and hens flesh not mnch sodden, and the extremest 

parts of the limbs of goose, that is giblets, and fishes 

which have hard flesh, and periwinkles, and oysters, 

and others ; various sorts of peas, and mild apples, and 

a bath of sweet fresh waters shall be wrought; a hot 

bath will not suit him. Tokens of the overcold maw, 

that the men feel no thirst nor burning heat in the 

maw, nor is there any warm symptom incident upon 

them. But they yearn for meats more strongly than 

is proper, and if in their inwards there lodges any 

cold humour, then they spew up the filth and are not 

able to retain the meats which they swallow ; and after 

the spewing soon they pray that someivhat be given 

tJiem to eat. Those men thou shalt smear with the oil 

on which wormwood has been sodden. And the thick 

coagulated and the viscid humours in the maw, and 

the chilled humours, and the intractable thick viscid 

foulness, thou shalt warm and thin with the afore 

named leechdoms. Work then for the sick man a 

wort drink of the rind of the root of fennel, and let 

it be very tender, and such that it may weigh six 

ounces, and one sextarius of vinegar, and three ounces 

of aloes ; then seethe the fennel in the vinegar till it 

be well sodden, then wring the worts off" the vinegar, 

then add to the vinegar a pound of clean honey, tlien 

seethe these together, till it be as thick as honey, then 

shed the aloes into it, well rubbed up, and give three 

spoon measures with water ; that is good for heart 

ache and for epilepsy. 

N 2 



Alexander \)e ]>i&\\e Ojjejimiclnii yjuclo |;oime oy ]>ve.]\e jelj:an 

ibid^ '"""*' cealbaii able \)iBy mai;an cymcS '3 J"io ojrejimiclo y]\\c\o 

KvfuSiii ot>ili'!. *j jijrejme)" ajiifc oy j^nej- hopej" ptxDran ]>e o}: ]>ani ina;!;au 

aovKi/xos. cymii 'j hie beo]> Ipipenhe ^ fj'a ipa Imnb ejx yona 

fecaS ])a mettaj- • ]ra,m ]}n j'cealt jellan cb\3iie -j lilur- 

co]i pni' 'j peab IpiSe jehsec ne fie co j'ceajip • ne ye 

mece ne iie co j'ceajip ne to puji ]>e ]m Itini j-elle • 

itc fnie]7e "j yest • jip - ojima^ce liunjo-^ cymS op un- 

jemerlicpe hsero ]>ssy majan 'j tybbepneppe -j? hie pyu 

]'ona jefpojene jip hie ];one mete nasbbeu. yi]) ojimte- 

cum hunjjie ]?onne jcealr ]m yona \7sey mannef tihan 

bmb hi]- ytineptan hmo mib bynbellum teoh him pa 

loccal' -j ppinje )'a eajian *j ]'one panjbeajib tpiccije -y 

jjoune him pel ]*ie pele him j'ona hlap on pme jebjio- 

cenne iiep he oj^jie mettap l-icje • pele him ]pa mertaj' 

]>-A |?e ne fien to paSe jemelte • late my It hjiyj^epep 

fol. 73 b. pkepc TjEcen • 'j hiopora • buccena tp j'yppefc -j jiamma • 

^ 'j peapjia "j }?a ]>e i'pibe ealbe heo'S on peo];o]ipotum 

nietenum -j pujlaj- j^a J^e heapb pla3]'C habbacS • papa • v 
Ipan • teneb j^am (^e cealbe pambe habba^ ]>i\ fcealu 
pellan pel melrenbe mertaf )X'ellihte pifcaj- • "j culppena 
bpibbaf- hfenne phfj'C 'j jope pij'jm fpa betejie fpa 
piBtjian fien *j peplcpan pa ytineptan leomo • fpina 
\)eo'6 eaSmelte -j a^'OwS ^^J'y^^P 'j riccenii • -j fpete 
pi"!! )-el mylr jwinie ]3 aj-jie. 


yi\) ealliim lipep ablum 'j jecynbnm 'j pa^f-cmiim 'j be 
]>am pex j^injnm ])e Sone lipeji pa?jic pyjiceaci 'j lacnunT; 
Vajia ealjia -j fpeotol tacn je be micjean je be unlufce 
;^e hijia hipe. Sio h\]> on J^a fpij'jian 1'iban aj^eneb o]> j^one 

' Tip ii.Kpa.rca oivo) ica). ruT? Anropo?s 
7U1V i^iaj.iiruv. Alex. Trail., who 
goes on to order legs of pheasants, 
(iucriavi;' (xiv ruus /rrjpoi's. 

-Alex. Trail., lib. vii, cap. 6; 
p. 100. u!t. ed. 15tS ; p. 323, ed. 

LEECH 1500K. II. 197 

2. Of tlio overinickk', appetite, when from the same Book II. 
cold disease of the maw it cometh that the overmickle ^f'- ^^■'• 
appetite and greediness ariseth from the foul hvimour, 
wliich cometh from tlie naaw, and the sick are spewing, 
and, as it Avere a hound, again soon seek the meats: 
to them thou shalt give clean and clear wine, and red, 
much heated ; let it not be too sharp ; nor let the 
meat be too sharp, nor too sour, Avhich thou ma-yst 
give them, but smooth and fat. If extreme hunger 
cometh from immoderate heat and tenderness of the 
maw, so that they are soon in a swoon, if they 
have not the meat ; then, for extreme hunger ' thou 
shalt soon treat the man ; bind the extremities of liis 
limbs with ligatures, pull his locks for him, and 
wring his ears, and twitch his whisker, when he is 
better, give him soon some bread broken in Avine, be- 
fore he take other meats. Give him the meats wliich 
are not too soon digested. Beeves flesh, and goats, and 
harts digests late : bucks is worst, and rams, and bulls, 
and those of four footed neat which are very old, and 
fowls which have hard flesh ; peacock, swan, duck. To 
those that have a cold wamb thou shalt give well 
digesting meats, shell fishes, and young of culvers, hens 
flesh, and gooses wings ; they are the better as they 
are fatter and fresher. The extremities of the liriiljs 
of swine '^ are easy of digestion, and young beeves, and ^ I'igs trotters, 
kids : and sweet wine digests better than the roucfh. 


For all liver diseases, and of its nature, and incre- 
ment, and of the six things which work the liver pain, 
and curing of all these, and plain tokens, either by the 
mie, or by tlie loss of appetite, or by the hue of the 

' In Tr;illianu:j tliesc appliauct'S arc uicaut ior the fainting just nieu- 
tionod, AcnroSi'.u'c, 

108 L^CE BOC. 

V nepefeo)?an fio htCfS pp lagppan helc ]?a lenbenbjiajban • 
lio ij* blobej' cimbep • 'j Ijlobep liuf • -j f ofcoji • ))onne 
])apa metta meltunj bi]? -j ])yniief ])a becuma]? on ]>Sb 
hyeji ]7omie penba]? liie hiopa hip -j cejijia^ on blob • 

fol. 74 a. -j J'a unyefepnepya ]>e ]?£ep beo]? hio apypp]? ut -j ^ 

claene blob jefomnal? "j ]ni]ili jreopeji sebpa fpiJ?ofc 6n- 
)-enc CO )?8epe beoptan -j eac jeonb ealne |7one licho- 
man o]? ]7a ytmej'tan limo. be ]'ex J^mjum ]>e ]?one 
lipejipsejic pypcea5 sepefe jefpel f ly a]?unbeney ]>se\ie 
hyejy} 0]>e]\ ly ])iey jefpeUef cobepfeunj. Jjpibbe ly punb 
]%epe lifpe • peopj^e ij* pelmej* hseto mib -^eyelneyye -j mib 
)-ape jefpelle • yiyte ly aheapbiinj ]><£y majan mib jepel- 
neppe -j mib pape. Sexte ly heapbunj ]78epe lippe bucan 
jep elnej'j-e -j butan fajie. hgepe lippe jefpel oJ?]7e apun- 
benej'pe ]>\\ mealic j)up onjitan • on ]?a fjnSpan healpe 
nnbep ]mm hnej-can^ pibbe bip gepefc ye fpile on psepe 
lippe *j 5epel8 le mon sepefc ])£e\\ hepijneppe -j pap -j 
op Jjsepe fcope opeji ealle ]7a fiban afcihS o]> f ])iJ?oban 
•j o]? 8one fpippan pculbop f faji • 'j hip micjje biS 
blobpeab fpilce hio blobij fie • bij? htm nnlufc jetenje 
•j liip hip blac -j he bi]j hpset hpeja hpipenbe • -j fm- 
galne cyle ]?popa]7 *j cpacap fpa mon on lenccen able 

fol. 74 b. ^ep • ne maej him mete unbep jepunian ]nnc fio hpep 

H ne msej ]?am pape mib hanba onhpman bi^ to ]7on 
fcpanj 'j nsey\> nanne j-lsep ]?onne hit ftpanjoft bi]? • 
ponne pe fpile tobypfc ponne bi8 feo micje Ij'^ppen 
fpilce popmp • jip he utyjmS ]?onne bi]? f pap Ifejpe. 

' Read liyjie, | " Kead ncxcan, last? 

leech: book. ii. 199 

imtients. The liver is extended ou the right side as Book II. 

far as the pit of the belly, it hath five lohes or lappets, 

it has a hold on the false ribs, it is the material of 

the blood, and the house and the nourishment of the 

blood ; when there is digestion and attenuation of the 

meats, they arrive at the liver, and then they change 

their hue, and turn into blood ; and it casteth out the 

uncleannesses which be there, and collects the clean 

blood, and through four veins principally sendeth it to 

the heart, and also throughout all the body as far as 

the extremities of the limbs. Of the six things which 

work liver pain : first swelling, that is, puffing up of 

the liver; the second is the bursting of the swelling ; the 

third is wound of the liver ; the fourth is a burning heat 

with sensitiveness and with a sore swelling ; the fifth 

is a hardening of the maw with sensitiveness and with 

soreness ; the sixth is a hardening oi" the liver without 

sensitiveness and without soreness. Thou mayest thus 

understand swelling or puffing up of the liver ; on the 

right side is under the nesh ^ rib first the swelling of the " Read laM. 

liver observed, and the disordered man there first feeleth 

heaviness and sore, and from that place the sore riseth 

over all the side as far as the collar bone, and as far as 

the right shoulder, and the mans mie is bloodred as if 

it were bloody ; loss of appetite is incident unto him, 

and his hue is pale, and he is somewhat feverish, and 

he suffereth remarkable chill, and quaketh as a man doth 

in lent addle or typhus fever ; his meat will not keep 

down, the liver enlarges, and he may not touch the 

sore with his hand, to that degree is it strong, and 

he hath no sleep when it is strongest. When the 

swelling bursteth then is the mie purulent, as ratten ; 

if it runneth ofi" then is the sore less. 

200 L^CE BOC. 


\ip ]>8d]ie lifjic Ipile o5Se ajjunbeiiejye 31]: le utjanj 
p.)]ifirce htm ly on jrjmman Ijloh ro foplasceime on 
tebjic on ]?a pinel'rpan healjre pyjic litni j^onne bejjinje 
))U)' "j yealjre o]: e]e -j ]iuban • -j bile -j oj: mepcej- 
febe I'pa micel fpa ]'e J^mce peoS eall mib ]^y ele -j 
J5onne mib hiiepcjie j?ulle bepe mib ])y pope lanje j^a 
Ipi'Sjian fiban -j ];onne opejileje mib pulle "j befpej^c 
pasfre ymb .111. nihr pyjic litm ept; onlecjenbe iealpe 
•j bepen jjiytce jeonb jocene mib pme 'j ]7onne 
jepobene -j mib ecebe 'j raib liunije eall ^ecjupulab 
■j epc jepoben leje on ]?one j^iccepcan dab oj^^e 
on pel IpiSe' mib Ipa peajime *j on p ]'ap bmb 'j 
lipilum reoli mib jlsele oj^J^e mib liojme. jip pe ucjan;^ 
fol. 75 a. pu-^pitte mib pyjitbpencum ateoli liiiie ut. Pyjic op 

pejimobe • -j op Inpbe pyjice • -j op puban jtebe • bo 
aleoponej- hunije]' genoli co j-ele neahtnej-'cijum ciiclep 


Tacn be alpoilenpe 'j jepunbabjxc lippc laacebomap 
pi|? |7on • ^ be |)8epe lippe aheapbunje. Se Jje bi'S je- 
punbob ]7onne on |>a lipjie • ^ jip be ne bi]> |K)n pajjop 
jelacnob |7onnc becyraS he on ]7a able \)e mon popmfe 
fpipe]? • j^ip le jefpollena mon on ];iepe lipjie oSSc pe 
a|Minbcna ipa al'pollen jebit o]? |?one pip -j cpentijejjan 
bx^ Ipa ]e Ipile ne bepfce]; |70nne onjm'S fio lipeji 
heapbian jip hio ^ebyjiiu J>onne bi8 }ja3p pmb^ on 
]nepc lipju'. piepe punbe cacn pmbon ]?onnc lio pimb 

' llather (peiSc. 

-' licad ymnb, because hajjie purine follows. 

LEECH BOOK. 11. liOl 

xviii. IU)ok II. 

Ch. xviii. 

For swelliug or puffing up of the liver ; if the out- 
going ^ lodge, fltG hian must first be let blood on a 
vein, on tlie left side, then work him a bathing thus, 
and a salve of oil, and rue, and of dill, and of marcho 
seed, as much as may seem good to thee, seethe all 
with the oil, and then bathe with nesli wool witli 
the wash for a long time the right side, and then 
(.)verlay with wool, and swathe up fast for about 
three nights ; work him again an onlying salve, and 
lay barley groats soused with wine, and then sodden, 
and tJtls all triturated with vinegar and with hone^', 
and sodden again, lay on the thickest cloth or on a 
skin, swathe up therewith so warm, and bind upon 
the sore, and at whiles draw with glass oj- horn, as 
with cuppliKj glass. If tlie secretion lodge, draw it 
out Avitli wort drinks ; work sucli of wormwood and 
of herdwort, and of seed of rue, add enough of strained 
honey ; give the riiayio a spoon measure after his nightly 


Tokens of a swollen and wounded liver ; leechdoms 
for that ; and of the hardening of the liver. He who 
is wounded in the liver, if he be not sooner cured, then 
arriveth at the disorder in which a man speweth 
purulent matter. If the man swollen in tlie liver, or 
the Idoated one, abideth so swollen until the five and 
twentieth day, so as that the swelling bursteth not, 
then beginneth the liver to harden ; if it bursteth, 
then is there a wound in tlie liver. Tokens of the 

' Se ucgans would be presumed liainis, -n-fihs ifirppa^iv ViTraTos, the 

to be ffcce.s, the outgoing of the 
intc.'.lincs ; but, since this chapter 
must be based on Alexander Tinl- 

writer ought to mean, the outgoing 
ol' bile from the liver. 

202 LMCE hoc. 

jebopfren bij? ponne fox's ]7U]xh ]?a pambe le utjiyne 
I'pilee blobij pceteji -j bi]? hip neb peab 'j afpollen • *j 
J)onne |?ii bim pme lianb petefc on J>a lippe J^onne ^epelj) 
he fpi]>e micel ' fap "j hip fe man fpiSe meajvo • *j op 
]78ejie able cym6 pul opt: psetep bolla. pi]? jefpolleniim 
fol. 75 b. I'ajie. On pjiuinan mib onlejenum -j j^ealpmn fceal 

mon lacnian • fio j-ceal beon op bejienum ;5pyttum 
on leaje jefobenum -j op culppena j'ceapne jepophr mib 
hunije 'j Jjonne alecje mon j^a fealpe on hatne cla^ 
oppe pel o]>]>e cajican befpe]?e mib |?onne hnepcaS j^e 
fpile Ibna -j jebepfce]? mnan. bjnnce mulfa f ip je- 
inilfcebe bpincan iielce baaje • *j jate meoluc jefobene 
•-j psetep on |7am lien jefobene jobe pypta. 


Lsecebomap pi]? J^sepe lipjie punbe J>onne fe fpile je- 

j'ypfmeb tobypfc • Nim jate meoluc fpa peapme nipan 

amolcene pele bjimcan. bo eac to bpence nsebpan 

jepofihce fpa Isecap cunnon *j J?onne hie selcpa bpincan 

pillen bpincan hie nemne psetrep • ?ep jefoben op pyp- 

tum • on pejimobe "j on o]?]iiim fpeleum -j fpilca onle- 

gena fpa pe seji pjiicon. Ac mon j-ceal 8ep mib peap- 

V mum fppinjum --j hate psetpe be|>ian -j J?pean J^a fcope 

"j on })am ])8etpe fien jepobene laupef cpoppan "j hipbe- 

fol. 76 a. yj]^^ '^ ^f eopSjealla "j pepmob mib ]?y ]ni J;a fajian 

ftopa lanje sepeft hepe 'j Iset jieocan on • jip })onne 

pio punb fpiSe potije j^sepe lippe o]? p he f pupfm op 

muSe hpsece • jepypce him ^emilfcabe bpincan • f ip 

y micel bsel bepyllebef psetepef on Imnije]- gobum baele • 

' Mice, MS. 


wound are these ; when the wound is bursten out then Rook ii. 
the outrunning throvigh the wamb is as it were bloody ^^^- 

water, and tlte mans face is red and swollen ; and 
when thou settest thine hand upon the liver then the 
man feeleth very much soreness, and the man is very 
tender, and from this disorder there cometh full oft a 
dropsy. For a swollen sore : at starting one shall cure 
with onlayings, that is, external applications, and 
salves ; the salve shall be of barley gToats sodden in 
ley, and of culvers sharn wrought with honey, and 
then let one lay the salve on a hot cloth, or on a 
skin, or on paper, beswathe with that, the swelling 
soon becometh nesh and bursteth within. Let the onan 
drink " mulsum," that is, dulcet drinks, every day, and 
goats milk sodden, and water on which good worts 
have been sodden. 


Leechdoms for the abscess ot the liver, when the 
purulent swelling bursteth ; take goats milk so warm, 
newly milked, give the WjOjU that to drink. Form also 
into a potion an adder, wrought so as leeches ken how 
to work it, and when the sick will to drink anytliing, 
let them drink nothing but water previously sodden 
with worts, on wormwood and on other such, and 
such onlayings as we before wrote of But one shall 
previously batlie and wash the places with warm 
squirtings and with hot water, and on the water let 
there be sodden bunches of laurel berries or floivers, 
and herdwort, that is, earth gall, and wormwood ; with 
these do thou long previously foment the sore places, 
and make the reek smoke them. If further the wound 
of the liver be very ratteny, so much as that the man 
hreaketh the ratten from his mouth, let him work 
himself a mulled drink, that is, a mickle deal of boiled 
water in a good deal of honey ; from it shall the scum 

204 L^CE BOC. 

o]: \rdin jceal beon ]> jiot gelome aboii |7enbeii hit mon 
pels o]> ^ f ]>x]\ nan ne fie • liet ]?onne colian -j fele 
jwnne bjnncau." 


^Kippaiais. JDeli fine tacn abeajibobjie lifjie je on pani lasppum 

■j liealoeuin -j jnlmenum. Sto aheajibunj 'iy on tpa 
pifan jepab. Oj^eji bij? on ppuman sep l?on );o lenij 
o)?e]i eappe]?e on lifjie became • o]?ejiu seprcji o]?]ium eap- 
}:e]mm jysepe lippe cymS • fio bi]? buran fape • ^j j^onne 
fe man mere j)!^^ |;onne apyjipS he epc -j onpenbej? 
hif hip -j hsejrS unjepealbene panibe "j ]>a micjean • *j 
|?onne J^n Sine hanba ferfc upan on ])a hppe jjonne 
beoS fpa hepii^e fpa fran -j ne bi]) j-ap • jip ]> lan-^e 
i'pa bi]7 ]7onne [^ehtep]^ hir on unej^elicne^ pjBtepbollan, 

fol. 76 b. 6alle* ]?a blapunje -j ])a pehuaf ]?a ]?e Leo]? ^ehp^ep 

;5eonb ]>one hchoman • J a enma'cj op hacnm blobe -j 
peallenbum • fpa bi'cS eac fpilce on Sfepe hppe ro onji- 
ranne hpiie]?e]i fio hteco 'j flo ablapuuj fie on ]?a3pe 
bpjie pelpjie on ]>am pihnenum • 'j on ]'am ])m5um ]7e 
ymburan j^a hppe beo]' • '^j lip?B])ep hio fie on Sam 
hpepbyluni 'j hieppum l^e on ];am hpejilioliim -j heal- 
cuni ])c on j;ain btielum ba3in. bonne pe Isece ]? onjit 
I'unno iniQ-^ he j^one Igecebom J7e jiaSoji pmban • ^ip 
iynb j'a racn • jtp fio ablapim^T; i'lo hate b]]> on 
)iiej\e !ip]ic oppum oSSe bylliin }'onne bi]) ]nep micel 
ajmnbene]' "j jrepeji mib fpeopunja'' omena -j fcin- 
l^enbe faji o}> ]?a, pij^oban oS Sa eaxle -j h]7ofca -j 
neaponep bpeofra • "j majie hepijnep ponne j'ap • *-j 

' MS. has oil. ; ' Tiiesc words are found in Alex- 

■-' This passage may he from Plii- j ander Trallianus, vii. 19 ; p. 126, 

lagrios on the preparation of aTTiiyueA.!, ed. 1.548. 

as preserved in Xikolaos Jlyreph- . ' Jiead rj'eohinj^a, from tlic words 

ios, V. 3. I Kal TTvpcTov tTTifpfixi h-avcruOr]. 

^ For iiuc)>eit'acne. i 

LEECH V.nOK. H. 2():> 

be frequeatly removed, while it is a boiling, till that H.tok ll. 
there be none there; then let it cool, :ui(l then give it ^-h- xx. 
to be drunk. 

Here are tokens of ;i hardened liver, wliether on the 
lobes or the hulks, that is, ike hollows of if, or the 
films and menihranes. The hardening occurs in two 
ways; the one is in the outset before any other mis- 
chief Cometh upon the liver ; the second cometh after 
other mischiefs of the liver ; it is without sore, and 
Avhen the man taketh meat, then he casteth if up 
again, and changeth his luie, and hath not under con- 
trol his Avamb and his mie ; and wlien thou settest 
thine hand from above upon the liver, then it is as 
heavy as a stone and is not sore : if that continues 
long so, then it involves a not easily cured <lrops}-. 
All the U]jh\o\YmgH and the burnings which \)g any- 
where throughout the body, come of hot and boiling- 
blood. So also in like manner it is to be understood 
of the liver, whether the heat and the upblowing be 
on the liver itself, on the films, that if^, nimnhranes,^ 
and on the things ' which be about the liver ; and 
whether they be on the liver ])rominences and lobes, 
or in the liver holes and hulks,''' or in both those 
parts. When the leech understandeth that, then he 
may the more easily find the leechdom. These are the 
tokens ; if the hot upblowing is on the margins or 
jirominences of the liver, then is there much distention 
and fever with burning heats and a piercing soreness 
as far as the collar bones, and as far as the slioulder, and 
tliere is host, or cough, and oppression of the breast. 

' x''''wo'ii', tunics, coats, Alex. J fj.uWou, ■!) ra <jif.iA v) koI -rh avva^tpo- 

Trall. 1 Tepov ; the cnnve.ulies or cmircivitics, 

■ fiuai, viuschs, id. I or both at once . 

* Z-!]T e^yapd ye ra Kvpra ireTT^i'dao'i [ 



{?onnp fio ablapunj brS on pam pilmenum *j on ]?am 
?ebjium ]?e on -j yinb ]?a lippe beo5 ponne bij> ]5 j-ap 
fceajippe jjonne ]??ey pehnej- yaji j)e on |?8epe lifpe 
]'elj:jie beoS • -j ]?u meaht be J>on onjitan f fio abl 
bi]? Jjsepe hpjie Ijepj^um -j ofjium. jtp ponne fio lipjie 
aheajibunj "j j'lo abl *j j-io ablapnnj hip on ])se]\e hpjie 
healcum -j holocum jecenneb |7onne Jiinc]? him fona on 
pjiuman ]3 fio psete fpi]?op ni]ro]i jepite ];onne hio 
upfrije • -j fe mon jefpojunja ]?jiopaS -j mobef jefpte- 
j^punja • ne msej him fe hchoma batian ac he bi5 
blac -j ]?ynne -^ acolob *j ]:op]?on £etpil5 htm paeteji- 


l^ip )?8epe jepelan heapbnejje Jjsepe hppe "Sonne ij- 

fto to beSianne mib hatan psetpe on J?am fien 3;efo- 

bene pypta.. pepmob • -j pilbpe majl^an pyjittjiuman • 

penojpecum hatte pypt • 'j eop^ jealla • J^onne p>a 

j-ien ealle jefobene be]?e ]7onne inib miclum fppynjum pa, 

papan fcope lanje • poplret fpa .ill. bajaf Pypc ]?onne 

j-ealpe op hpsecenum jpyttum ^epophc oS^e op bpipe 

V op pepmobe • "j op pme • 'j op appotanean 'j cymene • • 

'j op laupep cpoppan bo hunijef to f pu J'yppe pele 

liim f ]?py bajaf • o]?pe ]7jiie pece him hojm on oj^J^e 

jloep teoh ut. Sel ]nT lacnafc jip ]m feo|?eft; puban 

on ele "j jpenne pepmob oS8e bpijne • -j hpit cpubu 

fol. 77 b. Pj ealle bej'e leje on upan • Iset beon ealne bsej -j eac 

pela baja pay pm^ fmfc to bonne -j ])am monnum fynb 

/ to pellanne mijole bpmcan • pa pypt peteppihan • "j 

LEEnn BOOTC. u. 207 

and more heaviness than sore. And when the upblow- Book II. 
ing is on the fihns, and on the veins which be in and ^ ' ^^^ 
about the liver, then is the sore sharper than the sore 
of the inflammation which is on the liver itself, and 
thou mayest by that understand that the disorder is 
on the lobes and margins of the liver. If moreover 
the liver hardening, and the disease, and the upblow- 
ing is kindled on the hulks and hollows of the liver, 
then it soon seems to the doctor that the humour 
descends downwards rather than ascends ; and the man 
suffers swoonings and failings of the mind ; ' his body 
cannot amend, but it is pale, and thin, and chilled, and 
hence there falleth upon him dropsy. 


For the sensitive hardness of the liver ; it is to be 
bathed with hot water, on which worts have been 
sodden, wormwood and roots of wild maythe, a wort 
that hight fenugreek, and earth gall ; when they are 
all sodden, then bathe the sore places for a long time 
with copious water fomentations ; - leave it so for three 
days ; then work a salve wrought of wheaten groats 
or of a brewit of wormwood, and of wine, and of 
abrotanum, and of cummin, and of bunches of laurel 
berries ; add thereto as much honey as thou needest ; 
give the niutn that for three days; on other three set 
on him a cupping horn or glass, draw out hy that, 
ivhat comes out. Thou shalt treat the sick better if 
thou settest rue in oil, and green or dry wormwood, 
and gum mastic, witli all that bathe him, also lay 
it upon him,; let it be for a whole day, and also for 
many days these things are to be done, and to the 
men must be given dim^etic drinks ; give thou him 

' Xeiirodvfjdas for the two. 
- Medicated baths were well known, as to Oribasios. 

'20H L.-ECE ROC. 

hile . "j niejicej' j-a^b oS'Se py)itt)uiman mib hunije yele 
|>u Iniu relce ba^je bjiincan • "i;!}: hmi >t'}:eji ue fie yc 
•j) inib pme tejrceji pon o]?pe pyjitbpenca]' yculon ]-i]j];an 
j> jefpel bi)? jehpeleb -j cobyplb -j pyjvS unfajipe -j 
ni|'e]i jepir ]?u]ili Sa pambe 'j fe man raih"5 po]iinfe • 
trala]) p he ]?onne hal fie • ])oiiiie beo]^ litm Co j'ellanne 

Aretaeos, fpijjofr ])a mijolaii bjimcan f'ze eall ]5 ypel ])uph Sa 

pambe 'j Jjujili ya, micjean peopSen^ ^V^J, f^<5on • ]>y Inep 
fe men peop]?e ])upli j)one mu]> jwpmf fpipenbe -j Imie 
liujiu pi]) bseS healbe -j pij^ jpene fepla pj: ]?onne pe 
fpile "j p popmf upfcib'b to )>on f ])e ]nnce ]3 hit moii 
fmjjan raa^je 'j tit po-^lsecan • pypc him ];omie pealpe 
repefc op culpjian fceapue -j op |?am jehca • -j <e.]\ mib 
fppynjum be]?e ];a frope mib |?y pa^rjie "j pyjicum }>e 
pe 88p ppicon |jomie ])u onjite ■]) ■]> 7;efpel hnej'cije 'j 

fol. 78 a. ^P^Ppi^S^ * I'onne hpm Su him mib ])y fnib ij-ene "j fniti 

Celsus, iv. 8. lye hpon 'j hftum ]> f blob m^eje tic puji]?um ]?ylaej' 
]?ibep in ypel poliha jefije • Ne poplpec ]ni ]7?ep blobep 

Avi-t. Aciit, vl. Co f ela on !?enne fi]) • J'ylep ]'e feoca man ro pepij 
peopSe o^Se fpylce • ac |)onne )ju hic Cofcinje o]>)>e 
fnij^e ponne hapa j^e linenne pseclan jeapone ■]> ];ii •]> 
bolh pona mib poppjiibe • -j j^onne ]m hic epc ma 
Isecan pille reoh j?one paeclan op Iter lychim fpa o])|J 
liic abpujie • 'j J;onne fio punb fie clasne • ^epyme 
];onne f ]5 ]>y]iel co neajio ne fie • ac j^ii liie relce 
baeje mib pipau jeonb fpsec • *j a|?peah mib pam pin- 

' Read peoji^V. 

' The words are not from Tral- 
lianus, but he speaks in the same 
order of apxo/ie'cTjs irimaOui r^y 
(pKfjIxovTi^ Kol yap St' ovpcov viroKAfn- 
TETai Kol (TfxiKpvveraL 6 o^/coj. 


- TU T/jS Tre'vf/eoiy arijj.e1a a<r(pa.- 
KicTipa. Trallianus, p. li-'S, <'J. 

■' Cf. Aretxos ; chrou. I. xiii. 



every day to drinlc tlie wort parsley, and dill, and seed n.ioi; ii 
of raarche or its roots with lioney : if he hath no fever * '' 
eke that with wine. After that other wort drinks 
are proper, when the swelling is become an abscess and 
bursteth/ and is becoming more free from soreness, and 
is passing off downwards through the wamb, and the 
man pisseth ratten, reckoneth that he then nia}^ be 
hole ; - then must be given him principally the diure- 
tic drinks, in order that all the mischief through the 
wamb and through the mie may be done away, lest 
the man shouki take to spewing ratten through the 
mouth ; and let him withhokl himself somewhat from 
the bath and from green apples. If however the 
swelling and the ratten mounteth up to that degree 
that it seem to thee that a man may cut into it and 
let it out, then work him a salve first of culvers sharn 
and the like of that, and previously bathe th(; places 
with sousings, with the water, and with the worts 
which are wrote of before. Wlien thou understandeth 
that the swelling is growing nesh and mild, then touch 
thou it with the cutting iron,^ and cut in a little, 
and cleverly, even that the blood may come out, lest 
an evil sinus or pouch descend in thither. Do not 
let too much blood at one time, lest the sick man be- 
come too languid or die; but when thou dost prick or 
cut it, then have for thyself a linen cloth ready that 
therewith thou mayst soon bind up the cut ; and 
when thou wilt again let more hlood draw the cloth 
off, let it run by a little at a time till it gets dry ; 
and when the wound is clean, then enlarge it that the 
thirl or aperture may not be too narrow ; Init do 
thou every day syringe through it with a tube, and 



fol. 781), 

5um ]i];]>aii oj^lej^e )?e J>a jmnbe clsenjneu •' pj: Ino 
ipij?0]i miiyfpe peojipe ckenj'a" mib liunije -j jelsec ejic 
■cojsebejie. Gyz ]?onne feo iinjefelbe aheapbunj J>8e]\e 
lij-'pe to lanjlum pyjvb . Jjonne pypc]? hio pteceji boUan 
])one ])e mon jelacman iie 111835. -^^ ^^^^^ pceal j'ona 
on ppiiman ]>& teji jenemnebau bej^un^a • ne bjnnce lie 
nipej- nabc • -j jip j-e bpepfioca mon blobep to fela 
lifiebbe ]?onne j'ceal htm mon reji eaUum o])pum Isece- 
bomum blob Irecau op j^am fpiSpan eajime on ]?se]ie 
nj|?eppan asbpe • jip Ja mon ue mgeje pajie jejiebian 
j^onne j-ceal mon on [aepe mibbel sebjie blob l^etan • 
})a |)e f ne bo]) on micel eappe]?um becumaS. 


IDpfTt him iie to pojijanne on lipeji able hj'set him 
lie to healbanne je on IjECebomum je on mete • po]i- 

\/ ]>on ip ]^ea]ip micel ^ mon nau]?eji ne pealpa ne baj?u • 

ne onle-^ena ?e]i to nybe • asji him mon blob Isete j^am 

V J'e pel a blobej^p hsep -^ septeyi ]?on ]7e pe lichoma lie 

J>ujih ]>ii bloblsepe jeclsenpab -^ );pef mannep bileopa*^ 
if CO bej'ceapianne • sepefc him jp to j-ellanne f 
];one mnoS fcille -j fme]7e • ne fie pceajip ne to apop • 
ne plitenbe • ne fpijene • relc b]\o]> ip to popjanne 
poji ];on ])e hit bij) jnnbenbe "j ypele paetan ]'ypie]; • 
jejjui fiiit to popjanne pop]7on])e hipa p?ete biS pset -j 
mapan hiBto pyjicS • hlapej- cjiuman jip hie beoj^ op- 
|>a?nbe oj^j^e jepobene fint to Jncjanne ac na to fpiSe • 
oj)jie j'tetan' mete jeajipa -j cocnunja ealle fmt to 
}:o]ibeobanne • 'j eal ];'a ppetan ]nn^ -^ ]>{i fraepepijan *j 
ofcephlapaf ^ 'j eall f])ete jnnj ]»e pypcaS ajjunbeneppe • 
je j^a pceappan a]-pan j^m^ fmt to pleonne* po]i]>on ]je 

' clseymeu, MS. 

'-' claej-na, MS. 

■'Alexander Trallianns, p. 127, 
line 9, ed. 1548, by the general 

•■ Et aT/xa TrAeovafei. 

•'■ t;ecl8efnab, MS. 
" Alex, ut supra, line 17. 
" ReadhpaDtene ; ra Si aWa. iravra 

^ The Saxon leech skips four 
i lines of Alexandres of Tralles. 


wash it out by those lueaus ; after that, hiy thereon liook ii. 
what may cleanse the wound. If it turn oft' very im- *"''• ^^" 
pure, cleanse it with honey and draw it again come 
together. Again, when the insensible hardening of the 
liver is of too long duration, then it forms a dropsy 
which cannot be cured. But one must soon at the 
outset emplo}^ the before named fomentations ; let him 
drink nothing new, and if the liversick man have too 
much blood, then one must, before all other leechdoms, 
let him blood from the right arm on the nether vein. 
If that may not easily be got at, then shall n man 
let blood upon the middle vein; they who do it not, 
come into mickle difficulties. 


Herp we treat of what a onan must forego in Vwi-v 
disease, what he must hold by, whether in leechdoms 
or in diet. For as much as there is much need that for 
a man who has much blood one should employ neithei- 
salves, nor baths, nor external applications, ere he be 
let blood ; after the body is cleansed through the blood- 
letting, the mans diet is to be examined : first must 
be given him what may still and soothe the inwards, 
what is neither sharp nor too austere, nor rending, nor 
caustic ; all broth ' must be foregone because it is in- 
flating and worketh evil humours ; eggs must be fore- 
gone because their liquor is fat and worketh more 
heat; crumbs of bread, if they be moistened or sodden, 
may l)e eaten, but not in excess ; other wet [Avheaten j 
meat-preparations, and cookings up must be forbid- 
den, and all the moist things and greasy, and 
oyster patties,^ and all sweet things which work in- 
flation. Yea the sharp austere things'^ must be 

'■ Zs'juo. I ' Tix TTV(povTa; but just above 

-' boTTpaKiZtptia, shell fish. | afO)» translated Spiixv, 

o 2 

212 LMCE BOC. 

]?a finic jroptynenbe j^a mnoj^aj' • "j i^efamnaS ];one fpile 
\/ "j uny];ielice inelcalS • ]:o]i eionne seppla •' ne pm nij' co 
j'ellanne • yo]\ Son ])e hie liabLacS harne. h\\?e]> • ]?am i)" 
ro jncjanue linj-ceajip pin • eac pceal mon oxuinellif * 
j-ellan p biS oj: ecebe -j op hunije jepojiliC bpenc 
fu]?e]\ne • 'j ];onne onjin^ ];a3]ie liseto pelm panian 
fpijjofc jmjili i!)a micjean • "j him i]- co pellanne lac- 
tucaf*"'' 'j fu}?epne popij"* mnepeapb. Tacn'^ ]3 fe Ipile 
];'pman ne nia^j • ne utrypnan on prppe lippe • p fe 
mon h?epS liepij yaji on ni]>epea]ib]ie lippe barium • 
emne fpa he pie mib hpilepe hpeja byp]>enne jehepejob 
on ]?aepe fpi]7pan healpe • 'j ntepS he pepjiep hseco on 
l^am bsehim • ]?am men fmt: to j-ellanne ]?a bpmcan -j 
yn Ifecebomaf j^a 6e pe Isepbon f mon bybe to ]?a^]ie 
fol. 79 i>. nnjepelan heapbneppe onjunnenpe on }?8epe hppe jeli- 

nej'cije mib ])y f pojifetene ypel • ^ip hpa ]?one la^ce- 
bom bej> CO j^e ]?a popfetcan j^mj ontyne *j ucceo a^^ji 
}»on Se he ]?one pojiheajiboban fpile jehnepce • pene]> f 
\/ he hic bete • jip ]?pep aht bi'S laspeb ]7a3]' heapban • ne 

])et lie hit ac ]>ypc • -j ^'^pi^sj' ^^^^ \Y l^cebome ];a 
]ia^'Can -j pip^ ]'« ipilt^ fpa heapb fpa ftan • *j ne ma^j 
lime mon jemelcan ne jehnepcian.^ 


Pyjitbjiencaj- pit) eallum hpeji ablum • pypce mon 
CO bjiencum hpeji feocum mannum • iiiepcef " pi^eb • 
bilep . pepmobep • ]?y jemece ];»e la?caf cunnon jnib on 
ppecep pele bjiincan. 6pt^ cofcep 'j pipojiej- bufc -j 
o}>pa pyjica ]7ifnm jelica bjimce .ill. bajap • *j hcje on 

' For potai, ■pomegranates. 

- As before, foot of page ; miss- 
ing four lines. 

' For TO acrap, asaiiim Europaum, 
and maum, meum. 

make a new chapter here, p. 127, 
line 6, ed. 1548. The Saxon ver- 
sion is free. 

''■ This passage ends at Alex. 
Trail., p. 127, line 16, ed. 1548, 

' For nardus keltica. Valeriatia c. , " From Alex. Trallianiis, p. 129, 

The Saxon perhaps moans G/oj/c/m/h , line 24, ed 1548, with omission of 
luleum. Cf. Dioskorid. I. vii. asarabucca and almonds. 

^The editions of Alex. Trail. « Alex. Trail., p. 129, Ime 32. 

LEECH BOOK. 11. 21." 

avoided, inasmuch as they have a bad etfect in clo.sini; Book il. 
the inwards, and they collect the swelling, and it doth ^'''•-■^^'•' 
not easily disperse,^ hence neither apples nor wine 
must be given, since they have a hot breath or (ironia. 
The man must take a not sharp wine ; one must also 
give him some oxymel, which is a southern or Italkni 
drink, wrought of vinegar and of honey : and when 
the burning of the heat bcginneth to wane away, 
chiefly through the mie, he must have lettuces and 
the inward part of southern poppy. Tokens that the 
swelling in the liver may not abate, nor run off; that 
that man hath a heavy sore in the parts of the nether 
liver, even as if he were weighted with something of 
a burden in the right side, and he hath not a heat of 
fever in these parts. To such a man must be given 
the drinks and the leechdoms, which we taught one 
should use for the insensible hardness begun in the 
liver ; with them let him make the obstructive mischief 
nesh. If any one applietli the leechdom Avhich unlocketh 
and draweth out the obstinately lodged matters, before 
he hath made nesh the badly hardened swelling, he 
weeneth that he is amending it ; hut if there be aught 
left of the hard inatter, he amendeth it not, but 
harmethj and with the leechdom he drietli the hu- 
mours, and the swelling becometh as hard as a stone, 
and it cannot be dissipated nor be made nesh. 


Wort drinks for all liver diseases : let one work for 
drinks for a liversick man, seed of marche, of dill, 
of wormwood, rub these fine into water in the manner 
in which leeches ken hovj, ami give to drink. Again, 
let the patient drink for three days dust of costmary, 
and of pepper, and of other worts like these, and let 
him lie on the right side for half an hour, and drink 

' Tovs uyKova dva(popi}TOvs ijiyaC^rm. 

fol. 80 a. 

214 L^CE EOC. 

]>a ipibpan I'lban liealfe tib -j bjunce ej:t on cejiemic • 
Iiealbc hme ];onne yi]) eceb. pi)? bae]?' ]n]> pifaii -j 
beana • -j iiiepai" • -j pij> ])a Jiinj ]>e pmbijne rej^m'ou men 
I'yjiceii. 6ft; ^ cofc • j:enum jpecum j)ipo]i liapan cyjiblu 
calpa emfela • jebeaC o]?]>e jejnib -j apipte • jebo cucleji 
pulne "pssy on pin pele bpmcan Jnxm ]?e bucan pepjie 
I'le • Jmem Se pepep liaabbe ]3 "ip micel lireco -j hjiuS''' 
]'ele J?am on peapmum paecejie • jelicje ]wnne on ]>a 
fpi|?paii fiban 'j alecje Lip lpi]?]mii hanb Imn unbeji 
beapob ajieabte heaipe tib.'* Gy-c j'yptbpencaf yi]) lipeji 
able • claeppan peapep .ii. lytle bollan pulle mib lytle 
hunije 5emen-i;be • bo peaji pulne jebieccep pmel" ro 
]ele bjimcan J'jiy bajaf jip bpitt; yplej- on |7£epe'^ bib 
ie bpenc lacnaS. 6pr pilbjie mealpan feapep ]?py lyfcle 

•^ Koad yiiWv. bollan pullaii ^ jenienjbe pij? fpilc cu pietejief pele bjiin- 
can .nil. bajaf • *j ^ip htm hpib abl ^eten^e bib |;a 
robpi):|> pe pyjit: bpenc. Gpt ptn cymen -j buni;^ 
T;e;5nib toSorane pele bjimcan. Gpr ipij cjioppena on 
j'am monSe jejabejiob J7e pe hataS lanuajimp on Iteben • 
•j on enjlifc pe a^ptepjia jeola • ptp *j xx. ^ pipojiep eac 
Ipa • jejnib J;onne mib J^y felefcan pme • *j jehtete pele 
|7am feocan men neahtnefcijnin bjiincaii. Liiecebom pi6 
lipeji able epc caulep tpiju o]?])e i'celan mib ]>am cjiop- 
pum abpije cbenbce bsepne to abfan jehealb J^a alipan" 
'j I'onne ]?ea]ip fie jebo ];fe]ie abfan cucleji pnlne mib 

fol. 80 b. . XL jejnibenjui pipoji copna on (!alb fpipc liluttoji . . 

. ." jeba;':; jjonne pele bpmcan o|7pe ]-i];e nijon copn • 
ppibban frSe feopon. Lascebom pj]> lippe able ept laupe)' 
cpoppan -j pipopep copna .xx. jejmb fmale • jebo on 
bollan pulne ealbep pmep • -j jemenj "cojsebepe mib 

' The text of AleX. Tra, 1528, j * This last clause, not in the text 

htiH $a\dvoiy, but Albanus Torinus of Alex. Tr., is in the Latin of 

" balneum."' Albanus Torinu.s. 

-■ Alex. Trail., p. l-'iO, line •'), cd, ' Add li)pe, omitted in MS. 

1548. '' Some word, perhaps y\n, is 

^ Otherwise found hpuN. lure omitted by ^IS. 


LEECH BOOK. I [. 215 

again in the evening. Let him withhold himself also K«>ok.ii 
from vinegar, from the bath, from peas, and beans, 
and navews, and from the things which work in a man 
a windy vapour. Again, beat or rub up and sift 
eostmary, fenugreek, pepper, hares treadles, equal quan- 
tities of all ; put a spoon full of this into wine, and 
give it to him who is without fever, to drink. To 
him who hath fever, that is mickle heat and fire,' give 
it in warm water ; then let him lie on the rio-ht side 
and lay his right hand stretched out under his head, f(jr 
half an hour. Again, wortdrinks for liver disease : to 
two little bowls full of juice of clover mingled with a 
little honey, add a bowl full of heated wine ; give this 
to be drunk for three days, if anything of evil be on 
the liver, the drink will cure it. Again, give to drink 
for four days, three little bowls full of the juice of 
wild mallow, mingled with two such of water . and if 
fever disease be on him, the wort drink drivetli it 
away. Again, rub together wine, cummin, and honey, 
give him this to drink. Again, five and twenty bunches 
of ivy berries, gathered in the month which we hight 
in Latin Januarius, and in English the second Yule, 
and of pepper as much, rub the-'<e up with the best 
wine, and heat it ; give it to the sick man, aftei- 
his nights fasting, to drink. A leechdom again foi- 
liver disease : dry clean some twigs or stalks of cole- 
wort with the flower heads, burn them to ashes, store 
the ashes, and when occasion is, put a spoon full of 
the ashes with eleven ground pepper corns into old 
very clear vjine, then heat it, give to be drunk the 
next time nine corns, the third time seven. A leech- 
dom again for liver disease : rub small a bunch of bay 
berries and twenty pepper corns, put them into a bowl 
full of old wine, and mingle them together with a glowing 

' Properly fever; the 8axoii seems to interpret Fever, as 
Latinisni, by pure English words. 



jlopenbe ij-ene yele bjuncan *j ^elicje fnille. ]}i\> lijijie 
abluni jmban j'ceapij- ]j]iy jebo on pme cjTOCcan -j ]>)iy 
Ducle l)o]lan pulle ])fecepel" opeppylle o]> |?ODe jjpibban 
bsel 'j Ipere fpiSe mib Imnije -j ]7omie ept opeppylle 
n/ j'ele bjiincan". Gpt pmcjieopep ]7a jjienan tpijii upe- 
]>eajib ^ejmb on j5 pelefce pm pele bpnican. 6pc heo- 
jiotep lungena mib ]?iejie )>]iotan afppmblab -j aj^eneb *j 
abjujeb on jiece • -j |?onne hie pul pel abpujobe lynb 
jebpyte "j jepiib -j |>onne jepomna mib Imnije pele 
CO etanne lipep j-eocum men f ly lialpenbe laeceboiu. 
jtp lipep peaxe bpince fe man fpipolne bpeuc. bpmce 
■^9 epc pucan asptep ])on beon bjioS "j msenije o]?pe psetan • 

(»]']ie jnican bpince pepmob on maxpypte apyllebe • *j 
fol. 81 a. nane oj^jie j^ascan -j ealipep hacte pyjit aj^ylle ]>a eac on 

maxpyjite bjiince ]7pibban pucan -j nanne o]?ejine^ pa3'can. 
(Djiuice teptep^ Ipeopolne bjienc ane pi|?e. 


JJBli line tacn Ipeotol be pambc copum -j ablum ^ 
liu mon ]7a ypelan pa;taii J^pepe pambe lacnian i'cyle • 
I'onnc pamb abl topeajib lie }?onne beo]? ]>a tacn. 
]?eiit - liie fio painb -j lipy^ "j jepelS jaji ])oniie 
fe mon mete j^ijeS -j punjetunja "j unliilb metep. 
Ciieop liatiaS^ lenbenu liepejiaS -j tojette]^ betpeox 
rculbjuiin -j eall liclioma luicce m?elum hepejaS 'j latia^ 
|7a pet • -j ]7a lipan papa lenbena pajuaS • ponne mon 
pap tacn onjite • ]wnne ip fe tepefta Itecebom bte^- 
pseften f mon inib ]iy pa pambe clrenj-ije^ f hio py ]?e 

' Tlic cliango of gender is accord- 
ing to the MS. 

- Diokles apud I'auUuiu jiEginc- 

tarn : col. 376, B. in Mediciu Artis 
Priiicipcs, for five lines only. 

^ Gravaiitur, Lat., healcia'5 'i 

' clajj-nige, MS. 


iron, y-ive to the ■j'^cttient to dv'mk, and let liiiii lie slill. Book 11, 
For liver diseases ; put three bundles of rue into wiuc 
in a crock, and three niickle bowls full of water, lioil 
them down to the third part, and sweeten them tho- 
rouglily with honey, and then again boil off; give tkis 
to be drunk. Again, rub into the best wine the upper 
part of the green twigs of a pine tree ; administer this. 
Again, a harts lungs Avith the throat ripped up, and 
s))read out, and dried in the reek; and when they are 
full well dried, break them and rub them isDiall and 
then collect them with honey; give tlds to the liver- 
sick man to eat ; it is a healing leechdom. If tlie 
liver wax large, let the man drink an emetic drink. 
Again, for a week after that let him drink bean broth 
and no other liquid, next week let him drink worm- 
wood boiled in mashwort, and no other liquid, and 
there is a wort called ealiver,^ boil that also in masli- 
wort, let him drink that for the third week and no 
other liquid. Let him drink after that an emetic drink 
for one turn. 


Here are plain tokens of disorders and sicknesses of 
tjje wamb, and how a man shall cure the evil humour;^ 
of the wamb. When wamb disease is present then the 
tokens are ; the wamb turneth itself, and is fevered, 
and feeleth sore when the man eateth meat, and prick- 
ings, and loss of appetite for meat. The knees are 
slow, the loins are heavy, and there are spasms be- 
tween the shoulders, and all the body by piece meal' 
is heavy, and the feet are tardy, smd the muscles of the 
loins are sore ; when a man observes these tokens, then 
the first leechdom is a days fasting, that with that he 
may cleanse the wamb, that it may be the lighter. Well, 

' Jack in the heclye ; Eri/simum I - citia occasionem,'' the modern 
alliaria. I translation of the imprinted Greek. 

218 LMCE BOC. 

leohtjie j-ie • jt]: fio abl fie ]?onne ^it peaxeubc yxkc 
.11. bajaj' cojaibejie jtp liim msejen jelsefce • jip he ]? 
lie maeje yelle hiiii mon leolitej' lipsec hpeja to ]nc- 
l^aniie fpa fBjpu beoS -j Son' jeltc. Sume to )7a3pe 
parabe clajnpunja- feopaS iietelan on psetpe "j on 
pine • "j on ele • fume psepe peaban netlan tpiju 

fol. 'SI 1). :i;]iene • fume beran o]?]>e boccan'^ on jefpettiini pme 

feo|?aS 'j pella^ to jjicjenne • "j jip fio abl majie pypS 
•j fe peoca man ]5 mjipjen hrepS ])onne feo];an Iiie him 
frjienjpan pyjita 'j bo\> hpaet hpeja pipeji to ; Sceapijc 
inon jeojme hpilc pe utjanj fie ]>e micel ]>e lytel }>e Jjseji 
nan ne fie • leopnije be ]7on pe lasce liu him jnnce 
];piet mon bon j-cule • jip ]> fie omihte pa>te mnan 
uubupnenu tyhte hie mon ut niib hj>um mettum fiii- 
cenbum -j ne Iset mne jefittan on ])am hchoman 'j 
])y]iS jejabejiobu omi^; paete on psejie panibe 0(55e 
(»n ]?am fmfel|7eapme • -j nsepS j^onne iitjanj fio fcojj 
ac bib apyjibeb fio fcop -j ]*e maja onpent -j tobpocen 
■j f heapob ajiputen *j j-aji • "j ];a Inno})ap ablapene "j 
liace pep] lap • "j micel jmpfc -j eallep hchoman abhi 
))eo]iJ?a8 apeahte. Sceal mon laenian fpilce able jip he 
pf'pep naip5 • raib cu meolcum o'SSe jate fpa nije mol- 
cenc bpmoe. 6ac hylpS jip mon mib ea fcanum on- 
biepnebum • o]>]ye mib hatene ifene ])a meoliic jepypb 

fol. 82 a. .-j j-el|? bpincan • -j ^ip ]> bi]; jeonj man -j ]ni tib hsepb 

•j mihce Iniii mon pceal op eapme blob fpij^e hetan 
■j ynib .III. niht bpnce ept pa meoluc. 

' ^011, MS. 1 •■' I'aul, ^Egin,, as before. 

- cl8e|-nun5a, MS. | 

LEECH BOOK. 11. 219 

if the disease be still on the increase, let Jam last for ^^''^ ^^■ 

two days together, if his strength will endure it ; ii" 

lie be not able to do that, let him have somewhat 

light to eat, as eggs be and the like of them. Some, 

for the cleansing of the wamb, seethe nettle in water, 

and in wine, and in oil, some seethe in sweetened wine 

twigs of red nettle green, some beet or dock, and give 

this to be taken; and if the disease groweth stronger, 

and the sick man hath the strength for it, then they 

seethe stronger worts and add some little pejjper. Let 

it be earnestly observed what the outgang, or /cecal 

discharge, is, whether mickle, or little, or whether there 

be none ; let the leech learn by that how it seems to 

liim a, man shonld act. If there be an inflammatory 

flagrant humour within, let it be got out by gentle 

aperient diet, and let it not lodge within in the 

l)ody, for then there will be gathered an inflammatory 

humour in the wamb, or in the small guts, and then 

the place has no passage out, but the spot is corrupted, 

and the maw is disturbed and upbroken, and the head 

is vexed and sore, and the inwards upblown ; and hot 

fevers, and mickle thirst, and diseases of all the body 

become awakened. Such a disease must be treated, if 

the iKttient have no fever, with cows milk, or let him 

drink goats milk newly milked. Also it helpeth if a 

mail with water stones' put in the fire, or with heated 

iron, turneth the milk and so giveth it to be dnmk ; 

and if it be a young man and he hatli a suitable time 

for it and strength to hear it, he must be fi-eely let 

blood from the arm, and let him drink the milk for 

about three days. 

' Unclci'Htaud such stones as ■\vould bear to be heated and phiugcd ill 





Be pauilje colaim -j 51]: liio iiiiiaii puiib bij? liu 
]? mou onjitaii iiiseje *j Telacniau • rejieli; jiy liijie 
brS 611 mnan punb ];onne bi]? j^sep yaji -j beotunja -j 
j;el'ceo]i]: • "j ]7onne hie mece j'lcjeaS -j bjiinca^ ]7onne 
plata'S hie -j biS hiopa muS jiul -j hju'cSia^ -j liipa 
iicjanj blobij -j f-cincS y]-"ele • bam mannum ]-ceal man 
jellan sejjia co jmpanne • bejien bjieab clasne nipe 
butejian -j nij'e bejien mela o^Se jpytca tojaebpe 
3;ebpipeb Ipa cocaf cuniion • ]"elle mon neahtneytijum, 
Gft pylena j'eaj^ -j pe;5b]ui;baii meiije inoii piS apeopeii 
hunij pelle neahtneptijum. 6ac pi}? ]wn bo man jobc 
jealpa^ onlejena utaii to J7a pe p yjzel lir reou eaS- 
mylce meucaf 'j fciji fin -j l"me]?e. 


be pambe ini]-Senhc]ic jecyiibo oc^be jjaejie luijbyjibo 
hii ]y mou mseje onjican. bonne- hio biS hatpe 
T;ebypbo 'j jecynbo • J>oniie msej hipe j'ona lytel bjimca 

fol. S2b. helpan* ^tp he majia bi]? ye bjnnca Ibna bi]> peo paml? 

^ ^ehepejob -j cloccec fpa fpa hiC on cylle^ plecjece -j je- 

pihb bpuim mettum jonne fio pgere pamb ne ];popaS )-eo 
]'iipi'~ -j lio fpiSe pajtrjie jecynbo bij? ne j^jioj'a'S leo ]>ii]ifi:: ne 
hepijneppe metta • -j jepihS psetum meccuin. be hatpe 
jccynbo pambe- Sio pamb feo ]ye biS hatjie jecynbo 
i"io melt mete pel lpi]?oit ]?a ]?e heajibe beocS -j linea'S 
my Ice "j jepih^ peapmum mettum "j bpmcum • -j ne 
bi]? hipe jel'ceSeb ppam cealbum mettum nub ^eniete 
jej^ijbum. Seo J^e biS j^a^cepijpe 5ec3aibo lio hpepS 
jobe jipncjye metep • hio luepS jobe meltuuje fpij^olt 
on jjam mettum ]'e uneaSe raelte beoS • jepihS cealbum 

' Ivcad j-ealja ~i ? 

- Twelve lines found in Aetius 
Tetrabibl. I. Seom. iv. capp. Ixxii., 
Ixxiii., Ixxiv., consecutively; also in 
Taulus of iEgina, lib. I. cap. Ixiv. 

^ By the printed books ] ylle 
would Hceni to be the true reading. 
" Fluctuationes habeaut, si id quod 
" redundat, innatet." 



Of sickness of tho wanib, unci if it be wounded 
within, how a man may understand that and cure it. 
First if there be a wound upon it within, then is tliere 
sore, and grumblings, and irritation ; and when tliey 
take meat and drink, then they liave nausea, and tlioir 
mouth is foul, and they are fevered, and their discharge 
is bloody and stinketh foully : to those men shall be 
given eggs to sup up, barley bread, clean new butter, 
and new barley meal or groats made into a brewit 
together, as cooks ken to do ; let it be administered to 
them after their nights fast. Again, let one mingle 
juice of peas and waybroad Avith strained honey, and 
give it after the nights fast. Again for that, let one 
apply good salves, and external applications, such as 
may draw out that evil, also easily digested meats, and 
sheer and smooth wine. 


Of the various nature of the wamb or of its caprice, 
how a man may rmderstand that. When it is of a 
liot temper and nature, then a little drink may soon 
help it. If the drink be more powerful soon tlie wamb 
is oppressed and palpitates, as if in cold it were 
])eating, and it rejoiceth in dry meats. When the 
wamb is moist it doth not suffer thirst, and it is of a 
very moist nature ; it doth not suffer thirst nor heavi- 
ness from meats, and it rejoiceth in moist meats. Of 
the hot natnre of the wamb. The wamb, that namely 
which is of a hot nature, digests meats well, especially 
those which be hard and of difficult digestion, and 
rejoices in warm meats and drinks, and it is not harmed 
by cold meats, taken with moderation. That whicli 
is of a w\atery nature hath a good appetite for meat ; 
it hath not a good digestion, chiefly of the meats 
which be of difficult digestion, it rejoices in cold meats. 

Book ir. 

Oil. xxvi. 


LMCE P.or 

U. 83 n. 

fol. 83 1) 


meccum. be cealbpe ^j ]>gQZ]\e jecynbo ])ambe. Sio 
panib l"io (5e biS cealbjie oS8e ptetjie jecynbo oSSe 
mi]-by]ibo • htm cymS bjifejenep ahl -j unjepitpsej-cney 
him bi5 • '-J ponne fio }:o]ib]ui;i;abe ;5ecynho on ]mm 
i'mum -j on ]?am banura h\]> • f ]ni j-yn pojijjyjijiobe 
))onne ne mi©^ raon ]?a jelacnian • pp hio )>onne bi]> 
mnoji on |?am ptepcehrnm fropum mib lynbjiijum 
I'rojHim -j precinjnm -j met'cum f mon maij jelacnian 
j'cnben op ])iP]\e hpjie fio blobpceapuni; jeonb jet ealne 
jjone hchoman. Selefc Icxcebom ip to fpilcum Jnnpim 
■]> raon jelome nyttije picep^ -j ]>a pambe mib ]'y 
jeplea ]'onne hio jepyjimebu lie -j ba]/u op jien pretepe 
•j nije molcen meoluc nub hunije jefmejwb him beah • 
bajnje hme jelome on bseje -j hpilum mib ele fmipe.' 
IDim hylp^ eac f him pet cilb ' aetplape • ^ ]> lie •]> 
;^ebo neah hip pambe i'lmle • him hylpS eac open baceii 
hhap^ "j pcellehre pipcaf on ))ole -^ -j J)one mete ])e pel 
mylcan pille. be hatjie^ *j bjiijpe pambe jtp j-io ])amb 
abhj brS hat hptet hpeja • eac J^sepe bpijnepj-e • ]>onne 
ne j'ceal he hunijep onbitan ac ealb ]nn j'losce mettaf • 
jip pio yple paste to micel fie • J>onne bnjon him 
cealb ]?a3tep 'j pceappe mettaf butan hastu • hpilnm 
beo]? J>a peetan on ])ie\\e pambe pilmenum • ];onne 
]'ceal mon ]) piplice lecean -j pseplice clsenpian- mib 
alpan • 'j mib fpelciim lityjmenbum bpencum ateon ur 
ja hophehtan j^tetan. jjpiene mib \)y sejieft -j );onne 
pyjice leohte fpipole bpencap op ]i£ebice Ipa ]3 la?eap 
cunnon. be hgemebjnnjum^ eallum J>ypjium lichomum 
hsemebjnnj ne bujon ac fpi];oft ])yppum -j cealbum • 
ne bepe|> hit liatum 'j jjsetum j'yppefc liiS ]?am ceal- 
ban hatan* Ipijjoit pam Se hopnable habba'5. Spelcum 
maniuim beah \> liie htm T;efpinc anjefecen 'j hie pelpe 

' Oribasius Synops., lib. V. liii. ; 

also Paulus ^gineta, lib. I. Ixxii, 
■-' daepian, MH. 
'■' Five or six lineR found in 

Paulus JEgineta, lib. I. cap. Ixxi. in 
Med. Art. Priuc. 

* Read psetan from the original. 



Of tlie cold and inoist natnred \vainl>. Tho avjuuIi I'-coK II. 

wliich is of a cold or inoist iiatnie or caprice; on ilic 

man cometli disease of tlio ]»raiu and loss of his senses; 

and when the desiccated nature is upon the sinews 

and on the l)ones, so that they are dried up, then 

they cannot be cured. Then if this dryne^ss be more 

within on the fleshy parts, one may cure that witli change 

of residence, and wettings, and meats, as long as from 

the liver the blood gushes through the whole body. 

The l)est leechdoni for such tilings is, that a man 

should frequently make use of pitch, and strike the 

wamb with it, when it is warmed ; and baths of rain 

water, and newly milked milk, softened with honey, is 

good for tlie patient. Let him bathe himself frequently 

in the day, and at whiles smear himself with oil. It 

is also helpful to him that a fat child should sleep by 

him, and that he should put it always near his wamb. 

Oven baked bread also helpeth him, and sliell fishes 

in liquor, and (let him eat) the meat which will readily 

digest. Of the hot and dry wamb, if the diseased 

wamb be somewhat hot, besides, for the dryness ; 

then shall the ixdicnt not taste of honey, but old wine 

and lukewarm meats. If the evil humour be too 

mickle, then are good for liim cold water, and sharp 

meats without lieat. At whiles the humours be on 

the membranes of the wamb ; then shall a man wisely 

seek into that, and warily cleanse them with aloes, 

and draw out the turbid humours with such purging 

drinks : first clear the vjamh Avith them, and then 

work light emetic drinks of radish, as leeches ken 

how to do it. Of venery: to all dry constitutions 

venery is not beneficial ; but most to dry and cold 

ones ; it harmeth not hot and wet ones ; it is worst 

for the cold moist ones and them which have 

disorder of the gastric juices. To sucli men it is of 

benefit that they should seek to themselves exercise, 

and should dose themselves, without bath, and with 


224 L^CE BOC. 

bjiencen' Imtan baSe -j mib fmi]iene)')'um liie fmejipan. 
be cealbpe jecynbo pambe. Se ];e cealbjie jecynbo fie 
iiyctije fe jemetliee)' ypelep fpilce pe ];e bjiijpe oSSe 
pfetpe fie, Se ]>e liattpe fie fio 7;e5ab]ia]; oman • ba 
moil pceal jip hie ni];e]i beo'S Jnijih ]ni ])ambe ncj'ih- 
ran niih pyptbpence tic abon • jtp Ine tipfcij^en |>n]ih 
fpijijaii ]'ceal mon ape^ abon. 



-J pi]; pon^ pe mannep ]3 uYeppe hpip fie jepylleb mib 

ypelpe ptecan liojihelitpe p ]?am manniim jelimpS ])e on 
fol. S4 n. miclum ^ebpmce pel pebenbe mettaf jncjeaS oj'jye fpipa'S 

•j fpijnift: {leprep mete "j him bi5 plsetta jetenje • 
beoS jeonb b]a]>ene -j bi6 fio pamb aj^eneb -j hjia^cra'S 
Telome. Sam monnnm pceal ^ pellan oxumelle mib 
jipebice p ip fuj^epne Irecebom- "j ];onne fpipaS hie pona 
J^one Jnccan hoph -j him bij) pel. Geyf]\c'^ ])e Ireeebom 
|)up op ecebe -j op hunije • jentm ]3 j-elefre hnnij bo 
opep heopS apeo]; ]> peax 'j p lipot op • ^ebo Sonne Co 
];am hunije empela ecebef |?a3p ne fie fpi]>e apoji ne fpiSe 
fpete menj to jsebepe 'j bo to pype on cpoccan opeji 
pylle on i^obum jlebum clfenuiii -j cpicum o]> ]5 hic fie 
jemenjeb j) hit fie an "j haebbe hunijep Jjicneppe 'j ne 
fie on bepjnej-j'e to fpeotol ]?aep ecebep appe pceappnep • 
jip fio pamb 111]? pmbe]- pull ])onne cym^ \> op plaepe 
pretan • fi'o cealbe p.ete pyjicj? j-apan. ])i]> ])on. j-ceal mon 
feo];an cymen on ele • -j mepcej- yveh • -j mojian fseb • 
'j bilep • jip pe cyle fie mapa bo ];onne puban -j laupej- 
blebe • 'j pmolep j'seb jepoben on ele • jip ]?onne jit 
y fio abl ejle jebjnnje nine j^uph piipan o^be hojm fj'a 

' " Victus attenuans," Lat. ver- ; ' Oribasius Med. Coll., lib. V., cap. 
sion of P. YEgin. xxiv. ; torn, i., p. 395, ed. Darem- 

■-■ Niuc lines found in Paiilus { berg. Also Galenos, vol. VI. 

.^vgiueta, lib. I. cap. xli. | p. 271, ed. Klihn. 

■ Kead rceal mon. 

LEECH ]]O0K. 1[. 22.') 

smearings smear themselves. Of tlic cold nature of tlio Book ir. 
wamb ; he who is of a cold mxture should avail him- ^''- ^^'^"• 
self of moderate discipline, as he who is of a dry or 
moist nature. He who is of a hot nature, with hini 
the luamh gathereth inflammatory humours ; these, if 
they be low down, one must get rid of by wort drinks, 
through purging of the wamb ; if they mount up higli 
one must get rid of them by vomitings. 


In case that the upper part of the bell}' is 
filled with evil sordid humour, a thing which hap- 
peneth to the men who in much continued drinking 
take nutritious meats, or who spew, and chiefly after 
meat, and who are subject to nausea, they are all 
over blown as tvith wind, and the wamb is extended 
and they frequently have breakings. To these men 
one must give oxymel with radish ; that is a southern 
leechdom : and then they soon spew up the thick cor- 
ruption, and it is well with them. Work up the leech- 
dom thus, from vinegar and from honey ; take the 
best honey, put it over the hearth, seethe away the 
wax and the scum, then add to the honey as much 
vinegar, so as that it may not be very austere nor 
very sweet ; mingle together, and set by the fire in a 
crock, boil upon good gledes, clean and lively, till Lhe 
TTiixture be mingled, so that it may be one, and have 
the thickness of honey, and on tasting it the austere 
sharpness of the vinegar may not be too evident. If 
the wamb is full of wind, that cometh from luke- 
warm humour ; the cold humour worketh sores. For 
that shall one seethe cummin in ale, and seed of 
march, and seed of more o?' carot, and of dill. If 
the chill be greater, then add rue, and leaf of laurel, 
and seed of fennel sodden in oil. Then if the disease 
still annoy, introduce this through a pipe or a horn, as 



Isecaj' cunnan J;onne be]> f f j-aji apej. jip j^omie jit 
fol. 84 b. fio abl ejle bo fpacl co *j jelaupebne ele f ly laupe]' 

feap oBSe blofcman jemenjeb -j eac o)?}vu Jniij 51)1 
j^eapf fie fece mon. 


PiJ? ]70n J)e men mete untela melee -j jecippe on 
ypele pseran -j feittan • Jjam monnum beah f hie fpipen • 
jip lum CO unea]7e ne fie • jejpemme mib pyptbpence 
>p he fpipe • f he mib jefpette pine jepyjice jip ]?8ep 
opejijjeapp fie seji mere f he fpipan mseje • pleo ]>a, 
V meccaf ]?a j^e hmi bylfca -j popb^jmunja 'j fciem on 

Innan pypcen -j to hjisebhce melcan • j^icjen ]>& Se 50b 
peap pypcen -j pambe hnepcen. JDpikim him beah f 
him mon pelle leohte pyptbpencap fpilce fpa biS pel 
^eteab alpe. Seo psefce pypc]? -^ly hie mon ne bej> apej 
uneaj^lacna abla f ip por p?epc • h|j psepc • lenben 
p^pc "j Oft fcpanj pepep becymS on J>a men ]?e }>a 
able habbaS. 


Qip ^ ]>u. piUe ]3 ];in pamb pie fimle jefunb ]?onne 
pcealc u liipe |;ap tiluin jip ]m pilt • jepceapa ?elce 
bseje f ]7in uc^onj -j micje fie jefunbhc septep pihte • 
jtp fio micje fie lytelu feo8 mepce -j pmul pypc 50b 
bpoS • oSSe peap ^ -j oJ?pa fpeta pypta • ^ip j-e utjan;^ fie 
Iseppa^ mm Sa pypt ])e hatte on fujjepne tepebmtma fpa 
micel fpa ele bepje • pele Jjonne to pefte jan piUe. baf 
pypta fmbon eac betfce to pon -j eaS bejeatpa • bete • -j 

' The substance is found in Pau- 
lus Mg., I. xliii. 

- j'eap : the name of some Avort is 
omitted in MS. ; or strike out 'j. 

' Four lines occur in Paulus of 
^gina, hb. I., cap. xliii. 


leeches ken to do it; then it removes the sore. If r-.okir. 
however the disease still vex, add spittle and laurelled '' '^'^^"'" 
oil, that is to say, juice or blossoms of laurel mingled 
with oil, and if need be, let also other things be 
sougfht out. 


In case a "mans" meat doth not well digest, and 
turneth to evil humour and to excrement, it is good 
for those " men " tliat " they " should spew, if it be 
not too uneasy to "him," irritate him to spew by a 
wort driniv. If there be extreme need that he may 
be able to spew before meat, let him manage that 
with sweetened wine. Let him flee the meats which 
work him mucus, and burnings, and heat in his inside, 
and which too readily digest : let him take those 
which work a good juice, and make the wamb nesh. 
At whiles it is good for him that one should give 
him light wort drinks, such as are aloes Avell pre- 
pared. The humour, if one doth not get rid of it, 
worketh not easily cured diseases, that is to say, foot 
pain, joint pain, loins pain ; and often a strong fever 
Cometh on the men who have that disease. 


If thou wish that thy wamb be always sound, then 
shalt thou thus treat it, if thou wilt. Look to it every 
day that thy fsecal discharge, and thy mie, be of sound 
aspect as right is. If the mie be little, seethe marche 
and fennel, work a good broth, or seethe juice of 
. . . and of other sweet worts. If the fsecal discharge 
be too little, take the wort which in southern lands 
hight turpentine tree, as much of it as the size of 
an olive ; give it the sick when he will go to bed. 
These worts are also very good for that, and more 

p 2 


niealpe • "j bpajyica "j ]nfum jelica jej'ohene {isti;?Dbj\c 
mib jeonje fpmef plsej^ce • J^icje ']3 bpocS • "j eac beali^ 
netle jefoben on pa^tjie • *j jepelo to ]:'iC5anne • *j eac 
ellenef leap *j ^ bpoS on Jja ilcan pifan. Sunie alpan 
leap pellaS Jjonne raon pile j'lapan jan • fpelc fpa biS 
];]ieo beana" jelce bseje ro popfpeljanne -j })ifuni jelice 
bjiencaf ^ fpiSjian ^ip J^eajip fie j-ynbon to pellanne • 
fpiSoft on popepeajibne lencten seji J)on fio ypele psete fe 
J?e on pmtjia jeSomnab biS liie tojeote jeonb ojjejia 
lima. COonije^ men ]>se]- ne jymbon ne ne jymaS 

fol. 85 b. ];onne becymS op J^am yplum psetum • oSSe fio healp- 

beabe abl o]?]7e pylle paspc oSSe fio hpice piepJ?o ];e 
mon on fu|?epne leppa liset o];Se tetjia o]jj7e heapob 
lipiep^o • o]>]>e Oman. Fop])on pceal mon feji clcenpian* ]?a 
yplan psetan apej sep ]?on ]7a ypelan cuman *j jepeaxen 
on pmtpa • -j Jja limo jeonb yjmen. ])!]> j'ambe co]:»e 
V -j fajie • Imfpebep jei^niben oS8e jebeaten bolla pull • 
*j II. pceajipep ecebep opeppylle setjsebepe j-ele bjuncan 
nealitneptijum ]?am feocan men. Gpt leje bpeopje 
bpoftlan jecopene on ];one napolan fona jeftille]? ; 6pt 
bilep fsebej- lytelne^ S^jnib on pseceji j-ele bjimcan. 
])i]> pambe coSe 'j pi]? mnepojian fape. bonne pop 
miclum cele pamb fie unjepealben • bo Sa Jnnj co ])e j^e 
be upan j'jiiton. Tip ])pep ]?onne fie ]??ep hjupep penbnnj 
oS(Se jepceopp • jentm J^jieo cpoppan laupef bleba jejiiib 
y 'j cymenep • -j petejipilian jynbpije cuclepap puUe • -j 
M pipopep .XX. copna • jejnib eall cojsebepe "j j^pie pil- 

fol. 8G n. menna on bpibba pambum abpije • a?ptep Son jentm 

])8ete]i ^ejnib bile on • -j ];ap J^mj jehaBte pele bjnn- 
can • o|? ^ p j'ap jefcilleb fie. ])i]> ]?on ilcan jentm 
..y lilap jefeo'b on jate meolce poppije on fuf'epne.^ 

' Four more lines found in P. 
vEg. The Latin version, the origi- 
nal being unpublished, has merni- 
rialis for nettle. 

- The Latin gives, «/wa- as bi</ as I •"' Kead on fiil'ejme hjienc 
three vetches. I 

^ Paulus iEgineta, lib. I. cap. c, 
cites Diokles to similar purport. 
■' clsej-nian, MS. 
•'• Head lyrelne bx\. 


easily procured, beet, and mallow, and brassica or cab- l^ook ir. 
h'Jbge, and the like to these, sodden together with young »-'^^- 
flesh of swine ; let the, man swallow the broth : and 
also nettle sodden in water and salted is good to 
swallow ; and also leaves of elder and the broth in 
the same wise. Some give leaves of aloe, when a man 
willeth to go to sleep, as much as three beans, every 
day to be swallowed ; and drinks like these, and more 
powerful ones, if need be, are to be administered ; 
especially in early spring, before the evil humour, 
which is collected in winter, spread itself through the 
other limbs. Many men have not attended to this, no, 
nor do yet ; then there cometh of the evil humours, either 
hemiplegia, or epilepsy, or tlie Avhite roughness, which 
in the south bight lejDrosy, or tetter, or headroughness, 
or erysipelas. Hence one nuist cleanse away the evil 
humours before the mischiefs come and wax in the 
winter, and run through the limbs. For wamb sick- 
ness and sore ; a bowl full of linseed, rubbed or beaten, 
and two bowls of sharp vinegar ; boil together, give 
to the sick man to drink after his nights fast. 
Again, lay chewed pennyroyal on the navel, soon the 
pain will be still. Again, rub a small (juantity of the 
seed of dill into water, give it to be drunk. For 
wamb sickness and sore of the bowels ; when from 
much cold the wamb is not under control, do to it 
the things which we wrote above ; then if there be a 
subversion or irritation of the stomach, take three 
bunches of laurel flowers, and separate spoons full of 
cummin and of parsley seed (?), and twenty pepper- 
corns, rUb all together, and dry three membranes which 
are in the wambs of young birds ; after that take water, 
rub dill into it, and heat these things ; give the man 
this to drink till the sore is stilled. For the same, 
take bread and seethe it in goats milk, sop it in a 
southern drink, such as Jtydroinel, 'p'^rhaps, or uxijmcl. 

230 LMCE BOC. 

Pij? pambe coj'e leo^ puban on ele -j J^icje on ele. 
6ft; pilbe culppe on ecebe -j on psetpe jefoben yele to 
Jjicjenne. pi^ pambe co6e epc laupef leap ceope *j f 
leap fpelje -j |>a leap lecje on liif napolan, Sfx: heo- 
potep meajih jemylt; pele on harum psetjie bjimcan. 
To pambe jemetlicunje • jemm becan abelp "j ahjiipe 
ne ]?peali ]?u liie ac fpa lanje feoS on cetele -j pylle 
o]? f liio fie eal topoben -j J^icje ^ jeupnen • bo ];onne 
lytel pealtep to "j hunijep • V. cucleji msel • elej' cucleji 
msel pele bollan pulne. Gpt heapbehtep pojipiep jepo- 
benep^ j-ynbpi^ne pele jjicjean. 6pc ]?8epe peaban net- 
Ian fseb on hlap pele J^icjean. 6pt bypiijbepjena feap 
pelle bpmcan. 6pt plum bleba eCe neahtnefcij. 6pt 
elnep pmbe jebeacene fte penmjje peje on cealbep 
psetpep bollan pullum pele bpmcan. 

^. XXXI. 

fol. 86 b. Be pambe copum -j tacnum on poppe *j on fmasl 

]?eapmum. Sum cyn biS eac |?sepe ilcan able on Jjsepe 
pambe • -j on J>am poppe -j fmsel ]?eapmnm ]?e J>ip biS 
to tacne • f hie ]?popiaS ojimsetne ]?upfc • -j metep un- 
luft -j opt uc ypna5 jemenjbe ufcjanje hpilum heapb • 
lipilum hpit • hpilum opt on bseje litjaS -j ]>onne lyt- 
lum • hpilum jene • -j J^onne micel • hpilum hie^ pel 
jelyfc utjanjan • -j him ];a bypj^enne ppam apeoppan • 
•j jeopne tilian ac ne majon nabbaS f nifejen J7?epe 
meltunje -j bpopete'S blob • fpa pon jelicoft |)e tobjio- 
cen p8et. be hiopa liipe -j |?am napolan • -j J^am pseje- 

' Jjicge, that is jncce. i •' Plainly a chapter nepl KcohiKrjs 

" Add cjioppan or the like. oiaBicr^as. 

' Kead hme. 


2. For wamb sickness seethe rue in oil, and let ilw. ^]^^ ^^■ 
fiicJc swallow it in oil. Again, give him to eat a wild 
pigeon sodden in vinegar and in water. For wanib 
sickness, again, lot him chow leaves of laurel, and 
swallow the juice, and let him lay the leaves on his 
navel. Again, give melted harts marrow in hot watei- 
to drink. For moderating''^ the action of the wamb ;" Note, p. 165. 
take beet, delve it up and shake the mould off, do 
not wash it, but seethe and boil it in a kettle so long, 
that it be all sodden to pieces, and run thick, then 
add a little salt, and of honey five spoon measm-es, of 
oil one spoon measure, give the man a bowl full. 
Again, give to the sick to eat, separate, the to}) of a 
sodden leek, having a head to it. Again, give him to 
eat some seed of the red nettle on bread. Again, 
give him to drink juice of mulberries. Again, lot him 
cat after his nights fasting plum fruits. Again, give 
him to drink elder rind beaten, as much as may weigh 
a penny, in a bowl full of cold water. 


Of wamb sicknesses, and of tokens in the colon and 
in the small guts. There is a kind of that ilk disease 
in the wamb, and in the colon, and small guts, of which 
this will be for a token ; that the sick suffer immoderate 
thirst and loss of appetite for meat, and often they 
have a flux with a mingled fsecal discharge, at whiles 
hard, at whiles white, at whiles they discharge often 
in the day and then little at a time, at whiles once 
and then much ; at whiles a desire is upon them to 
p-o to stool and to cast the burthen from them, and 
gladly would they attend to it, but they are not able,^ 
they have not the power of digestion, and they di'op 
blood, very much like a broken vessel. Of their hue, or 

' Tenesmus. 

232 LyECE BOC. 

jieofan • "j bagcj^eapme -j nepefeoj^an • -j milre ^ fcajie • 
beoS seblsece -j eal fe lichoma al'cimob • 'j ypel fcenc 
nah hi]- j^eljrey jepealb "j bij? f yaji on Sa fpiSjian 
fiban • healpe - on p'a pcape • -j |)a pambe fpi]?e jeneap- 
pob • -j eyt ppam ]?am napolan o]? ]?one milce • -j on }ja 
pmefcpan jisejepeofan 'j jecymS set: J^am bfBCJ^eapme •j 
iec ])am nepefeoJ>an- "j ]?a lenbenu beo6 mib micle j-ajie 
fol. 87 a. bejypbebu. penaS impipe Isecap j3 ^ fie lenben abl 
o5^e miltre psepc • ac Int; ne biS fpa • lenben feoce 
men inija'S blobe -j fanbe Jjonne J^am J^e milre psepc 
biS • ]?nibe]? Imn fe milr "j bi}) aheajibob on ];am pine- 
Itpan bsele ]?aepe fiban. ba pambfeocan men ]>popiaS 
on pam bsecj^eajime -j on Jjam nij^eppan hpipe "j lofaS 
him fona fio fcepn -j cele ]?p.opaS -j plasp o])t05en -j 
imho -j tihS mnan ]?one pop 'j on ]3 fmeel ]?eapme. 


piyye able ppuman mon msej ypelice jelacnian* on 
j?a ilcan pipan ]?e ]?a utypnenban -j septep uneS • jip 
liio biS unpiflice to lanje poplreten. On ppuman mon 
Iceal bsej oS8e .II. tojciebepe jepsej'can "j bep>an j^a 
bpeofc mib pine • *j mib ele *j pypcean onlejena op 
jiofan 'j bepenum melpe pi^ pm jemenjeb "j on hunije 
jefoben 'j mib ele on moptejie jefamnob leje opep ]7a 
fcape op ];one napolan *j opep ]^a lenbeno op ]?one bcec- 
j^eapm -j J^pep hit pap lie • Iset him blob pvLy -j ^ pete 
jhep on oSSe hopn *j teo p blob nt -j fmepe mib ele 
fol. 87 b. "j beppeoh hme peapme pop ]?on ];e cile bi]? pve]\e able 

' Add -J. 

- The foniicr of Ihcsc synonyms should be erased. 

■' Omit -J. 


complexion, and of the navel, and of tlio dorsal muscles, ''"'"'^ 'f- 

and of the back gut or rectum, and of the lower belly, 

and the milt, and the share ; they are horribly pale, 

and all the body is glazed, and an evil stench hath 

not control over itself,^'- and the sore is on the right » Eutcuii.sni. 

side on the share, and on the wamb, much troubled' 

bij it, and again from the navel to the spleen, and 

on the left dorsal muscle, and it reacheth to the anus, 

and to the lower belly, and the loins are girt about 

with much soreness. Unwise leeches ween, that it is 

loin disease, or milt wark : but it is not so ; loinsick 

men mie blood and sand ; on the other hand those, 

who have milt wark, the milt distendeth in them, 

and is hardened on the left part of the side. The 

wambsick men suffer in the back gut, and in the 

lower belly, and their voice soon is lost, and they 

suffer chill, and sleep is taken from them, and strength, 

and it draweth the colon from within and upon the 

small cut. 


One may easily cure the first stage of this disease in 
the same wise as the outrunning disease, or relaxatioo 
of the bowels, and afterwards less easily, if unwisely 
it be too long neglected. In the first instance a man 
must fast for a day or two, and foment the breast with 
wine, and with oil, and work poultices of roses and 
barley meal, mingled with wine, and sodden in honey, 
and gathered up with oil in a mortar, lay these over 
the share, as far as the navel, and over the loins as 
far as the back gut, and Avhere it is sore. Let him 
blood thus ; set on him a cupping glass or horn, and 
draw the blood out, and smear with oil, and wrap 
him up warm, in as much as cold is an enemy in the 

' It Roems best to consider seneajij'oh as for geneajij'obe, with termina- 
tion dropped. 

284 LJfiCE BOC. 

peonb. Pypc liim j'ealpe }»ul' pij? pambe cojjum op cpicura 
fpeple -j op blacum pipope • "j op ele jnibe mon fmsele 
-j men^e tro^sebepe -j peax ealpa empela. peaxep ];eali 
Ifisfr • jip fio abl fie to ]?on fcpanj ^ pap l?ecebomaf ne 
onnime jip fe mon fie jeonj 'j fcpanj Iset; htm blob op 
mnan eapme op ]?8epe miclan asbpe Jjsepe mibbel sebpe. 
+ This seems <^ Pjpc ]?up pealpe 'j fmi]ie j?a fapan fcopa, feo]? puban 

a mark of dis- t c ;_ i _ i i 1,1, /• 

content with ^11 ele bo petepj-iliaii to jip pu li?ebbe -j picia pypt- 
the text: pro- tpuman • 'j popij fi];]jan eal jepobeii fie bo ]?onne ]7eax 
miclan scbjie on p ele -^ pte 'f eall peop'Se to hnepcum peaxhlape f 
erased. hit fie hp0e]>pe fpi}>ufc jej^uht pealp fmipe ]7a ftopa f 

hit fie paji mib Jjy • fpi]7oft ]7one bsecj^eapm bapo pij? 
pambe coj^um • him op pealtum psetpmn fmt to pyjic-~ 
anne • jip he J^a nsebbe pelte mon hiopa mettaf. ]h]) 
pambe cojjum ept fpmef clape jebsepnbe -j to bufte 
^ejnibene bo on fceapp pm pele bpmcan. Pi5 pambe 
co]7e gate lipep jebsepnebu -j hpset hpeja jejniben "j 
fol. oS a. on ];a pambe aleb him bi]? ]pe bet. ^ip pambe co]7um 

ept laenunj on f hpip to Senbanne • jentm japleacep 
]7peo heapbu *j ^pene puban tpa hanb pulle • -j elep 
.1111. punb o'S'Se fpa ]>e J^mce • ^ebeat f leac 'j ]:'a 
puban je^mb tojgebepe appmj o^^e apeoh • bo to J?am 
ele clsenpe butepan punb hlutpef picej- piptan iiealpe 
yntfan • -j clsenep peaxeS .111. yntfan jemenje eal to- 
jfebjie bo on jlsep p?et • clsenpa ^ ]?onne sepeft j^a pambe 
mib bpencef anpealbbpe onjeotunje • jip f j-ap |7onne 
mape fie bo mapan ele to • jemenj ])onne ]?a j^mj ];e 
ic sep nembe jeplece bo on. pay l^^^S majon je pi]? 
lenben ece • }?onne mon ponbe mihS je piS poppej- je 
pi6 pambe -j fmsel j^eapmef ablum "j ut pajjtce je pi]? . 

' ele is usually masculine. i - clsej-na, MS. 


disease. Work him a salve thus, against wamb dis- 
orders ; from live brimstone, and from black pepper, 
and from oil ; let them be rubbed small and mingled 
together ; and wax also; of all equal quantities, of 
wax however least. If the disease be to that decree 
strong that it will not accept these leechdoms, if the 
man be young and strong, let him blood from the 
inner arm, from (the mickle vein of) the middle vein. 
Work a salve thus, and smear the sore places ; seethe 
rue in oil, add parsley, if thou have it, and roots of 
rushes, and poppy ; after all is sodden, then add wax 
to the oil, in order that the whole may become a 
nesh waxen cake,^^ that it may be however a highly a ^ ccrote. 
approved salve ; smear the places, so that soreness 
may come with it, especially the fundament. Baths 
for warnb disorders ; they must be wrought for them 
of salt waters ; if none can be had, let their {the sick 
mens) meats be salted. For wamb disorders again ; 
put into sharp wine a swines claw burnt and rubbed 
to dust ; give the raan this to drink. For wamb dis- 
order ; a goats liver burnt, and rubbed somewhat small, 
and laid on the wamb, it will be the better for him. 
For wamb disorders again; to send medicine into the 
belly : take three heads of garlic, and green rue, two 
handfuls of it, and four pints of oil, or as much as 
seemeth good to thee ; beat the leek and the rue, rub 
together, wring out or strain, add to the oil a pound 
of clean butter, and four ounces and a half of clear 
pitch, i^erha'ps naphtha, and three ounces of clean wax ; 
mingle all together, put into a glass vessel, then first 
cleanse the wamb with the simple onpouring of a drink : 
then if the sore be greater, add more oil, then mingle 
the things which I before named; apply lukewarm. 
These things are valid either against loin ache, when 
a man pisseth sand, or for diseases and pain of the 
lono- p-ut, or of the wamb, or of the small gut, and 
for dysentery, or for diseases of the maw, and gripings, 

23G L.'ECE BOC. 

niajan ablura "j clajmnja • -j pi]) pipa rebjiiim gecyn- 
bum. Sum co]m ip ])iG]ie pambe f ]jone feocan moniian 
lyfceS utjanjey 'j ne majj J^onne he ure beryneb 
bi5. pi|? ];oii j'ceal mon nsebpan aefmoju feo];an on 
cle • oSSe on burepan • o])]ye on pine on tmum^ piete 
•j fmijie pa pambe mib )?y • jtp fe utjanj fie pmbij -j 
fol. 88 b. P^'^P'S • "j t)lobi5 bejn^e mon jwne bEec]>eapm on jon;^- 

Irole mib penujpeco 'j niepfc mealpe • fume mib pice -j 
fmicaS -j beJnaS. Surae op pijenum melpe pypceaS 
bjiipaf -j cocnunja inib pealre. Sume bpeopje bpofclan 
jeceopaS "j lecjeaS on J>one napolan. 


Be* ]>a3jie ppecnan co]?e J^e fe mon hip utjanj jnijih 
'cone mu5 him pjiam j'eoppe pceal afpipan. ]de j'ceal 
opt: bealceutan -j eal fe hchoma fcmcS pule pelle hmi 
mon bile jefobenne on ele o8Se on psetpe to bpmcanne 
*j hatne hlap bo on ];oue bpmcan. bippe able eac pi}»- 
fcanbe]? tofnibenjie hpeajjemufe blob ^efmiten on ])a)p 
feocan mannef pambe. pi5 InnocS punbum *j pi]7 fmail 
];eapina fape • on jobne ele jefpetne bo ];one fu]>epnan 
y pepmob f ip ])pucene • 'j oj^epne pepmob *j feo]? jncje 

ji f]'a htm e] oft: fie. Gpt: pi]? inno]> punbum heopotep 
meajih jemylt: on harum pjetpe j'ele bpmcan. ]h^ 
tobpocenum Inno]7um 'j fapum pilbjie mmran bpel je- 
fol. 89 a. el?enfa pel fpa micel fpa mon mse^e mib ]?jiTm pmjjiuin 

7;eniman bo pmolej- psebep zo "j mepcej- cucleji msel • 
bo eall t:o5a3bepe jejnib fmsele • jebo J?onne on p?e]' 
pelej'Can piiiep .nil. bollan pulle • htece ])onne o]? j? Int: 
fie fpa hat fpa ];in pmjeji popbepan mseje pele ]7onne 
bpmcan- bo fpa ]?py bajap. pi]> tobpocenum Inno- 
Sum- cellenbpef pgsb pel jejniben -j lytel pealtep ^ebo 
on fceapp pm • ^ebo on -j jej^ypme mib hate jlopenbe 
ipene pele bjimcan. pi]? poptojeneppe mnan - heojiotep 

' Ivcad tinenum. 

- Five lines fouud iu Uribasius Synops, lib. ix., cap. xvi, in M.A.P. 


and for tenderness of the naturalia of women. There r.ook ir. 
is a disorder of the wamb, such that a desire cometh ^''- ^^^"• 
upon the sick man for discharging his bowels, and he 
is not able, when he is shut into the outhouse. For r,,, • 
that, one must seethe in oil, or in butter, or in wine, tion is found 
the slough of a snake in a tin vessel, and let him !"_|. ^^'^^ "■'^' 
smear the wamb with that. If the discharge be windy, 
and watery, and bloody, let one foment the back gut 
on the gang stool, with fenugreek and marsh mallow: 
some smoke and foment with pitch : some work 1)rewits 
from rye meal, and cookings with salt : some chew 
pennyroyal and lay it on the navel. 


Of the dangerous disorder, in which a man, they 
say, unnaturally speweth his fseces through the mouth. 
He, they say, oft belcheth, and all the body stinketh 
foully: let dill sodden in oil or in water be given him 
to drink, and put a hot loaf of bread into the drink. 
The blood of a reremouse or hat cut up, smudged on 
the sick mans wamb, also withstandeth this disease. 
For bowel wounds and sore of small guts ; into good oil 
sweetened, put the southern wormwood, that is, abro- 
tanum, and other wormwood, and seethe it ; let the 
man take that as he most easily may. Again, for in- 
wards wounds ; melt harts marrow in hot water, give 
it to be drunk. For broken and sore inwards ; cleanse 
part of wild mint well, as much as a man may take 
up with three fingers, add a spoon measure of the 
seed of fennel, and of marchc, put all together, rub 
small, then add four bowls full of the best wine, then 
heat it so hot, as thy finger may bear, then give it liim 
to drink; do so for three days. For broken inwards; 
put into sharp wine, seed of coriander well rubbed, 
and a little salt; put these in, and warm with an iron 
glowing hot, give it the, man to drink. For inward 

238 L^CE EOC. 

liopn jebsejineb to alifan jejmben on mojitepe • -j 
Jjonne aj-ipt -j mib hunije jepealcen to fnsebum )-ele 
neahtnej'Cijum to jjicjanne. 6pt mm j)a betan ]>e 
jehpsep peaxa'S jepeoS on psetpep jobum bsele • j-ele 
l^onne bpmcan • .11. jobe bollan pulle fcilbe hme pijj 
cyle. be latpe meltunje innan • mm jeappan bpmce 
on ecebe ^ beah eac piS eallmn blsebpan abliim. be 
latpe meltunje Innan puban psebep .villi, cypnelu ire- 
ful. 89 h. jnibene . ill. bollan pulle jebo ]?a on ecebef peptep 
pulne opeppylle pele ]7onne bpmcan on fume pape nijon 
bajon. be latpe meltunje mm ]?8epe peaban netlan 
fpa micel fpa mib tpam lianbum mseje bepon • feo]?e 
on pejxep pullum pjetpep bpmc neaht neptij. Rseb 
bi^ jip he nim8 mealpan mib hipe ci}?um leo]?e on 
psetepe fele bpmcan. ba ])e pippa Iseceboma ne pma'S 
on ]nppe able })onne becymti htm on psetep boUa • lipep 
p^pc "j miltep pap o]7]?e jefpel micjean pojihsep bmp • 
pambe ablapunj lenben psejic on j^eejie blgebpan ftanaj' 
peaxa'S 'j Sonb. 


Be )78ep monnep mihtum pceal mon ]?a Isecebomaf 
pellan ]?e J?onne "S^yo-^e fynb heapbe -j heoptan pambe 
•j blsebpan -j hu jeapep hit fie • fe |je ne bepceapa'S 
J>ip pe him fcej^e^ fpi]?op }>onne he hme bete. Se pceal 
nyttian jepopobep elej' ecebef 'j pmep *j mmtan leap 
jejniben on hunij -j pa unfme|?an tunjan mib J^y 
jniban -j fmipepan :• 

fol. 90 a. pi]? latpe meltunje. Olipatpum hatte pypt feo beah 

to bpmcanne. 6pt pyl on psetpe lilian jjypctpuman 
]-ele to bpmcanne. Tip pamb po-^peaxe on men • pmol • 
coft • elehtpe • attopla]?e • ceplicep pieb • j'ypm melo 

In the margin are cyphers. 


gripings ; harts liora burned to ashes, rubbed small p«ok ir. 

in a mortar, and then sifted, and rolled up with honey 

into morsels, give to the sich after his nights fast to 

eat. Again, take the beet which groweth anywhere, 

seethe it in a good deal of water, then give of this to 

the sick two good bowls full to drink ; let him sliield 

himself against cold. Of late digestion ; let a man 

drink in vinegar yarrow ; that medicine is also good 

for all diseases of the bladder. Of late digestion ; nine 

little grains of the seed of rue rubbed small, with 

three bowls full of water (?), add these to a cup full 

of vinegar, boil them, then administer to be drunk for 

nine days, in succession. Of late digestion ; take of 

the red nettle, so much as with two liands thou 

mayest grasp, seethe in a cup full of water, drink 

after a nights fasting. It is advisable if he taketh 

mallow with its sprouts ; let him. seethe them in water, 

give this to be drunk. They who care not for these 

leechdoms in this disease, on them then eometli dropsy, 

liver pain, and sore or swelling of spleen, retention of 

urine, inflation of the wamb, loin pain, stones wax in 

the bladder, and sand. 


According to the mans powers one shall administer 
the leechdoms which are suitable for the head and 
heart, for the wamb and bladder, and according to 
the time of the year; he who observeth not this, 
doth him more scathe than boot. He shall employ 
rose oil, vinegar, and wine, and mint leaves rubbed 
into honey, and with that shall rub and smear the 
unsmooth tongue. 

For late digestion; a wort liight olusatrum, which 
is good to drink. Again, boil in water roots of lilies, 
give that to be drunk. If the wamb wax too great 
on a man ; fennel, costmary, lupin, attorlothe, char- 



on ealaS ]'ele bjinican. Tif mon }:ojipuubob fie • "j piS 
bjieofc psepce • cupmealle 'j bile pyl on ealo"S. Gpc 
jpeiie puban lytlum oSSe on liunije Jjije. jlTp mon 
fie pojiblapen j'Pe pmepmclan ' jebaepnbe "j jejnibene 
jemenj pi]? sejep ]3 hpite fmipe mib. pi]? pambe 51c- 
]>an • bpeopje bpofclan peojip on peallenbe pseteji Icec 
pocian on lanje o]? p mon mteje bpincan p pseteji. 
]?\]) pambe pypmum '^ mm ]?a miclan fmpullan ppmj 
•)) peap op peopeji lytrle bollan puUe on pmej- anum 
l)ollan pulliim fpa miclum pele bjimcan ■]> beab pi J) 
pambe pyjimum.- 


Be cilba pambum -j opeppylle *j jip him mete tela 
ne mylte • *j jip him fpac opja -j fcmce pule • ]?onne 
mon f onjite ]?onne ne feeal him mon anne mete 
foi. 90 1). jebeoban • ac mij'Senlice f peo niopnep j^ajia metta 

mseje htm jobe beon • jip hpa opeji jemet Jnj}? mete 
]>iep mon tilaS ]?e eaSelicoji ]ye mon jia]?0'^ 3^*^o p he 
fpipe • -j jelfeji fie. jip hip mon jetilaS let }?83pe 
ypelan pajtan him becumaS on mipSenlica abla • bjieofr 
pro]ic • fpeopco]?u cealp ^ abl • heapbej- h]iip]?o • healfjunb • 
cypnelu linea^lacnu "j pam jelic • jip hi pop ];ifum ne 
mjBjen plapan Sonne j'ceal him mon pellan hat pfetep 
bjimcan ]?onne ftilS f jepceopp mnan "j clsenpaS* pa 
]?ambe • Nyfcijen ba]?ep mebmiclum • -j mete ]fiG^eii -j 
mib pffitpe jemenjebne bjimcan picjen. 

' jnnepinclan. Somner, Gl., p. 
GO a, line 32, also prints ]iine ; the 
Junian transcript of the lost MS. 
(Jun. 71, in the Bodleian) has jiine. 
The reprinter of the glossary [ A.lJ. 
1857] altered to pine, erroneously, 
and silently. In the Colloquium 
jMonasticon, the MS. has innejunc- 
lan, torniculi, where the printed 

text [A.D. 184G, p. 24] gives pine- 
j'lnclan, torniculos : the edition of 
18.'57, pinejimclan, torniculi [p. fi]. 
Lye is quite correct. The present 
MS. has always m-. 

- jiiununi in the contents. 

^ Head ceajl. 

■' clsepia'S, MS. 


lock seed ; worm meal in ale ; give him thai to drink. Rook ir. 
If a man be badly wounded, and for pain in the breast; ^''- ^^'''^' 
boil in ale, cliurmel and dill, Again, take green rue, a 
little at a time, or in honey. If a man be over much 
blown out, mingle with the white of an egg sea 
periwinkles, burnt and rubbed up, smear therewith. 
For hicket or hiccup of the wamb : throw dwarf 
dwostle into boiling water, let it soak therein long, 
till a man may drink the water. For worms of the 
wamb ; take the mickle sinful or sedum, wring out 
the juice, four little bowls full, in one bowl full of 
wine, as mickle as the others ; that is good for worms 
of wamb. 


Of the wambs of children, and of overfilling, and if 
their meat do not well digest, and if sweat come from 
them, and stink foully. When a man understandoth 
that, then shall not a single meat be offered them, but 
various ones, that the newness or novelty of the meats 
may be good for them. If one eateth meat over 
measure, this case one tendeth the more easily, as one 
the sooner bringeth about that lie spew, and be eUipty; 
if one tendeth him when troubled with the evil 
humour arising from overeating, then come on him 
various diseases, breast pain, neck disease, disease in 
the jowl, scurf of the head, purulence in the neck, 
churnels not easy to cure, and the like of those. If 
for these they may not sleep, then shall one give them 
hot water to drink, it will still the -scour within, and 
will cleanse the wamb. Let them employ the bath 
moderately, and take meat and take drink mingled 
with water. 





Be milce psejice -j ]5 he bi^S on ]?8epe pmefcpan 
fiban 'j tacn 'psejve able hu hipleafe lue beoS 'j bolh 
V^ unea'Slacno • ]?a men beoS msejpe -j unjiote • blace on 

onfyne J>eali ]?e hie seji jrgetce psepon • -j beo^ hibeji- 
peapbe • -j pamb tinjepealben "j uny]7e mieje bij> hal • 
ac hio bi]? fpeajitpe -j jpenpe • "j blacpe ]?onne hijie 
fol. 91 a, jiiht fie "j pnseptia^ fpij>e bee]? pojito^ene • pp 'fio abl 

bij> Co lanjSum • becyme]? ]>onne on pseCep bollan ne 
msej hme mon ]?onne jelacnian 'cunje tinjepealben -j 
unfmej^e -j J»a bolh beo]? unea^lacnu J?a ]>e on liehoman 
beo^ -j hie beo'S on J'a pmfrjian fiban mib ece jefpen- 
cebe 'j on Sone li8 J^sepa eaxla be'opeox jefculbpum bij? 
micel ece "j on ])am jehpeoppe J^ajia bana on |7am 

V fpeojian habbaS eac lijiehte pet cneop trpucia'S. K>u pe 

v ittilce bi'S emlanj -j jgebejicenje ]78ejie pambe hsepS 

J?yn2ie pilmene fio hsDp^ paette -j ]?icce sebjia • 'j pio 
pilmen bi]? J»eccenbe "j ppeonbe J^a pambe 'j J^a mno- 
papan ^ -j J>a pyjim^ • -j tj- aj)eneb on ]?one pmefcjian 
nepefeo]?an -j ip mib fmehtrum limum jehaepb • -j ip on 
o^pe healpe bpab jehjimeS j^sepie fiban • on o^pe 'iy 

I/- Sam mnoSe jecanj. be hleahtpe ]>e op milce cym'5 

fume fecja]) f fe milce Sam fintim j^eopije -j ^te pe 
milce on fumum bselum |?am monnum abeabije o]?j7e 

fol. 91 b. op fie* -j f hi pojij^on hlyhhan msejen. SoJ^lice. on j^a 

ilcan pifan ]?e ojjep limo J^jiopia^ untpumneppa pe milce 
]?popa^ on ]?a ilcan pifan. Op cele^ unjemeclicum op 
hseco -j op bpijneppe op micelpe ypelpe pseCan pojij^on 
pixj> pe milce opep jefceap -j pona^ -j heajiba^ -j fpiJ>ofc op 
cele -j op unjemeclicjie psecan • j^onne cumaS J?a opcofc 

' This chapter, and many more that 
follow, seem to be from Philagrios, 
as preserved in Trallianus. But such 
symptoms as "tongue uncontrolled," 
and " muscular feet," are not to 
be found in the Greek, as printed. 

- The letter or letters between 
mn and yajian have been cut oflf 
from the margin of the MS. 

^ The words of Philagrios, in 
Alex. Trail., book viii., chap. x. 



Of milt wark, or acute pahi in the spleen, and 
that the milt is on the left side, and tokens of the 
disease, how colourless the patients are, and there are. 
wounds not easy of cure. The men are meagi-e and 
uncomfortable, pale of aspect, though ere this they 
were fat, and still are constitutionally disposed that 
way ; and the wamb is not under control, and scarcely 
can it he that the mie is healthy, but rather it will 
be swartish and greenish, and blacker than its right is 
to be, and the breathing is very hard drawn. If the 
disease is too longsome, then it turneth to dropsy, one 
may not then cure it; the tongue is uncontrolled and 
unsmooth, and the wounds which are upon the body 
are not easy of cure, and they are on the left side 
afflicted with ache, and in the joining of the shoulders, 
betwixt the shoulder blades, there is mickle ache, and 
in the turning about of the bones of the neck ; they 
have also brawny feet, their knees fail them. We 
tell how the milt is alongside and adjacent to the 
wamb, it hath a thin film, which hath fat and thick 
veins, and the film covereth and embraceth the wamb 
and the inwards, and warmeth them ; and it is ex- 
tended on the left part of the lower abdomen, and it 
is held by sinewy attachments, and it is in the one 
quarter broad ; it toucheth the side, on the other it 
is in contact with the viscera. Of the laughter which 
cometh from the spleen. Some say that the milt is the 
servant of the sinews, and that the milt in some parts 
is dead in men, or is wholly absent, and that for this 
reason they are able to laugh. In fact, in the same 
wise that other limbs suffer inconveniences, the milt 
in the same wise sufiers. We treat also of immoderate 
cold, of heat, of dryness, of mickle evil wet, since the 
milt waxeth unnaturally, and diminishes, and harden- 
eth, and mostly of cold and immoderate wet ; further, 

Q 2 

Book ir. 
Ch. xxxvi. 

244 LiECE EOC. 

Of mettum -j oy. cealbum bjiincan I'pa fpa yinbon cealbe 
ofcjian -j jEpla -j mij-Senlice pyjita fpij^ofu on fumepa 
J70mie |?a mon jJijS. bse]? him ejle^ fpi^ofc seftep 
mete -j haemeb ]>m-^ on ojrejipyllo. Sio unjemetlice 
h?eto ])33y milcej' cymrS op pepepablum -j op pepepef ' 
fpoUe -j on ylbo ^ pop blobe • biS apeneb pe milce -j 
ajpunben mib jefpelle -j eae hat lypt -j Ipolja bpm^ao 
able on ^am milte • |;onne pe mon pyp'S to fpi]?e yoy- 
hsec. Spa biS eac on pmtjia pop cyle -j pop ]>si]\a 
pebpa ^ mipfenhcnej-pe f fe milte pypS jelepeb. jS 
majon pife men onjitan hpanan pio abl cume be mif- 
fol. 02 a. jepibepum -j op metta *j op bpmcena j^ijmje -j ]?upli 
|>a]' l^m^ ]>n, ypelan psetan -j pmbijo pmj beo]? acenneb 
on ];am milte -j abla peaxa]? :• 

. XXXVII.'^ 

JJv mon pcyle jjone monnan iiinan 'j ucan lacnian 
mib hatum "j cealbum mnan inib lactucan • -j clatan • 
■j cucupbitan bpmce on pme • bajnje hiiie on fj^etum 
psetpe. Utan he ip to lacnianne mib jepofobe ele -j 
to fmippanne • -j onle^ena jepophte op pme -j pmbep- 
jum -j opt op butpan • "j op nipum peaxe -j op ypopo • 
•j op ele onlejen jepopht ; OOenj pi]> jope fmepu o8(5e 
fpmep jiyple "j pi's pecelj* • "j mmtan • -j )7onne^ he hme 
baj'ije fmipe mib ele menj pi's cpoh. COettaf him beo5 
nytte })a pe 50b blob pypceaS fpa fpa fmt peilpixap 
pimhte -j ham^ pilba hsenna -j ealle pa pujelaf pe on 

' The Saxon has misread his text. I ' ^f>»> J^IS- 

- ])ebna., MS., with full stop. 
^ The words of Philagrios, as 

Insert -j. 


these most often come of meats and of cold drinks, Uook ir. 
such as are cold oysters, and apples, and various worts, xxxvi. 

chiefly in summer, when one partaketh of such. Bath- 
ing is harmful to them who are splenitic, chiefly after 
meat, and copulation following on surfeit. The un- 
measured heat of the milt cometh from fevers and 
from the swealing or burning of fever, and in old age 
from corruption of the blood. The milt is extended 
and distended with swelling, and also hot air and hot 
weather bring disease upon the milt ; when the man 
becometh too much heated. So it is also in winter, 
for the cold aud for the variableness of the Aveather, 
that the milt becometh corrupted. We next treat that 
wise men may understand whence the disease cometh 
by bad weather, and from partaking of unholesome 
meats and drinks, and through these things the evil 
humours and windy things are produced in the milt, 
and diseases wax titer ein. 


We noio explain how one must apply leechdoms to 
the man, within and without, with hot and cold treat- 
ments; within, with lettuce, and clote, and gourd; let 
him drink them in wine ; let him also bathe himself 
in sweet water. Without, he is to be leeched and 
smeared with oil of roses, and with onlayings or 
pioultices onade of wine and grapes, and often must 
an onlay be wrought of butter, and of new wax, 
and of hyssop, and of oil ; mingle with goose grease or 
lard of swine, and with frankincense, and mint; and 
when he bathes let him smear himself with oil ; mingle 
it with saffron. Meats which work out good blood are 
beneficial for him ; such as are shell fishes,^ and those 
that have fins,^ and domestic and wild hens,^ and all 

' Not iu the Greek. [ - Wild hens arc pheasants. 



bunum libbaS • -j pipionef f beoS culfjiena bjubbaf 'j 
healfealb fpm« -j jate plsej'c -j pyfena j^eap inib hunije* 
hpset hpeja jepipepob • -j eal Sap pjBtan j^mj bpeof- 
tum -j mnopum ne bujon ne f ptn ip to j^icjenne fte 
hsetej? -j psete]? J>one Inno}?. 

fol, 92 b. 


]Du man j'ceal |7a paetan "j ]?a ponpceaptan utan lac- 
man mib appum pealfum. Pic -j blutop eceb -j jepo- 
fobne ele menj tofomne leje utan on. pi]? J^am psetan 
yf le ]?8ep miltej- • mm pynbpij pealt o'S^e pi"S peaxhlap 
fealpe jemenj • -j jepepmeb 'j on blsebpan jebon ■^ 
lacnaS ]?one milte. Gfx: mm j-ealt -j peax -j eceb menj 
tojsebpe ^ beah • Nim ept jripleapan ^ pypttpuman • *j 
bpije pejbpseban ^ jebsepneb fealt ealpa emjzela pefe 
mib ecebe "j jefomna bo bpije pic to • 'j peax • -j ele 
menj eal tojsebepe bo on • Ne biS f an f f ^pi^e J^a 
psetan ac |?a aheapboban fpilaf j^a Se cumaS op J^iccum 
p?etum jiipejpum bet -j JjpsenS. pi]? plipejpvim paetum 
}}8ep miltep • Nim acoppenep pealtep ^ f pgetep ])e ]>&i\i 
op jse]? menj piS pa, sep jemen^neban* ]'^^Z- 


yilj) pmbijpe a]?unbene]-pe ]?{ep miltef pop aeppla • -j 
Imuta -j pyfena sete • pop -j fmo3lj7eapme • pambe -j 
innepopan • 'j majan ]?a jeonb blapa'S. pij) ]7on beah 
pipop -j cymen • -j hunij • -j fealt menje tojaebepe. 

' Philagrios, as before. 

- Abridged from Philagrios ap. 
Alexandr. Trallian., p. 477, ed. 

^ This is perhaps aXtri Koi a(ppos 
a\6s, as above. 

' Read senemneban. 

'^ An adaptation from Philagrios 
in Tralliamis, lib. viii., cap. II, p. 
479, ed. Basil. 


the fowls which live on downs, and pigeons, that is. Book Tl. 
the young chicks of culvers, and half grown swine and -"^xxvh. 
goats flesh, and juice of peas with honey, somewhat 
peppered : and all moist things are not beneficial to 
the breast and the inwards, nor is such wine to be 
taken as heateth and moisteneth the inwards. 


Here lue explain, how one must treat the humours 
and the meagreness, on the outside, with sharp salves. 
Mingle together pitch, and clear vinegar, and oil of 
roses ; lay on tlie outside. For the evil humours of 
the milt; take salt separately, or mingle it with a 
wax cake salve, or cerote, warmed and put upon some 
bladder ; that liealeth the milt. Again, take salt, and 
wax, and vinegar, mingle together, that is of benefit. 
Again, take a cinqfoil root, and dry waybroad, and 
burnt salt, of all equal quantities ; soak them in vinegar, 
and collect them ; add dry pitch, and wax, and oil ; 
mingle all together and apply. Not merely doth 
that remedy dry the humours, but it bettereth and 
softeneth the hardened swellings,^ which come of 
thick slimy wets or crass viscid humours. For viscid 
humours of the mUt, take the water of carved salt, or 
rock salt, that namely which passeth from it, mingle 
with the things before named. 


For a windy distention of the milt from eating of 
apples, and of nuts, and of peas; they produce infla- 
tion thi'ough the long gut, and small guts, the warab, 
and the inwards, and the maw; for that is useful 
pepper and cummin and salt, mingle them together. 

• Scirrhous. 

248 L^CE BOC. 

Pi]7 fo^oj^an *j j^eaban ^ -j jeohfan ]?e of milre cym5 • 

jiWre harce fuj?epne pypt; fio 13' 50b on lilape t;o ]7ic- 

^ jenne "j mepce)- fseb -j cellenhjian .~ *j perepplian on 

hlap becneben o]i\ie on pm jejniben . -j eac p beah pij? 

ablapun^e prej- milrej' • 51^ jjonne fio ajfinbunj ]?8e]- 

pmbef femninja cymS ]7onne ne majon }>af j^mj hel- 

pan • pop \0Tx Se ^ pile penban on psetep bollan -^ Jip 

nion CO ]?am );a pypmenban J^mj be]; J;omie ycj> nion j^a 

able,^ Pi]? milce feocum men liim mon pceal pellan 

eceb on ]7am fuj^epnan Isecebome J?e hatce oxumelle ]?e 

^ pe ppicon pi]^ J>8epe liealpbeaban able "j bi^ebpan able • 

^ Ntm lanpej- pmbe • *j bpije mmtran -j pipop "j puban 

^ fseb .^ cofc • -j liunan • 'j cencaupian • ^ if hypbepyjit 

oSpe naman eopl^jealla fpij^ufc ]7?epe peap • bo ]?ap 

pypra on ]?one asp neuiban Isecebom on ]> j'op jai 

meabc jefeon aet j^am sep jenemban ablum liu j^u 8one 

fol. 93 b. oxumelle pypcean peealc.'' Alepep^ pmbe feo]> on 

pgecpe o}> j5 J?8ep ]?Eerpep fie J^pibban bsel unbepelleb • 'j 

V, pele j7onne J^sep jobne ceac pulne to bpmcanne on 

]7]iy fij^ap Iset fimle bsejj^ejine becpeonum. ])tp ilce 

beah lenbenj-eocum men • ept J78ef blacan ipijep ^ cpop- 

pan sepefc • ]7peo • ept .v. j^onne .vii. ]?onne nijon • 

])onne .XL J?onne .xiil. |7onne .xv. ]7onne feopancyne • 

bonne nijancyne • J^onne .XXL fele fpa sepcep bajum 

bpmcan on pme. Tip fe man lisebbe eac pepep pele ]7U 

]>a cypnlu j^sep eopj^ipijep on hacum pjetpe bpmcan • 

];ip lice beali pi]? lenbenpeocum men. Gpc eopSjeallan 

on pme jefobenne pele bpmcan. Gpc betonican^ pyl 

on pme j-ele bpmcan. Sealp *j onle^en piS milce psepce 

^ MiXv^wvas, wavy movements, m.x\Q\\ 1 -rrevKiSavoy : rue seed is ir-qyavov 

the same as fiop^upvyixa. | ayplov ff-rrepfia. 

- aviffou, Al. Trail., p. 480. I " So far from Alex. Trallianus or 

^ Taoe 7ap Trpocivcet, et o vhepus \ Philagrios. 

ouK avTiKa fvOivSe rvyxavei el de 
(^ai(pvris yeyivqra.L, tots ovdafxSss 
raura ffviJL<pepfi. 

' I'rom Alex. Trail., viii. 1 1, p. 481. 

■" ]Many -words are omitted, as 

' See Marcellus, col. 149 d. : ci/- 
perus for abuts. 

^ Marcellus, col. o4',», a. 
" Marcellus, col. 348, ii. 


For ill juices and wavy movements and yoxing, or luc- P.ook ir. 
keting, which cometh from the spleen. A southern wort ^''" ^''•'"■''• 
hight gith, which is good to eat on bread, and seed of 
marche and of coriander and of parsley kneaded up 
into bread or rubbed Ji^ie into wine : and also that is 
beneficial for inflation of the milt. If however the 
distention from the vv^ind cometh suddenly, then these 
things cannot help, since that will turn into dropsy. 
If one applieth the warming leechdoms to that, then 
one eketh or augmentetk the disease. For a miltsiek 
man, one must give him vinegar in the southern leecli- 
dom which hight oxymel, which we wrote of against 
the half dead disease and disease of the bladder. Take 
rind of laurel, and dry mint, and pepper, and seed of 
rue, costmary, and Ao7'ehound, and centaury, that is 
herdwort, or by another name, earthgall, chiefly the 
juice of it, add these worts to the before named leech- 
dom into the ooze. Thou mayest see where we have 
spoken of the before named diseases, how thou shalt 
prepare the oxymel. Seethe in water rind of alder until 
there be of the water a third part unboiled away, and 
then give a good jug full of it to be drunk at three 
times ; leave always a days space between the doses. 
This same is beneficial for a loinsick man. Again, of 
the black ivy, first three berry bunches, next five, then 
seven, then nine, then eleven, then thirteen, then fif- 
teen, then seventeen, then nineteen, then twenty-one, 
give them so, according to the days, to be drunk in 
wine. If the man have fever also, give thou him the 
little grains of the ground ivy in hot water to drink. 
This same is good for a loinsick man. Again, give 
him to drink earthgall sodden in wine. Again, boil 
betony in wine, give him that to drink. A salve and 
a plaster for milt pain, work it up of honey and of 

■ As followB : II. lix. 



pypc op humje "j of ecebe bumelu^ -j Imyseb to "j bepef 
V 5p;^tta mepcep fseb leje on "j fmijie mib y-yj. bo eac 

bpijep pepmobey blofcman to. 

6ft ]?omie pe milte ablapen pypS fona he pile aheap- 
bian -j bi]? J^onne uneaj^laecne • ]70iiiie f blob aheajibaS 
on ]7am sebptim J^sep miltep • lacna hme ]7onne mib 
fol. 94 a.- J7am sep jenemban pyptum • menj J?a joban pypta 

PI'S oxumelli J^one fujjepnan eceb bpenc • Se pe sep 
ppiton ]7a lacniaS ]7one milte "j ape^ aboS ^ j^icce -j 
lippije blob • -j ]7a yp elan psetan • n?ep ]?upli Sa mic- 
jean ane ac eac ]?uph oj^epne titjanj. ]2>ipbepyp^t feo 
Iseppe leje jebeatene utan • Nim eac clseppan pypt- 
tpuman bo on eceb -j jate typblu^ Pypc J>onne to pealpe 
■j bepen melo bo J^septo ■ pele him |?ip eac on pme 



fol. 94 b. 

yi]> ]?8epe heapbneppe -j pape ]?8ep miltep • fpinep 
blsebpan mm fpa mpe jepyl mib fceappe ecebe aleje opep 
^a heapbneppe ];8ep miltep befpe]?e J7onne ^ hio apej ne 
jlibe • ac py J?peo niht jjsepon p sefte jebmiben • seftep 
pon onbmb • J^onne pmbept J>u jip hit tela biS |7a 
blsebpan jelsepe -j f heapbe tohnepceb -j ^ pap jefcilleb. 
6pt jemm ipiep leap feoS on ecebe -j opeppylle on 
]?am pelpan ecebe fipe])an • bo J^onne on blsebpan bmb 
on f pap • pele ]7onne septep pyptbpenc fona ]?up je- 
pophtne ; ]?ij> heapbneppe milcep • ^emm eoji^jeallan 
jebeat oJ^J^e je^mb to bufre fpa fpa J?peo cuclep msel 
fien oSSe ma. bo fapman bufcep to cuclep mael J^peo • 

' Read bo melu. 

- Alexander Trallianus,bookviii., 
chap, xii., p. 481, ed. Basil. 

■' Alex. Trail., p. .500, line 8, 
ed. Basil; from Galenos. 

■* The next chapter of Alex. Tr. 
is on the same subject ; but the 
receipts are not his. 

LEECH BOOK. 11. 251 

vinegar, add meal and linseed, and barley groats, and nook Ji. 
seed of marclie ; lay on and smear •with this. Add ^^" -''^^'^• 
also blossoms of dry wormwood. 


Again, when the mUt becometh upblown, soon it will 
harden, and then it is not easy to cure, when the 
blood hardeneth on the veins of the milt: then treat 
it with the before named worts, mingle the good worts 
with oxymel, the southern acid drink, which we before 
wrote of, they will cure the milt and will do away 
the thick and livery ' blood, and the evil humours, 
not by the mie only, but also by the other evacua- 
tion passage or outgang. Lay on externally the 
lesser herdwort beaten up. Take also roots of clover, 
put them in vinegar, and goat treadles, then work them 
to a salve, and add thereto barley meal ; give the man 
also this in wine to drink. 


For the hardness and sore of the milt; take a 
swines bladder so new, fill it with sharp vinegar, lay 
it over the hardness of the milt, then swathe up, 
that it may not glide away, but may be thereon, 
fast bounden, for three nights. After that unbind ; 
then thou wilt find, if it be good, the bladder clear, 
and the hard fart made nesh, and the soreness stilled. 
Again, take leaves of ivy, seethe them in vinegar, and 
boil in the same vinegar some bran, then put this into 
a bladder, and bind upon the sore ; then soon after 
give a wort drink thus wrought : for hardness of the 
milt ; take earthgalls, beat or rub them to dust, so that 
there may be three or more spoon measures, add three 
spoon measures of dust of savine thereto, and three 

' Such as flows through the liver. 

252 L^CE BOC. 

y "J peallenbej' picey bufce]' ])peo cticleji m?el • appte eall 

j'ele ]7onne on pme neahrnej-tijuDi to bpincanne cucleji 
piilne • jij: be fie eac on jrejrpe pele Inm on hatuni 

"^ pjBCjie jeplecebum J?a pypta bpincan ]>y lasp p pic op- 

Ibanbe mib J>y oJ>pe bufce. Gpc Co milte feocum men 
■j pij? eallum mablum • eceb pi]? jlsebenan jemenjeb 
pypc })U]' jlsebenan pmbe lycelpa jebo ]>peo punb on 
^Ivey pa3r pel nucel • ^ebo ]7onne Ipsey pceajipeptan pmep 
ro .V. pepcpap apete ]7onne on hate Sunnan on fumepa 
] onne pa liatoiran pebep fynb • -j J^a pcipan ba^af 

^ lijntan J?e pe jeppitene habba'S • ^ hit fipije 'j pocije 

.nil. bajaf oJ>]7e ma • pi])]7an j^sef ecebep pele J^u milte 
feocum men cuclep pulne 'j fona jip htm ?eptep ];am 
bpincan • po*^ ]?on ]>e ^ ip fpi]?e fupanj J^am "pe f napa 
^ sep j'ljbe. bonne beah ]np pi]? hunije jeyceb ^e piS 

fol. 95 a. unite able • je yip majan • je piS hpean je pi]? ]7on ]?e 

mon blobe fpipe* je pi]? eallum mnan ablum* eac ]?6n^ 
piep]?o *j 3ic])a fon ape^ be]?. bep Ipecebom beah je 
pi]? hpiepSo -j 5ic]'an • pyjic op ecebe j'eaxpealpe • jemm 
J«ep ecebep .V. cucleji m^el bo on nipne cpoccan bo 
elep bollan pulne to feoS setfomne fceab nipep fpeplep 
ptp cuclep mgel • "j lytel peaxep opep pylle ept o]? f 
hmx: eceb fie pojipeallen • bo ]?onne op pyj^e -j hpejie -j 
pi]7j?an fmipe mib }?y ]?a hpiepj'o -j ]?one jic'San. 


(^ip omihtc blob *j ypel ])a3te on ]?am milte fie J7in- 
benbe ]?onne pceal htm mon blob ]?up hetan. Gip ])e 
]?iiice ]? ])u o]?epne mapan l?ecebom bon ne bujipe • pop 

' Road \>ou, that is, t)onne. 

LEECH r>OOK. II. 25.'] 

spoon measures of the dust of "boiling pitch ;" ' sift <all ^^""k II. 
this, then give a spoon full in wine to the man after his 
nights fast to drink : if he be also in a fever, give 
him the worts to drink in "hot" water made "luke- 
warm," lest the pitch form a concrete with the other 
dust. Again, for a miltsick man, and for all inward 
disorders ; vinegar mingled with gladden ; work it thus : 
put three pound of little bits of rind of gladden in a 
good sized glass vessel, then add thereto of the sharpest 
wine, five sextarii, then set this in the hot sun, in sum- 
mer, when the hottest seasons are, and the clear white 
days of which we have written, that it may macerate 
and soak for four days and more ; afterwards give thou 
to the sick man of the vinegar a spoon full, and after 
the dose soon, give him something to drink, since that 
is very strong for him who never before tasted it. Fur- 
ther, this eked out with honey is of benefit, either for 
milt disease, or for maw disease, or for rawness,^ or in 
case a man spew blood, or for all inward diseases : it also 
further soon doth away roughness of sJcin, and itch. 
This leechdom is good either for roughness or itch : 
work of vinegar a wax salve, or cerote ; take five spoon 
measures of tlie vinegar, put it into a new crock, add 
a bowl full of oil, seethe together, shed therein five 
spoon measures of new brimstone, and a little wax, 
boil it strongly "again," till the vinegar is boiled 
off, then remove from the fire, and shake, and after- 
wards smear therewith the roughness and the itch. 


If inflamed blood and evil humour be in the milt, 
distending it, then shall the sick be thus let blood. 
If it seem to thee, that thou dare not to do another 

* Our Saxon has made some mis- 
take : the receipt is similar to one 
given by Marcellus, col. 348, B., 

■where we read " ex picato moro vcl 
" nigvo tepefacto." 

^ Probably cruilitcts, i/idiycstioH. 



unmihce ^sey mannej' oS8e foji unmeltunje o}>]?e poji 
jibe • o])]>e pop 31050^6 • oJ>J?e poji unjepibepum • o]>]>e 
poji ucjnhtan • jebib )7onne o|7 ^ J7U mse^e • o^'Se ^ 
byjipe • jip hseto o}>)?e mehc ne pypne Isec him blob 
on |?am pmefrjian eajime op ]?8epe upeppan aebjie • jip 
]f\i ]?a pinban ne mseje Iset op J^sepe mibmeptan aebjie • 
5ip ]?u |?a pinban ne mseje liet op ]??epe heapob sebpe. 
j^onne jip mon pa pinban ne mseje Iset op J^sepe pme- 
fcpan hanba neah j^am lytlan pmjpe op sebpe • Tip hit 
fpi'Se peab fie o]?]?e pon |>onne bi5 hit j)y |>e fpi]7op to 
Isetanne • jip hit chene o])j;e liluttop fie Iret |?y pe 
l8e]')'e. Jp hpse]?epe fpa to Isetanne fpa ^ hphce msejen 
ne afppmje. 


hup ^ him mon pceal ];up mettap fellan on |?8epe 
able jefeape pyfan 'j Map on hatum paetepe 'j oxu- 
melle J?e pe ppiton sep bepopan pi]> blsebpan able fu- 
}»epne eceb bpenc • mepce on pastpe jefoben "j fpilca 
pypta -j mijole bpmcan "j ]?ynne ptn him ip to pel- 
lanne pel fcip f bet f msejen };a3p miltep -j pcellihte 
pifcaf him fmt to Jjicjenne • -j pujlaf J^a ]>e on pen- 
num ne fien. bip him if to popjanne • ne J^icjen hie 
pen pixaf • ne fee pixaf Jja pe habba'S heapb plsepc • *j 
jjicjen hie ]?a sap jenemban mettaf • oftpan • -j pme- 
pmclan*^ ne pa, mettaf pa, pe ablapan monnan msejen* 
ne hpijjepep plsepc • ne fpmep ne fceapep ne j^icjean 
hie* ne jate • ne ticcenep • ne bpmce^ ]>icce pm • ne 
mete ne to fpi'Se hatne • ne eac to eealbne. 6pt^ 

' o««, MS. 

- l^ij*, MS. With the text compare, 
E,K<i\v(Ta Se TtdvTa ra yM(TXpovs Kol 
Traxfis xvfJ-uvs yevvwvra, wffavrais [Se] 
ical TO. Kpia [to] fi6eta, xo/peia, wpo- 
Bdreia, alyeia Koi iplcpeia, Kcu tuv 
opviduv TO, iv XiixudtSeffiv i/Sacrj Statr(i>- 
/xeva, Koi tCiv IxOvwv Ttavras eXedSeis 
Kol iTfKayiovs, &\\u>s re [«ai] robs 

ffKXripas Kul ■jraxets. 0pp. Alex. 
Tralliani, p. 496, ed. Basil. 

^ y not p ; see note, p. 240. . 

^ bpmcan would be better. 

^ Kal avTiKa Kar ctpxV ''"'''' ^pos 
alfia TToAv e'/c rod apiCTepov ayKuyos 
aipripovv. 0pp. Alex. Tralliani, 
p. 427, ed. Basil. 


greater leechdom, for the want of might in the man, Book II. 

or for want of digestion, or for old age, or for youth, 

or for bad weather, or for diarrhoea, then wait till that 

thou may so do* or dare. If heat, or his capacity to 

bear it, forbid it not, let him blood from the left arm 

from the upper vein ; if thou canst not find that, let 

hiTTh blood from the midmost vein ; if thou canst not 

find that, let him blood from the head vein. Further, 

if that cannot be found, let Jdm blood from the left 

hand, near the little finger, from a vein. If the blood 

be very red or livid, then must it be let flow more 

plentifully ; if it be clean or clear, let it flow so much 

the less. Blood however is so to be taken from the 

man as that his vital power may not be unsettled". 


Thus shall the sick mens diet be administered in 
that disease ; juicy peas, and bread in hot water, and 
oxymel, of which we wrote before, when speahiAig of 
Ijladder disease, the southern acid drink ; marche also 
sodden in water, and such worts and dim-etic drinks, 
and thin wine must be given them, and sheer or clear; 
that will better the power of the milt ; and shell 
fishes are to be taken, and fowls, those, Tiamely, which 
are not dwellers in fens. This that folloiveth is to 
be foregone ; let them not partake of fen fishes, nor 
sea fishes which have hard flesh, and let them take 
the before named meats, oysters and periwinkles, not 
the meats which puff" up a mans strength, nor let 
them take flesh of bullock, nor of swine, nor of 
sheep, nor of goat, nor of kid, nor let them 
drink thick wine, nor food either too extremely hot 



blob biS 50b to laBCanne on pjian lenctene oj: pam 
pmfrjmn eajime. 


Gpt; lascebom j-e p yjiel wc trihS Of ])am milre "j j'e 
beali to raanejum o];>]ium abluni • jemm jpene puban 
^ ane bseje ?eji jeporana *j mebmicel pipojie]- • o]?e]i fpile 

cymenep oSSe ma • bo ]3 cymen ane breje seji oSSe 
tpam o])])e ]?pim on eceb abpije *j ajnib to bufte ealle 
JM]" pyjita • menje piS liunij afipen • jebo J^onne on 
jlsepene ampnllan -j pele J»onne cuclep pnlne ])ey beah 
y\]> majan ablapunje ^ mnoJ>a • hnej'ce]? J?a pambe • 
]?ynna'S }?a oman bitpe hpsecetunje apej bej> -j bpeoft 
co|?e • -j pib ppepce • "j lipep able • -j lenben ppepce • -j 
milte psepce eal ]3 liht. 

. XLV. 

Ijfecebomap -j I'piS bpenc yi]) afpoUenum milce • acele 
fol. 9G b. JSu pealhat ipen ];onne hit pupjmm fie op pype atojen • 

on pme o]?]?e on eeebe j-ele ]3 bpmcan p pu mealit eac 
pellau pam ];e habba]? lieapbne liclioman • ne pceal 
mon lipsepepe ]nyne bpmcan j-ellan on popepeajibne 
pone ece -j pa able ac ymb pela nilita. 


3DeR fjnbon loscebomap pip nsjhpaepejipe fiban pape -j 
tacn liu fio abl topeapb fie • "j hu p mon onjitan 
mse^e • -j liii Inojia^ mon tilian pcyle • ]7ap Isecebomaf 
pceal mon bon pip fiban pape • 'j ]ny fmbon psejie able 

• Koi /uV Kul (Troj.i.wiJ.aTus Aeirlj, 
?;j/ iKiiVO fv x^\Keiois TrvpovfjLevuu re 
KOI a<l>vpq. KoiTTdjxevov airo^aWei, ffiip 
i/SttTi avajxefii-yiiiVT} iv iroTtJi ffvixtpipa. 
Opp. Alex, Trail., lib. viii., 13, 
p. 50G, ed. Basil. 

- Alexandres of Trallcs, lib. vi. 
chap. 1, treats of the diagnosis be- 
tween pleurisy and disease of Ihe 

^ This plural may refer to the raen 
or the Riban. 

LEECH BOOK. 11. 257 

or too cold. Again, it is good to let blood in early jiouk ii. 
lent 07' spring from the loft arm. *-''• ^'"'■ 


Again, a leeclidom whicli draweth out the evil from 
the milt, and which is efficacious for many other dis- 
orders. Take green rue one day before it is uned, 
collect it and a moderate quantity of pepper, so much 
also of cummin, or more., put the cummin one day 
beforehand, or two or three, into vinegar, dry it and 
rub to dust all the worts, mingle iliis with honey 
strained, then put tliem into a glass })itcher, and so 
give the maii a spoon full. This is good against \ip- 
blowing of the maw and of the inwards ; it raaketh 
neshthewamb; it thinneth the corrupt gastric juices, 
it doth away breakings, and breast disease, and side 
])ain, and liver disorder, and loin pain, and milt pain : 
all that it lightenetli, 


Leechdoms and strong drink for a swollen milt ; cool 
thou a fiercely hot iron, when it is just withdrawn from 
the fire, in wine or in vinegar, give the man that to 
drink. Thou may est also give that to them who liave 
a hard body : notwithstanding, this drink shall not 
be given in the early stage of the ache and the disease, 
but after many days. 


Here are leechdoms for sore of either side, and tokens 
how the disease approaches, and how a man may under- 
stand that, and how a man shall treat it. These leech- 
doms shall be done for sore of side, and these are the 


258 hMCF. p.or. 

cacn' ?;elic lunjen able tacnum "j lifep psepcef tac- 
num. ha men beo]? mib hjiijnnjum fpi]?e fcjianjum 
pgecebe • *j micel faji on bam fibum. lOpilum cnyjjej? 
'p yap on ]^a jiib • hjnlum op ep ealle fiban bi]:> f yaji • 
hpiltim becymS on 'pa. peo]?oban -j ept ymb lytel je 
]>a jefculbpiu je efc Jjone nepefeo];an p pap 5]iet • -j 
V lipopab - jelome • hpilum blobe hpseca]^ • pmjale psec- 
cean J^popiaS • tunje bi8 bpije • ne majou jelicjean 
on l^sGpe pmefcpan fiban • ^tp on j^sojie fpiSjian p paji 

fo]. 97 a. ^^^^ • 11^ majon eac ept on pa fpiSpan • jip on pa pm- 

fcjian p pap bip • jepela'S p pa mnopap hi penbap mib 
hiojia hepijneppe -j on pa piban peallaS pe he on hc- 
jeaS • ?ep psejie able pap tacn beop • bip eac jeonb 
pingjia]""^ cele 'j cneopa unmeht: eajan jieabiaS peob^ "j 
beop heop -j pamij utjanj micje ajeolpob -j lytel bip 
pfiep mnopej- melrunj 'j ■'* rebpa clasppetunj • epunj biS 
paplic jehnycneb neb -j papa bpeofca bip beapij ptetunj 
fpa fpa fie jefpat • mobep elhyjb ceolan hjnfcun^ -j 
hpeonnj • hlybenbe fpipufc mnan piMa'6 op pam bsele 
];e p paji biS hlmunje "j hlijiunje jnS pi})e]ipa3C • jip 
pap tacn lanje puma's • ponne bip feo abl to ppecen- 
lico 'j ne msej him mon jetilian • ahpa hpseppe pone 
mannan pe pip ppopaS hpsepeji he seppe )>?e]ie plejen 
on pa piban oS8e jefcunjen oppe hp^Bpep he lenje £ep 
apeolle oSSe jebpocen pupbe • jip Int p p^epe ponne 
bi'5 he py ea^lsecna •" jip hit bip op cyle cumen oppe op 
ypeljie mptetan hit biS pe uneaplsecpa.' J^F ^^^ ponne 

fol. 97 I). l>ip o?]i on paejie lipjie oppe on pam lunjenum jefajijob 

' These symptoms are fully stated , - Bead hyoyza'S. 

in nearly the same words by Are- j ^ Aretseos accompanies ns no fur- 

tseos, Acut. I. X. Possibly the ' ther. 

diagnosis and the symptoms were I ^ Read "j bi|> heoj' peoh ? 

stated, as they are in the text, by ^ JJeapb or some word to express 

Philagrios. The Saxon author 
mentions mechanical causes for the 
sore of the side, as well as nosolo- 
gical ; he does not therefore confine 
himself to pleurisy. 

2/cA?7/)o's is wanting. 
'• Read ea'iJleacnjja. 
' For unea'Sleacnjia. 


tokens of the disease, like unto the tokens of Inng Book ii. 
disease, and the tokens of h'ver pain. 'I'he men are ^^- ^'^''• 
afflicted with very strong fevers, and miekle sore on 
both sides. At whiles the sore striketh' upon the ribs, 
at whiles the sore is over all the side; at wliiles it 
coineth up on the collar bones, and again, after a little, 
the sore greeteth either the shoulders or the lower 
belly, and they cough frequently, at whiles they break 
up blood, they suffer a constant wakefulness, the tongue 
is dry, they cannot lie on the left side if the sore is 
on the right side, nor again can they lie on the right, if 
the sore is in the left ; they feel that their viscera by 
their weight shift place, and fall upon the side on 
which they lie. These tokens are before the disease. 
Theie is also cold all through their fingers, and power- 
lessness of their knees, their eyes are red, and red is 
their hue, and their discharge ^ is foamy, their mie 
is turned yellow,^ and the digestion of the inwards is 
little, and /i«rcZ the pulsation of the veins, the breath- 
ing is sorelike, the face twitched, and there is a dewy 
wetting of the breast, as if it sweated, a delirium of 
the mind ; a spasmodic action, and roughness of the 
throat, sounding chiefly from within, whistleth from 
the part on which the sore is ; the disease is unfavour- 
able to a leaning posture and to laughing. If these 
tokens continue long, then is the disease too dangerous, 
and one can do nothing for the man : notwithstanding, 
ask the man, who endureth this, whether he ever were 
stricken or stabbed in the side, or whether he long 
before had a fall, or got a breakage ; if it were that, 
then will he be easier to cure. If it is come of cold 
or of inward evil humour, it is so much the harder to 
cure. If further the man have been before troubled 
with soreness in the liver, or in the lungs, and the 

Nwo-o-ei, doubtless. I ' Thus the Saxon. 

■ Expectoration ? | 

R 2 

260 LMCE BOC. 

•j l^anan cyraeS fio^ jnbpfiejic ]?onne bi]; ]> fjnSe ppecne. 
Jip Int; on ];am milte bi]> re]\ ponne bi]' liir ])y oaj)- 

^ ]ac]ie • 31}: he. jwiiiie bi]) a?]i on ]?a3pe lunjene ^epunbob 

*j jjanan cymS fe j-ibp^ejic ponne bi]; ■]> fpiSe pjiecne • 
51]: hit on ]?am miltre bi8 seji • ponne cymS p ]-a]i on 
]>a pmfcpan fiban • je ])a habbaS^ hepije yjiecenneyye • 
ahfa hme hpfe|)ep hmi fe miltre ]"a]\ fie o6Se hppe]?e]i 
htm fpeopcoj^u fie • fpa \)u meahc onjitan Jj ]>8epf fiban 
]-a]i cymS oy. ypelpe pretan 'j bi)^ fpiSe ppecne. Tip him 
fe ut^anj pojifeten fie o6Se jemi^an ne mseje mib 
^ fine]?jie onbounje pyptbjiencep ]>u]ih liojni oSSe pipan 
fio pamb bi]; co ckenfianne • ppecne biS eac ];onne 

^ J^ppp peocan mannef lijiaca biS manijep hipej' ^j bleo :-^ 

be J?ipnm tacnnm ]ni meaht lippep fe man to lac- 
manne fie onjitaii hpteji ne fie • hpcep mon imfopte 
jetilaS on pojiepeapbe J)a able ]?onne p fap rejiefr 
jefcihS on pa fculbpu 'j on pa bpeofr. Sona j'ceal 
mon blob op £ebpe Isecan. Jip f T^P S^punije on ]>am 
bpeoftum anum oppe on pam upejian hpipe o])pe on 
fol. 93 a. ' pam mibhjnpe • ponne pceal liim mon ]'yptb]ienc )-ellan 
'j niman fpete pjBteji mib ele jebon on fpmep bla^bpan 
*j be]nan p fap mib. 


Laicebomaf pa pe pynnunje msejen h^bben -j fmal- 
unje • pam lichoman pa "Sa hseto mebmicle oppe fcjianje 
ppopian -j hu him mon fcyle fpmef blcebpan onbon. 
V 5emm hunan -j peax -j ele ^emenje oppe jejiub to- 

jtBbpe ealpa empela p hit an fie fmipe mib -j bo on 
clsep leje on. ^ip iape fiban ept jemin pnbaii leap -j 

» Read fe. 

- hub, MS., at the end of a line, 
tlie writer forgettinp; to complete 
the word. 

^ In I. xlv. .'j, the genitive wafs 
bleoj'. Bleo, by a zeugma, may be 
genitive plural. 


side pain coinetii thence, then is tliat very dangerous ; Hook II, 
if it lias been ere that on the milt, then it is the easier ^ '' 

to cure. Further, if the man have been before wounded 
in the lung, and thence eometli the side pain, then is 
that very dangerous. If it liave been formerly in the 
spleen, then the sore cometli on the left side, yea, those 
tokens have heavy mischief; ask him whetlier the milt 
be sore, or whether he hath neck disease. So tliou 
mayest understand that sore of the side cometh from 
evil humour and is very mischievous. If his anal dis- 
charge be stopped, or if he may not mie, the wamb 
must be cleansed by an always easy application of a 
wort drink, hh this case a, clyster, through a hoin or 
})ipe. There is danger also when the sick mans cxijec- 
tovation or break is of many a hue and complexion.' 
2. By these tokens thou mayest understand in what 
case the man is curable, in what case he is not. In 
case one treateth a man unsoftly in the early stage 
of the disease, then the sore first mounteth into the 
shoulders and into the breast. Soon must one let lilood 
from a vein, if the sore continue on the breast alone, 
or in the upper belly, or in the midriff; then must 
one cfive the tnu/ii a wort drink, and take sweet water 
with oil put into a swiues bladder, and warm the sore 


Leechdoms wliich have the power of thinning and of 
makintr small, for the bodies which suffer the heat, 
either moderate or strong, and how one must apply a 
swines bladder to then). Take /ioyehound, and wax, 
and oil, mingle or rub together equal quantities of all, 
that it, the mixture, may be one ; smear therewith, and 
put also on a cloth and apply. For sore of side, again ; 

' TlavTo. ovo.-miiTo.i KiXP'^'^l-'-^'"'- Alex. Trail. 

262 L^CE BOC. 

laupe]^ cpoppan jebeat Imtele -j feoS on hunije leje 
on cla^ o])pe on pel f hit ealle ]?a fibau -j f j'aji oye\i- 
licje lege on -j bej^e mib ]?y -j beleje ssfteji Jpiejie 
bel^mje mib hatte puUe • "j bmb peaxhlaj: on • jip ^^ 
pap |7onne ne fie ]>e Iseyye teoh J^onne mib jlsej'e on 
]?a fculbpu • 'j Iceajipa ];sep hit fap fie fpijpuft • "j fcpep 
'p blob Of fpiSe • "j jip Mt ]?onne jit fpij^oji pap fie • 
ne bo l^ii jjonne mib fealte ]?a blsebpan on • ac on jrope- 
j^eapbe ]?a able J^enben f paji lajft fie. Ruban jefeoS 
on ele oS8e on pine • "j bile fmipe j^a fiban mib ]7y 
iol. 08 b. neoblice • 'j be]:>e mih hnefcpe pulle -j mib ]?y ele -j 

bo Jjonne J'a blsebpan on • bo peapm j^ealt to bo eac 
feofo]7a on pealt ptetep bo on |?a blgebpan aleje on f 
fap bo ]?ip ]7peo niht. 


^ip j?ap pultumaf ne pyn helpe • last ' blob j^onne 
on sebpe op eapme nsep on j?a healpe ]7e f pap bi}» • -j 
]7a pambe man pceal cltenpian''^ mib fme]?e pyptbjience. 
^ Gpc eof opfpinej- '^ cpeab p mon pmt on puba jemylce 
on psecpe apeoh bo on hip bpincan* o]?];e bpije jemenj 
•j jejnib on hif bpmcan ]? htel]? ]rcG]\e piban pap. 6pt 
celenbpep^ fseb jejnib -j feo]> on hunije o]> p hit Sicce 
fie • jemm psep ponne on mopjenne -j on sepenne ppeo 
cucleji msel pele to j^icjenne. 


LcBcebomap -j peaxj'ealpa "j jceappunja pip fiban pape- 
•j hpyet him fie to picjanne. 6ac pu j'cealt ponne pu 
on pam pculbpum tyhfu blob ceon fpiSe on psepe j'lban 

' Trallianus, p. 85, ed. Lutet, re- 
commends (pKefioron'ia and the ko.- 

- claej-nian, MS. 

^ Marcellus, col. 351, b. 

dapaiVTris KoiKias, after Ilippokrates. ' Marcellus, col. 351, c, 


take leaves of rue and bunches of laurel heads, beat Book ii. 

them small and seethe them in licmey, lay on a cloth • ^ ^ "• 

or on a skin so that it may overlie all the side and 

the sore ; lay on and foment with that mixture, and 

cover after the fomenting with hot wool, and bind on a 

cake of wax. Then if the sore be not the less, then 

draw with a cupping g-lass on the shoulders, and 

scarify where the sore is most, and scrape the blood 

off thoroughly ; and if it then be still more sore, do 

not thou then apply the bladder with salt, but do this 

in the early period of the disease, while the sore is 

least. Seethe rue in oil or in wine, and dill ; anoint 

the sore with that, of necessity, and foment with nesh 

wool and with oil, and then apply the bladder : add 

warm salt, put bran also into salt water ; put it on the 

bladder: Jay it on the sore, do this for tliree nights. 


If these remedies are no help, then let blood on a 
vein from the arm, hut not on the side on which the 
sore is, and the wamb shall be cleansed with a smooth 
wort drink. Again, melt in water the dropping of a 
boar swine, which one findeth in a wood, sti'ain it, j)ut 
it into his drink : or dry it, mingle and rub it into 
his drink, that will heal the sore of the side. Again, 
rub small sotne seed of coriander, and seethe it in 
honey, till it be thick, then take of that, at morning 
and at even, three spoon measures ; give the man this 
to swallow. 


Leechdoms and wax salves and scarifyings for sore 
of side, and what the sieJc are to take for diet. Also 
thou shalt when thou drawest blood on the shcnilders, 
draw it strongly on the side, and for about three days 

264? L^CE BOC. 

. V 'j 3m;ib .111. iiilic Iceajipian -j peax j^ealjie -j ele on lec- 

jean "j yellan bjiencay })a ]ni pite ^ yih yib psejice 

i'cylen • jij: ]>e pypt: bpenc ne liinpe pele Itjianjne • 

fol. 'J9 a. leolice metcaf jncje "j jej-eap bpojni ' 'j jepeape i)ypan 

'j jeplejen iejpu 'j bjieab jcbjiocen on hat; pseteji' 

"-J jnnepinclan ^ aboii oj: ]-ccllum mib pyj-iim. 

6pt: ]n]) piban pajic betomean leap jepeoS on ele -j 
jebpyte aleje on )7a piban. 


JDeR septep fint lunjen abla laSlicu tacn *j hj'anau 
i'lo Clime "j hu mon Isecehomaf jn]) ]?on^ pyjicean pcyle* 
bpeoib ablapen "j paji ]?eoli -j lipa • "j Inm I'e maja 
miela ]nnbe]; -j ban "j per pela Ipellenbe ypele Ipilap 
unpelenbe "j lane bpece]? }>y]ipe lipofcan -j Inm on ]?am 
hpofuan hpiliim lopa'8 fio fremn. Smijie Jjone mannan 
mib ele • -j eac mib nij'pe jmlle he]>e ];a fiban -j jub • 
■j betpeox fculbpum hpene i^]i sepenne • Ifer ])onne on 
)>elan • repcep J^on la^t Inm blob op ]?am balan lia]wli- 
];an In opne ];?e)i him ne ejle pyji* jip ]>u. him to pela 
Isetfc ne bi]> him J^onne peopep pen. Pypc htm bpip 
op pealpyjice mopan • -j op pleaj^an pyjite • 'j hiinan 
fol. 90 b. "j bile ]-?eb peo]? ]?ap on butjian pele etan colne on 

niojijcn -j on niht bpip liif mete pij; ele -j eal hip 
bjiinca Tie cealb. CT^anejum men lunjen potaS on 
bpmce ''"' he I'piplep bjiencef -j pela henne iejpu jeplea 
on an pa3t fpa hjieap • 5e];]'ejie ]?onne "j J'lcje -j je- 
menje cBp ]n]) pletan "j nan oJ»ep inolcen J'lcje. Leoht 
bjienc • jenlm jajellan j^yl on pyjite Iset ]?onne hpon 

' TlTiffadvTjf Alex. Tr. 

lino 15, ed. Lutct. 

^ Marcclliis, col. 351, u. 

* I'oii, wc expected a feminine. 

- il/i'xes, tvum^.v, Alex.Trall., p. 87, ''The stop is misplaced thus in 


LEECH BOOK. 11. 2G5 

scarify and lay on cerote and oil, and give such drinks Book li. 
as thou knowest are suitable for side pain. If ixmUd <-''• -'^''^• 
wort drink do not sufHce, give a strong one. Let the 
laari take light meats and juicy broths, and juicy peas, 
and beaten eggs, and bread broken in hot Avater, and 
periwinkles removed from the shells, with [leas. 


Again, for sore of side, seethe in oil leaves of bctony, 
and bruise them, lay them on the side. 


1. Hereinafter are set forth the loathly tokens of 
lung disease, and whence it cometh, and how one must 
work leechdoms against it. The breast is npblown, 
and the thigh and muscle is sore, and the onmis maw 
distendeth much, and his legs and his feet swell much 
with evil unfeeling swellings, and a drier cough vexes him, 
and in the cough at whiles his voice is gone. Smear . 
the man with oil, and also warm the sides and the 
ribs with new wool, and between the shoulders, a little 
before evening, then let the oil remain on him ; and 
after that let him blood from the sound elbow " in an 
oven, where the fire cannot harm him;" if thou lettest 
him too much blood, there will be no hope of his life. 
Work him a brewit from roots of wall wort, and from 
Heath wort, and horehound, and dill seed ; seethe these 
in butter ; give him this breiuit to eat cold in a 
morning ; and at night dress his meat Avith oil, and 
let all his drink be cold. In many a man the lung 
decayeth. Let him drink some emetic drink, and 
beat up many hens eggs into a vessel, all raw, then 
let him curdle it and eat it, and previously mingle 
with curds, and let him take no other milk diet. 
A light drink ; take gagel, or siueet gale, boil it in 
wort of beer, then let it stand a little, remove the 

266 LiECE BOC. 

jefcanban bo oy jm jajellaii bo J>omie mpne jiir on 
beppeoh J?onne f hit ahebbe pell • bo ]7onne eolenan • 
•j pejimob • -j betomcan • -j mepce • *j antjian to jfele 

Jepypc beopypt ]n]> lunjen piinbe • 'j banpypt feo 
lf)e hsebbe cpoppan jecnua |>a pyjita tj;a pyl on but- 
pan. bjienc pi6 lunjen able jentm hmbheoloj^an leap • 
•j limb bejijean • -j japclipan heopbpemlep ^ leap pyl 
on pypte Iset bjnncan. 

Pij? lunjen able • hmb bepi^ean leap -j hpeobef fpiji 
peabe liopan • btpeeopj^ypt bolhpunan • neptan on clse- 
num pfetpe ealle ]7ap ]'ypca pylle "j bpmce. ]}ip lunjen 
able ]'ypc pealpe on butepan "j j^ije on meolcum • mm 
bpiine pypt meobopyjit • bepc pajo • nepte • japclipe. 
fol. 100 a. Pi]? lunjen able bpime pyjit cneopholen • betomca • 
pubu mepce fnpie • eopop peapn • acumba • japclipe • 
tpejen bjiemlaj' • uouelle • pab • pypc to bpence -j to 
)*ealpe. Je^i^i eopoppeapn jecnupa *j apylle on butpan 
bo |)a pealpe on apyllebe jate meoluc 'j Jncje on neaht 
neptij • -j on upan mete. bpenc pi]? bpijpe lun- 
jenne • holen pmbe • -j .V. leapan • bile • -j pebic je- 
cnua to bufte • 'j op jeot mib ealoS pele bpincan 
jelome. 6pt bpenc • mapubian • -j betomcan • mepce 
jiube • fupapulbpe pmbe • jiah ]7opn pmbe bpince on 
ealaS. bpip pi)? lunjen able • ontpan • eolonan • majiu- 
bian • penpypt • j^a clipihtan • pube • mepce • pipo^ • 
huni^. Pi}> bpijpe limjenne • op pealpyjite mopan • ^ 
op pleol^an pypte • hunan • bilep pseb- feo]? on butpan 
pele etan colne on mop^enne • ^ on nilit • -j bpip hi]* 
mete pi]? ele. 6pt mm alpej- pmbe feo]? on pa3tpe o]? 
f }?3ep psetepef pie ]?pibban bsel onbepylleb pele ];oime 

' heopbpem bjiemie)-, ]\IS. 


gagel, then add new yeast, then wrap it up that it I5nf'l^ !• 
may rise well, then add helenium, and wormwood, and 
betony, and marche, and ontre ; give the man this to 

2. Work together beewort, for a lung wound, and that 
bonewort which hath bunches of floAvers ; pound the 
two worts, boil in butter. A drink for lung disease ; 
take leaves of hindheal, and hind berries, or raspberries, 
and garclife, or agrimony, and leaves of the hip 
bramble, or dogrose; boil them in wort of beer; make 
the man drink. 

3. For lung disease ; leaves of hind berries, or rasp' 
berries, a spike of a reed, red hove, bishopwort, dol- 
hrune, nepeta ; let the man boil all these worts in clean 
water, and drink. For lung disease, work a salve in 
butter, and take the same in milk ; take brownwoii, 
meadwort, birch lichen, nepeta, garclife, or agrimony. 
For lung disease ; brown wort, knee holly, betony, wild 
marche, sorrel, everfern, oakum (ashes), garclife, the 
two brambles, the dogrose and blackberry, wowelle, 
woad ; work these into a drink and into a salve. Take 
everfern, pound it, boil it in butter, put "the salve" 
into boiled goats milk, and let the man take it at 
night fasting, and on the top of that his meat. A 
drink for a dry lung ; pound to dust rind of holly and 
cinqfoil, dill and radish, and pour them all over with 
ale ; give the man that to drink frequently. Again, 
a drink ; let him drink in ale, marrubium and betony, 
marche, rue, rind of crab apple tree, sloe thorn rind. 
A brewit for lung disease ; ontre, helenium, marrubium, 
wenwort, that namely which is bulbed, rue, marche, 
pepper, honey. For a dry lung ; some root of wallwort, 
and of fleath Wort, Iborehouud, seed of dill ; seethe these 
in butter, give the brewit to the man to eat cold, in 
the morning and at night, and di'ess his meat with 
oil. Again, take rind of alder, seethe in water till a 
third part of the water be boiled away, then give the 

268 LMCE BOC. 

V cailic jrulne to bpiiicanne on |>]iy ]'i]7al' • Iset liinle btej- 
]?e|ine betpeonuiii. ]?i]; limjen punbe • )«e]- blacan 
fol. 100 b. ipjep cjioppena *j cojma ?epelu |>peo on bjoj .v. on 
niopjene feojran ]'y jjpibban breje ])onne nijon • ]7onne 
.XI. ))onne ];jieotcyne • ]?onne pjityne • ];onne feo}:on- 
t^me • ]7onne nijantyne • Jjonne .xxi. yele Ipa refteji 
bajum bpmcan on pme. 6pt; jnjj lunjen punbe beto- 
nican pyl on pine pele bjuncan. pi|? J>on ilcan jemni 
miijcpyjit nipepeapbe • "j bpunepypt pyl on butepan. 
])\j) lunjen able jentm cpican • -j ac pmbe • -j jajiclipan 
^ecnupa tojfebepe • bepylle ];onne ' ]7]nbban bsel on 
hpcetrene fy]\te iupe sepceji amylte butepan. 

Gpt ^emm bpune j'yjit • -j l:)ij'ceop pypt • pubu mejice • 
pubu cepfillan • eopop peapn • hmb hiolo];e • acuinba • 
attoplaJ;e • jieabe hope • "j ma^bejie. pi]' lunjen able • 
bolbpune • -j i\3pep];e nioj^opeajib • -^ bjiune pyjit • 'j 
peabe hope • "j jieabe netlan apylle on hunije '-j on 
cubutepan pup on meolcum. 6ft i^emin jitebicep 
.III. Ihcieba • -j bpabe leacep jelice -j i'picep .ill. bo f 
.III, bajaf o]']7e 1113011. 

fol. 101 a. -Lll- 

To fpip bjience .VI. cojin aljuiii . xxx. lybcojma -j 
J^a jpeatan pyjit nio]?opeapbe • lipejij'e liatte bjnje ]?a 
on lunnan "j ellen jiinbe nij^ej'eajibe bjuje eac *j ^etju- 
pula fpijje fmsele • bo healpnc bollaii ealoS to» "j fpete 
v^ inib liunije • bo lipon butepan • -j pipojiep hpon • *j 
jehaste •]> ealu -j bo hpon pealtep to. 6ft pepmob -j 
eolonaii la3ppe last ftanban tjia niht on ealo]) bjiince 
Jjonne. 6ft jlasbene • hope p leotj'ypt cnupa on eala]? -j 
jefpet bjunce ]H)mie. Tip inon hme bpeee opeji ;»;emec 
to fpipanne fij^jjan hiiii i'pip bjicnc op lie • jemin pa;tte]- 
flaifce]- )-ele tpa fnseba. Pece bjienc • elene ]?one lasp- 

Iiisert 0)', as emcudution. 

LEECH P.OOK. II. 2fi9 

man a. chalice full to drink at three times ; leave- liook ii. 
always a days space between. For hmg wound ; of *^'''' "• 
the berry bunches of the black ivy and of its grains, 
at first three a day, live on the inorrow, seven the 
third day, then nine, then eleven, then thirteen, then 
fifteen, then seventeen, then nineteen, then tAventy-one; 
give them so, according to the days, to be drunk in 
vrine. Again, for lung wound, boil betony in wine, 
give it to be drunk. For the same ; take the nether- 
ward part of jnugwort and brownwort, boil in butter. 
For lung disease ; take quitch, and oak rind, and agri- 
mony ; pound them together, then boil to the third part 
in wheaten wort of beer ; sip afterwards some melted 

4. Again, take brownwort, and bishopwort. wild 
)narche, wood chervil, everfern, hindheal, oakum (aslies), 
attorlothe, red hove, and madder. For lung disease ; 
dolhrune, and the netherward part of feferth, and brown- 
wort, and red hove, and red nettle ; boil them in honey 
and in cows butter ; sip this in milk. Again, take 
three slices of radish, and the like of broad leek, and 
of bacon three : do that for three days or nine. 


1. For an emetic ; six grains of aloes, thirty of lib- 
corns, and the netherward part of great wort, wherwe 
it hight, dry it in the sun, and elder rind, the nether- 
ward part, dry it also, and triturate it very small, add 
half a bowl of ale, and sweeten with honey, add a 
little butter, and a little pepper, and heat the ale, and 
add a little salt. Again, wormwood, and helenium, but 
less of it ; let them stand for two nights in ale, then 
let the man drink. Again, gladden, hove, float wort, 
pound these in ale, and sweeten it, then let the man 
drink. If a man strain himself overmuch to spew, after 
a spew drink is past oflf from him, take some fat flesh, 
give him two slices. A weak emetic drink; helenium, 
VOL. IT. R 7 ••- 

270 LiECE BOC. 

Tan bsel j^unjei' • cammoc pyl f on eala); j'ele f lyt- 

lum fupan |;onne hit col fie o]? f he fpipe. ij) i]' hope 

nijjepeapb belcjiepen "j jecnuab • -j ellen pyjittjiuman 

jimbe ap^ej'c }>a cleene 'j befcjiepene • apenb ];onne op 

S J'am pyjittpuman • -j jecnua 50tpo]:>an • -j penpypt fio 

peaxe]> on ealbum lanbe • jeot ]?onne hlutco^ eala to • 

fol. 101 h. pylle fpa ipijjpe mebo jip liebbe beppeo *j laet I'tan- 

ban mhtepne apeoh liollan piilne jel'pete )?onne mib 

hunije aj-eoh ]?onne ept • bebinbe ]7onne jenoh peapme • 

)o Isete J'onne Itanban neahtepne. bpmce ]?onne on 

mojijen 'j hme pjieo peapme 'j liim pla^p beop^e fpij^e 

jeopne • lanje he msej on )7am ])yptuni ftanban ^ 

J^onne hme mon bpmcan piUe onhpepe ept. Py]ice 

J'onne m J^iep bollan pulne fpa he Mep pophte • jip he 

15- fie to unfpi'6 jejnibe he piptij lyb copna jefpete 

jjonne. Pypce fpiSpan jip he piUe • abelpe J^a jpeataii 

pypt afcpep ]?a jpeatan pmbe op jecnupa Jjonne fmsele 

jeot ]7onne hhittop eala on. Se bpene bi]? fpa peljia 

fpa f ealu j-elpe hip. Spipe bpenc • jeiiim ellenpmbe 

2 o m]?epeapbe • ^ hamp3i7ite 'j hunbteontij lybcopna je- 

cnua fpi|>e pel ealle j;a pypta bo on ealo menje ]?onne • 

V jenim ]?onne pah mela hseplep o]?]?e alpej- aj'ipt ];onne 

pul clsene tela micle hanb piille bo on ^emanj Iset 

fol. 102 a. neahtepne ftanban ahlyttpa fpi]7e pel • jefpet mib 

2. r hunije jebpinc fcenc pulne tela micelne, jtp pe bpenc 

nelle op jemm onjieb pelle on eala^ bpmcan fcenc pulne 

])eapmep j'ona bi|> pel. Pypc fpipbjienc. jenim lybcopn 

V -j pipoji copn "j hpit cpuba *j alpan jpmb to bufce 

jja pypta fpi)?e • bo on beop fpa on ptn fpa on l^eoppe 


the least bit of thung ov aconite, cammock or pence- ijook il 
ilanwm; boil that in ale ; when it is cool, give the man ^^' '"' 
that to sip little by little, till he spew. . . . that 
is, hove, the nether part of it scraped and pounded, 
and the rind of elder roots ; wash them clean, and have 
them scraped, then rend the rind away from the roots, 
and pound goutweed, and wcnwort, that namely whicli 
waxeth in old land, then pour thereon clear ale, boil 
it, or strongish mead if thou have it, wrap it up and 
let it stand or the space of a night, strain out a bowl 
fuU, then sweeten with honey, then strain again, then 
bind it up warm enough, then let it stand for a nights 
space; then let him drink it the morning, and let him 
wrap himself up warm, and let him very earnestly 
beware of sleep. Long may the drink stand upon the 
worts, and when a man hath a mind to drink it, let 
him shake it up again : then let him work thereinto a 
bowl full, as he before wrought it ; if it be too weak 
let him rub small fifty libcorns,' and then sweeten it. 
Let him work it stronger if he will ; delve up the 
great wort, scrape away the great rind, then pound it 
small ; then pour clear ale upon it : the drink is the 
better according as the ale is better. An emetic ; take 
the nether ward part of the rind of elder, and home- 
wort, and a hundred libcorns, pound them very well, 
put all the worts into ale, then mix ; then take fine 
meal of the hazel or alder, then sift it full clean,put in 
a good large handful amidst the rest, let it stand for 
a, nights space, clear it very thoroughly, sweeten with 
honey, drink a good mickle cup full. If the drink will 
not he thrown ofi", take onred, give in ale a cup full of 
it warm to the man to drink; soon he will be well. 
Work a spew drink thus; take libcorns, and pepper- 
corns, and mastich, and aloes, grind the worts to dust 
thoroughly, put into beer, or into wine, or into skim 

' Seeds of Momordka elaterium. 

272 LMCE 1500. 

meoluc jij: ]>n ];a]ia o)?ep]\a napj^ep na:^bbe • j^iy ]n\ on 
pme pyjice o]y]>e on meolce jefpet mib linnije hpince 
tela micelne j'cenc pulne, 

Spipe bjienc ]'ypc of beope bo cofc to 'j alpan -j 
3" lybcopua piptyne J^apa oj^epa jelice. 

Spipe bpenc liampypte .III. fnfieba • -j ellen jinibe be- 
penbe jebce micel .xxv. lybcojma ^ Sesnib bo hunije]- 
fpilce an fnseb fie on ete ]jonne mib cuclepe on fup 
batej* psetepef oSSe cealbej". Jtp bjienc op men nelle • 
jemm mepce • "j eejipillan feo]; fpi];e on psetpe bo j-ealt 
to bpmce |;onne. Jip hme nman psejTce • jemm nij[;ep 
ealaS ambep pulne bo hanb pulle hampypte on • Iset 
on hebban bjiince o]? •]? ];n fpipe • fcmi; ]>onne pe];]ie 

fol. 102 b. on mub teoh pa jelleftpan tit bpmc ept Sona:- 

.; Ntm fcamomam f penij 5epe;^e -j jejnib I'msele -j 
hpep benne cej fpi8e pealt bo |?a pyjit on ne laet jeyp- 
nan f se^ ac pup. Pyptbpenc • fcamonian jeceo]' )>up 
bpec on tu bo hpon on jjine tunjan jtp bto hpite opeji- 
bpejbe]; fpa meluc ):»onne bio bi]) 30b • ^ejnib ];onne 
1;^ on tpeopenum prete nsep on nanum o}>pum mib fciccan 
o]>]>e mib bcepte bo op p mon jejmban ne mjBje -j? 
bi)? jeupnen • bo caubcef on .11. bpopan o'S'Se })py • 
oj?|?e eleleapep ftelan jej^yl toj-omne • jip luo bi]j j^ob • 
b]ienc bi6 on pemnje • jip msetpa hv6 on oSpum beal- 

^ IS pum oSSe on t])am aumpe];pimsenem?e.^ Spipe bpenc • 

bopan 'j onjieb • -j ellen jnnbe jecnua to Somne ellen 
Ifeft • bo l^onne to .XXX. pipoji copna jefpet mib bimije 
pele bpincan. 

' cybcopna, MS. I ma ? Yet the letters of the text 

- Read anb S'l" iV^ I'lum ac ne 1 are quite legible and clear. 


milk, if tliou have neither of tlie others; if tlioii work P.ook li. 
it in wine or in milk, sweeten it with honey; let Ihc *''•'"• 
man diink a good niickle cup full. 

2. Work a spew drink of beer, add costmary, and 
aloes, and fifteen Hbcorns, of the others similarly. 

3. An emetic ; of homewort three pieces, and rend 
up elder rind, the same quantity, twenty-five libcorns, 
rub them to dust, and of honey as much as would l)e 
one piece or 'proportion, then eat thereof with a sjioou, 
sip some water hot or cold. If sucli a draught will 
not 'pass from a mau, take marche and chervil, seethe 
them thoroughly in water, add salt, then let the man 
drinl'. If there is inward pain, take a jug full of new 
ale, add a hand full of homewort, have the jug held 
up and drink till thou spew ; then poke a feather into 
thy mouth ; draw the bad matter out, drink again 
soon. Take scammony, so much as may weigh a penny, 
and rub it small, and half cook a hens egg, salt it 
thoroughly, j^ut the wort into it, let not the egg coa- 
gulate, but sip it. A wort drink ; choose scammony 
thus, break it in two, put a bit on thy tongue, if it 
bursteth out white as milk, then it is good ; I'ub it 
then in a treen vessel, not in any other, with a spoon 
or with a handle, remove what cannot be rubbed down, 
that part is coagulated, add two or three drops of 
xuoKixov,^ or boil together ivifJt it a stalk of olive 
leaf: if it be good the dose will be one pennyweight; 
if moderately good, one and a half or two penny- 
weights; if bad, three; no more than that. A spew 
drink ; hove, and onred, and elder rind ; pound these 
together, ]nf^t least of elder, then add thirty -pepper- 
conis, sweeten with honey, give the ma7i to drink. 

' " Est etiam mecllcamentum • • • I xiv. See the moiition fif 0-iifnaicuv. 

" quod KuAiKhf nominatur. . . magis I Book II. Ivi. 4. 

" prodest potiii datum." Celsns, IV. ! 


274 LMCF. BOC. 


To leohcum bjience selfj^onan 5yp»jii]:an • betonican 
pa cliipyhtaii penpypt • eopop|?potan • heah liiolo)?aii • 
ealehrjian • eolonan tpa fnseba • clatan • pejbpgeban • 
6ntj\e • cpopleac to p^tan liealp Lalij pa3tep • Iiealp 
pie hlutto'^ eala. To leohtum bpence • bifceop pyjit 

fo]. in3a. elehcpe • pepmob • pulpep camb pyl on meolcum fpij^e 
V appmj l^onne Jmjih claS bpyp ealo on o5Se pm j'eie 

fupan, Leoht bpenc bipceop pypt ontpe eolone • 
mapubie- bpeopje bpofcle- mepce- [epcj^potu • beConica* 
lieah hioloSe • limb hiolo|?e • jajille • m'lnte • bile • pmul • 
cepfiUe • bpmce on Bain's jepophte. Unfpipol bjienc 
bifceop pypt • ]?epmob • actoplaSe • fppmj pypt; jy '6- 
^ pipe • bpeopje bpofde • pmul • jebeaten pipop • jebo ]>a 

pyjita ealle on an pset jebo j^onne ealb pm hlutcoji 
on "Sone bpenc oSSe fpiSe 50b mebo bpmce jjonne ];one 
bpenc neahcnej-tij • *j fpa betepe him Ip fpa he opco]x 
bpmce -j ete ]?one bpip j^e hep appiten i]- • byjiij eolo- 
nan omppan • ontjie • 50t:po]?e hjiomjeallan • jefcab- 
pyjiC niojjopeapbe • jecnua ])& pypta bo fealt on pyl on 
butpan. Gpc unfpipol bpenc • bifceoppypr • syj'liipe • 
fppmj pypt .V. bajaf bpmce setfomne fimle on mopjne 
poplsete oJ?]ie pipe .v. bpmce. Leoht bpenc jemm 

fol. 1U3 b. pepmob • -j betonican • "j hioloj^an^ laeft -j hmb hioloj'an 
bo on eala. Stille bpenc • betonican • eolone • pepmob • 
ontpe • hune • elehtpe • penpypt • ^eappe • bpeopje 
bpoftle • acto)ila<Se pelbmojm. 


J)ip mfcice • jenllm appotanan • -j attopla^an • bifceop 
pypt ]?a fuj^ejman • jehaete on beope -j fupe. Jip ftice 

Read eh hiolojjan. 


Hii. Book n. 

Ch. liii. 
For a light drink, iwe elfthon, githrife, betony, the 

cloved wen wort, everthroat, liorse heal, lupins, two pro- 
portions of heleniiim, clote, waybroad, ontre, cropleek, 
for liquid let half bo holy water, half clear ale. For 
a light drink ; bishopwort, lupin, wormwood, wolfs- 
comb, boil thoroughly in milk, then wring through a 
cloth, drop ale or wine upon it, give it the onan to 
sip. A light drink ; bishopwort, ontre, helenium, mar- 
rubium, dwarf dwostle, marche, ashthroat, betony, horse 
heal, hind heal, gagel or sweet gale, mint, dill, fennel, 
chervil, let the Tnan drink them wrought up in ale. A 
not emetic drink; bishopwort, wormwood, attorlothe, 
spriugwort, githrife, pennyroyal, fennel, beaten peppei-, 
put all the worts into one vessel, then put clear old 
wine into the drink or very good mead, then let the 
man drink the draught after his nights fast, and it is 
the better for him according as he oftener drinketh, and 
let him eat the brewit which is here written ; borough- 
helenium, ompre 07' sorrel, ontre, goutweed, ramgall, 
the nether part of oxeye, pound the worts, add salt, 
boil in butter. Again, a not emetic drink ; bishopwort, 
githrife, springwort ; let the man drink for five da5^s 
together, always in the morjiing, let him leave it alone 
for other five, and drink for five mo^^e. A light drink; 
take wormwood, and betony, and horse heal, the least 
of this, and hind heal, put them into ale. A quieting 
drink ; betony, helenium, wormwood, ontre, horehound, 
lupin, wenwort, yarrow, dwarf dowstie, attorlothe, field- 
more or carrot. 


For an inward stitch ; take abrotanon and attorlothe, 
the southern bishopwort, that is, arami, let the man 
heat them in beer and sip. If there be a stitch, but 

s 2 



butan iiinO(Se fie • jenim ]>oniie ])a jieabnn iietlan -j 
ealbe j^apan jebeat troSomiie 'j iniijie mib -j he]^e mib 
ro ):y]ie. 


Dpenc -py. mon mnan }:o]ili£epb fie • jecnua eolonan 
^ pyl on ealoS 'j betonican • pepmob 'j ]7a clupibtaD ' 
pen]»y]ir pele bpmcan. pi]^ Income cofcep jobne brel • 
-j pmolep ]-?ebep o])e]i fpilc jebeat; fniffile "j jejnib to 
bufue. Jemm }>aep cucleji pulne • jebo on ealb ptn o}>];e 
ct^pen bpmce ]?onne neahcneptii; ];py bajap. 

^^ PiJ> pcejicope bipceoppypt: • pepmob. betonica • jiebtc* 

mepce • cof- • jiuban j-teb pyjic ro bpence. 

f,)l. Ull 

. LVI. 

2iy mon ne mseje tirjejan • jemm uman • -j eac 
jecpypte banb pulle* "j mebmicebie bollan puhie eala'S' 
Ijejjyl ]?pimme f ealo on ]>sd]\e pypte bjnnce ]>onue 
/ s neahtnepcij. Gyt jip mon fy|> jajileac on henne 
bpo])e 'j yeVS bpmcan j^onne Co Iset: hio f paji. Gpr 
jate meoluc -j eceb feo)? {ecjrebepe pele bjimcan. 6pc 
jate meoluc "j humj -j pealc pele bpincan. 6pt; pylle 
3;eappan on bunije -j on bucpan ece p>a pyjic mib. 

?c ]?i]j tirpsejice ept; epelaptan upepeapbe • pej^bpasban 

ellenpmbe yealc on ealo jejniben. 

Tacn ^ be ucpihtan je on );am upeppan hpipe je on 

])am nij^eppan. ])a able mon mse^ onjitan be pam 

nt^anje hpilc pe on tinfyne fie. Sum bij; ];ynne fum 
2 ': mib ))iccuni psetum jeonb joren. Sum mib ]?a3p m- 

no|?ep • "j mib ]>apa fmsel J>eapma jebpocum ^ jemenjeb . 

' The MS. has a stop after chiy- 

-' Nearly as Trallianus, hook x., 

cap. i. p. 1G7, line 27, cd. Liitet. 
hook viii., p. 4.'i5, od. Basil. 
■' ^va-jj-aTa, Trail, 

LEECH l}()(^K. 11. 277 

not in tlje inwards, then take the red nettle and old B'>"k n. 
soap, beat them together and smear therewith, and '' '^' 
foment therewith at the fire. 


1. A drink, if a man be costive within ; jxumd hele- 
nium, boil in ale it and betony, and the cloved wen- 
wort ; give tlte man to drink. For inward disease ; a 
good deal of costmary, and as much more of seed of 
fennel, beat small and rub to dust ; take a spoon full 
of this, put it into old wine, or wine boiled down one 
third, let the ona^t drink tliis after his nights fast lor 
three days. 

2. For sudden sickness ; bishopwort, wormwood, 
betony, radish, march e, costmary, seed of rue ; work 
these, into a drink. 


1. If a man may not discharge his bowels ; take 
" uman," and also a contracted hand full of it, and a 
moderately mickle bowl full of ale ; boil strongly the 
ale on the wort, then let tlie Tiian drink it after his 
nights fast. Again, if one seetheth garlic on chicken 
broth, and giveth it the man as a drink, then it removes 
the sore. Again, seethe together and give him to drink 
goats milk, and honey, and salt. Again, let him boil 
yarrow in honey and in butter, let him eat the wort 
with tJiOse. 

2. For painful evacuation ; the upper part of ever- 
lasting, waybroad, elder rind, salt, rubbed up into ale. 

3. Tokens of dysentery either in the upper part of 
the belly or in the nether. One may understand the 
disease by tlie ftecal discharged, observing what like 
it is in appearance : some is thin ; some is suffused 
with thick humours ; some is mingled with fragments of 
the inwards, and of the small guts ; some is nuich 

278 LiECE BOC. 

pum I'pi^e 3e}:ylleb mib jjopml'e. Sum fpiSe blobij. 
V Sum cym<S op ]mm upeppau iijupe. Sum op ]mm 

ni)?e]ipan • |?am |7e op ]?am upeppau hjiipe cymS pe 

v ticpfejic )>if tacn biS • f pe man paji jepelS set hif 

i'liapolaii -j on hip Iculbpum hepij pap • ^ ]mplr -j 

unlufc 'j )?upli b^c J^eajim lytel blob bpopaS ; 

fol, 104 b. gi5 uCpiht abl cymS manejum aejiel'u op to miclum 

utjanje • -j j^onne lanje lipile ne jymS mon )?tel" o]> f 

ye innoj? py]^^ S^ onbujinen je ]?ujili ]? jepunbob • 

j ,'chpikim onpnneS op |?am mibhpipe pe ip betpeox ]?8epe 

pambe -j J^sejie lippe • -j ]?a j-eap |7a '^e beo^ jemenjebu 

op mettum pij? blob -j pi]? oman jeonbjeota]? ]7one 

Inno]? pyjiceaS ypelne utjanj "j po]i }nejie jjumnepj'e 

)7apa,omena ne m^ej beon jehsepb ]jy fe mete ac beoj? 

/s pomob j?a inno]7af bebpipen ]7onne py)V^ f to utpsepice. 

JOu mon ]7a utypnenban men pcyle lacnian pann mon 

fceal j'ellan |;a mettaj- |?a ^e pambe neappian -j J?am 

V majan ne fce]?|;an • caulej- leaj> • hpilum pyi'ena b]io}> 

•j eceb • *j pop mib pejbpasban ^efoben -j ealbne cyl'e 

c gelbbenne on ^ate meolce mib ]y fmeppe jate • lipilum 

bpsebe ];one cyfe ^] bpijne lilap *j psetep f pie pofe on 

jefoben hpilum j'ceapp pm bpmce. pync him onlejena 

to clame jepojiht • bejien raelo o]7)?e hpreten mib hunije 

jeSoben • nub mebmicle * * '* * * 

Here ma7iy folios have been taken from the MS. In 
the margin " hic lacuna efc," now erased, may be read. 



filled with ratten ; some is very bloody ; some cometh I^ook 11. 
jfrom the upper belly/ some fi-om the lower : of that 
in which the discharge cometh from the upper belly, this 
is a token, that the man feeleth sore at his navel, and 
heavy sore on his shoulders, and thirst, and loss of 
appetite, and a little blood droppeth through the back 
gut or rectum. 

4. The disease d3''senteria cometh to many first ft-om 
too mickle fsecal discharge, and then a man for a long 
while attendeth not to this, till the inwards become 
either inflamed, or through that neglect wounded. 
At whiles it beginneth from the midriff, which is 
betwixt the wamb and the liver, and the juices fi-om 
meats which are mingled with blood and with bad hu- 
mours, pour themselves through the inwards and cause 
an evil faecal discharge, and for the grimness of the 
inflammatous matters the food cannot be contained, 
but the inwards,- along with it, are driven down, 
then that turneth to dysentery. We say noiv, how 
one must cure the man thus afflicted ; to him one must 
give the meats which restrain the wamb and do not 
scathe the maw, juice of colewort, at whiles peas broth, 
and vinegar, and porrum or leek sodden with waybroad, 
and old cheese sodden in goats milk, along with the 
grease of goat. At whiles roast the cheese and diy 
bread, and let him drink water which has been sodden 
upon roses, at whiles sharp wine. Work him poultices 
wrought to a clammy mass, barley or wheaten meal 
sodden with honey, with a moderately mickle * 

' 'E| vi|/ijAfc'i/ ivTfpuv, boioels cor- i tions of the intestines, and tw 
rectly. j iyrtpcDV fj tpvaiKi] TrtfifK-q, the fat 

- That is c,vaiJ.ara, abraded poi^ \ naturally adhering to them. 

280 ■ L.ECE i;oc. 

^: W- -if- S' * ^- * * *• 

MS. liarl. 00., fol. 1 a. 

ndf-t-Tis or pi5 |7iejie liealj: beabau able -j bjninon seo cume • 

,seo abl cyiii'6 on Jja Ipi'Span heal):e ]my lichoiiiaii • 
o(SSe on ]7a pynlrjian • ]?ce]i ])a pna roj'lupaS ^j beoS 
nub ]-lipiT;]ie 'j jnccejie ptetan ypeljie 'j vfeljie ]?iccejie 
•j mj'celpe.' 

])a j^peran man j-cicl niib bloMiej'um -j bjiencnm -j 
liecebonnmi on j^ej abon • J'onne peo abl cume jepelr 
on Sone niannan ]?onne ontync ];u Ins niu'5 j'ceapa hip 
tunjan j'onne biS heo on J^a healpe lipittpe ]>e peo abl 
on beon ])ilc • lacna linic |:»onne ]nip • Gepejie j^asne 
mannan on j'piiSe proptne cleo]:an -j peapinne jepel'ue 
hnn pjnSe pel hleope ]78ep "j peapme jleba bepe man 
jelonie mn. 

Onpjieoh hme |)onne -j pceapa Ins lianba jeojme • 'j 
ppa hp;e)?ejie ppa Su cealbe pmbe Iset hnn j-ona blob 
on ]7a3pe cealban sebpe • septeji ]>iejie blobltepe • Imhjieja 
yrab .III. mho lele him pypt bpenc litypnenbe bo 
jiScojma Ipa peala ]'pa JfEcap piton p to pyptbpence 
]-culoii 'J YfA jepabe pypta. 

JOpilum alpan a3}:re]i hipe juhre • him men Ictel j-ellan 
hpilum Icamoniam • hpilum eyt septreji j'yjicbpencum • 
];onne he jepelb j-y . tec eyz blob on rebjie ppa ]m on 
ppuman bybepr • hpilum ]yu reoh mib jla^pe o8Se mib 
hopne blob op ]niin j-ajian fuojnim abeabobum. 

fol. 1 b. ]h]y J;;e]ie healpbeaban able • bej^e hpilum J^a papan 

f-ope iGX: heojrSe oS8e be jlebum • -j pmepe mib ele • 
•j mib luilpenbum pealpum • *j jntb ppySe f j>a pealpa 

' The MS. thus. 

LEECH EOOK. 11. 281 

lix. ]?o(,k II. 

llic Mt^. i^ecvLS to have been turitteu about A.D. 1040. 

1. For the Iialf dead disease and whence in coincth. Hemiplegia. 
The disease cometh on the right side of the body, or 

on the left, where the sinews are powerless, and are 
afjiided with a slippery and thick humour, evil, thick, 
and niickle. 

2. Tlie humour must be removed witli bloodlettings, 
and draughts, and leechdoms. When first the disease 
cometh on the man, then open his mouth, look at his 
tongue, then is it whiter on that side on which the 
disease is about to be ; then tend him thus : carry 
the man to a very close and warm chamber, rest him 
very well there in shelter, and let warm giedes be 
often carried in. 

3. Then unwrap him and view his hands carefully, 
and whichsoever thou find cold, on that cold vein let 
him l>lood. After the bloodletting, somewhere about 
three nights, give him a pui-ging wort drink, put in 
as many githcorns^ as leeches know nmst be put into 
a wort drink, and suitable worts. 

4. At whiles must be given him aloes after their 
[)roper method, at whiles scannnony ; at whiles again 
after wort drinks, when he is in repose, let blood 
again on a vein as thou didst at fii-st ; at whiles draw 
blood with a cupplny glass or a horn from the 
sore deadened places. 

5. For the half dead disease. Warm at whiles the 
sore place at the hearth or by giedes, and smear 
with oil, and with healing salves, and rub smartly so 

Berries of the Dafnc Idurcvla. 

282 LiECE BOC. 

in bej^mcen. Pypc ro jealfe ealbiie pyple jealtne heoji- 
tejf meajili • jof e jiyfle • o^^e hsenna • -j bo jobe pypta 
to beSe J^a sapan I'rope tet pype. 

JOpilum onleje -j onbinb pic • "j peax • pipop • "-j 

I'mepii • -j eie • tojeebepe jemilteb. IDpilum on ]?a 

V^ j'apan j-mua "j appollenan leje on 'j bmb on jate 

cypbelu jemenjeb piS hunij • oSSe on ecebe jepoben • 

]?onne J^pmaS J?a aj'lapenan "j ]?a aj^pollena ^ j'lna. 

Pyi^c liini pyp~ bpenc ]?e ne biS utypnenbe • ue 
ppipol ac cobjiip^ -j lyclab ])&, yfelan pgetan • on ])ain 
feocum men ]7e bi]? ]"pa j'pa hoph o^Se pij'oba oS^e 
V Genim hunijep ]7ip^ ly'^le punb bo J?onne to };an je- 

beaten 'j apift pipop • syle Jjonne to picjanne J^am 
uncpuma ^ men. EfC ymbe ]>peo niht j-yle liim on 
])am ilcan ^emete oS8e mape • -j ]-pa ymb fcopep 

PrS ]?8e]ie healp beaban able • bo p>u hpilum pealtep 
cuclep msel to menje piS hunij 'j ej:t pipoji • cunna 
fpa sejj^ep je on ]?ipum loscebome je on oSpuin ]:>8ein 
\ie ic eac ppite liu hit on ntman polbe • pp p lie 
heapb pi utan leje on Jiane Isecebom j;e f lieapb popbi 
lipelije -j ]?8et ypel uc teo. Ceoli limi blob op jip pset 
fol. 2 a. neb o^Se f heapob j-ap pi on |?am hnepcan • -j nicca ~ 

]'apa Iseceboma ]?e J^ane hoph op ]?am heapbe teo • ^ o]?];c 
l^uph mu'S . o^^e jmjili nopu • -j ];onne he ]>a, miht 
hsebbe ^ebo p he jelonie jepnepe • syle him J^a mettaj' 
J>e pyn eaSmylte • -j 50b j-eap heebben "j he ppam ];am 
mectum rasege piuahjan • psec pyn jej'obene pypta • 
pyll • jeoce man ]3 sepefce pop -j p aptepe onpej • bo 

MS. thus. I - Corrected to nycca, MS. 


that the salves may sink in. Work into a aalve Book ii. 
somo old salt grease, some horse marrow, some goose 
fat or hens, and add good worts, and warm the sore 
2:)laces at the fire. 

6. At whiles lay on and bind on pitch, and wax, 
and pepper, and grease, and oil melted together. At 
whiles lay on and bind on the sore swollen sinews 
goats treadles, mingled with honey, or sodden in vine- 
gar ; then the paralyzed and swollen sinews dwindle 
to their -proper size. 

7. Work him a wort drink, which is not purging 
nor yet emetic, but which driveth off and diminishes 
the evil humour in the sick man, which is, as it were, 
foulness, or rheum, or mucus. 

8. Take of honey this small pound,^ then add to it 
beaten and sifted pepper ; then give it to the infirm 
man to eat. Again, about three nights after, give it 
him in the same quantity, or more ; and so about four 
nights after that. 

9. For the half dead disease; at whiles, apply a 
spoon measure of salt ; mingle with honey and pepper 
besides. Try both in this leechdom and in others, 
which I also write, how it will hold; if the body be 
hard on the outside, lay on the leechdom that the hard 
part hy it may turn to ratten, and may draw out the 
mischief. Draw blood from him, if the face or the 
head he sore, in the tender place ; and make use of the 
leechdoms, which may draw the foul matter from the 
head, either through tlic moutli or through the nose ; 
and when he hath the power, cause him to sneeze often ; 
give him the meats which are easy of digestion, and 
have a good succulence, and that he by means of the 
meats may grow slender ; that is to say, (jive hion 
sodden worts ; boil them ; let the first and the second 

' That is, a pound by weight, not a pint by measure : see Leechbook, 
II. Ixvii. 

284 L^CE EOC. 

jwiiiie gob yoy to • ^ yyle to I'j'Cjanne bo lycel yealc • 

V 'j ele • *j mejice to -j pojiji • 'j J'aiin ^elice. Jlealb ]?onne 

jeojine ]3 ye mete y'i jemylt teji he him eyt jype • 

j:o]iSan ]'e ]"e unjemylra mece him pyjicS mj'^cel yyel • 

5 ycijiej" pmey bjimce ?et hpseja gij: he ma jJille • bjimce 

hac preteji. liealbe hine jeojine pi^ bae]> • -j hj'iliim 

jjonne he hit jejjpopian mceje l?ete him blob on mnaii 

eapme "j pceappije ]>a pcancan • sepele lascebom • "j hu 

]-eo ]iealp beabe abl • (s]i peopeptijum obSe piftijum 

10 pintjia npeppe on men ne becume. 

Sume bee l?ejiaS ])iS Jjiupe healpbeaban able ]i man 
pmtpeo]' b?epne to jlebum "j J^onne ])a jleba j-ette 
topopan ]?am ]-eocum men -j -j) he ]7onne oncynbum 
ea^um -j opene mu];e ]7ane jiec ipelje ];a Jjpage ])e he 
I s mieje • "j ]?onne he ma ne raseje onpenbe his neb 
apej lychpon *j ejic penbe to -j onpo 6am ftenie *j ]pa 
bo telce biege o'6 ]3 pe biel ]?xy lichoman J^e j'tUji abea- 
bob psej" *j jelepeb to J^iejie reppan hselo becume. 
fol. :2 b. SoShce peo abl cym8 on inonnan teptep peopeptijmii 

o^iSe fiptijum piiitpa jip he bi'S cealbpe jecynbo ]7onne 
cym5 aepteji peopejicijum elcoji cym^ septeji piptijuin 
pmtjui his jsepjetale]- • jip hit jmjjian men jehmpe 
]>onne biS p eablsecnepe • ^ ne biS peo ylce abl 
J7eah ]>e nngleape hecap penaii ]> p peo ylce healp- 
beabe abl y'i. liu jelic abl on man becume on jeo- 
^oSe on pumum lime ppa ayii peo healpbeabc abl on 
ylbo beS. ne biS hit peo healp beabc abl ac hpilc 
jcthpeja ypel piece biS jejoten on f lim ]?e hit on 
jepic • ac biS ea'bhecnepe • ac peo j'oSe healpbeabe fibl 
C}^mS a3ftep. piptijum pmtpa. 

Gip inon jy ptepe healfbieban able j'eoc • o^b'e bjuuc 
peoc • pypc him oxumelli pubepne eceb bjienc ecebej- • 
•j hunijep • 'j piutepep jemanj. 

LEEOTT r.OOK. TI. 28' 

infusion of them he poured away; then aJd some <;oo(l Hook II. 
decoction, and give it him to partake of; add a httle *''■''"• 
salt, and oil, and marche, and leek, and such as those. 
Observe then carefully that tlie meat be digested, ere 
one give him any again ; since the undigested meat 
worketh liim much evil : let him drink some sheer wine ; 
if he want more, let him drink hot water. Let him 
hold back carefully from the bath, and at whiles, when 
he may endure it, let him blood on the inner part of 
the arm, and scarify his shanks. A noble leechdom ! 
And noiv, how the half dead disease never cometh on 
a man before forty or fifty years of age. 

10. Some books teach for the half dead disease, that 
one should burn a pinetree to gledes, and then set tlie 
gledes before the sick man, and that he then, with 
eyes disclosed and open mouth, should svv^allow the 
reek, for what time he may ; and when he is no longer 
able, he should turn his face away a little, and again 
turn it to the hot embers, and accept the glow ; and 
so do every day, till the part of the body which was 
deadened and injured come again to its former health. 

11. Well, the disease cometh on a man after forty 
or fifty winters; if he be of a cold nature, then it 
cometh after forty ; otherwise, it cometh after fifty 
winters of his tale of years : if it happen to a younger 
man, then it is easier to cure, and it is not the same 
disease, though unclever leeches ween that it is the 
same half dead disease. How can a like disease come 
on a man in youth in one limb, as the half dead 
disease doth in old age? It is not the half dead 
disease, but some mischievous humour is effused on tlie 
limb, on which the harm settles ; but it is easier of 
euro ; and the true half dead disease cometh after 
fifty years. 

12. If a man be sick of the half dead disease, or 
epileptic, work him o0ujw.eA<, a southern acid drink, a 
mixture of vinegar, and honey, and water. 

286 l;ece boo. 

Him ecebey anne bsel • hunijey rpejen bselay pel 
jeclaej'nobej* • psetejiej* jzeopSan • jpeoS j^onne oS f 
]?pibbaii bsel J)fepe psetan • oS'Se peop'San • -j pleot 
■p pam -j p pot fymle ^ op oS]>8et hit jepoben pi • 
jip J»u piUe ]?one bpenc ptpenjpan pypcan • ]7onne 
bo )pu ppa mycel ]78ep ecebep ppa }>sep hunijep -j nytta 
Jjpep Ifieceboma]- je pi5 pippe able je piS pelcepe pul 
neali. llim pimble ])veY ecebbpencep fpa jepophtep 
j'pa mycel ppa ]>e ]?ince • bo piS jjippum ablum psebic 
fol. 3 a. oil f peap ]7£B]- bpmcep la^t beo nilitepne on • syle 

Jjonne on mopjenne J^am j-eocum men • neahtnefui- 
511m ]7ane psebic fpa jefeapne to Jjicjanne fpa he 
fpySuft mseje • -j p ]m Jeanne laepe j^sej' seapep 
j-ySSan ]-e psebic ope^ py • jeot hat pteteji on syle 
bjuncan ])am seocum men to pylle. anb ]?onne ymbe 
anep bse^ey hpile ftmje him mon pe];epe on muS 
oSSe pmjep nebe hme to fpipanne. mm ept elej' 
anne bsel* peapmep psetepej- tpe^an* pealtep tpejaii 
cucele]'^ puUe menj tojsebejie pyle to bpmcanne ceac 
pulne -j ]?anne fringe pmjeji on mu8 bsebe to fpi- 
panne • Iset ]?anne fpipan on ]?ane ylcan ceac ]>e he 
tep op bpanc jefceapa ponne hpseSeji pe^ spipSa ]-y 
ppa micel ppa he pbji jebpanc • jip he mapa jy tyla 
hi]' ppa • jip he emmicel pi pane '' pe he seji jebpanc 
pyle ept on Sa ilcan pipan oSpset he ma fpipe panne 
he jebpmce teji • pis pceal fpipuft piS blsebpan able 
♦j J^sem fta.num pe on blsebbpan pyn. 

PiIS pifBpe healpbeaban [able] • Nim p ]J8ete]i pe 
pyopan jifBpan on jepobene opep piUeba pyle bjimcan 
fpiSe ponne pecS'^ p pone innoS "-j cl^enpaS. Ept pyn- 

' fuiyle, MS. 

- Read O]-, for oye. 

^ Read cuclejiaj-. 

' On this form, see St, Marharete, 
p. 84. 

^ Read I^am. 

'■ Perhaps j'ej-c^, washeth. 

LEECH BOOK. fT. 287 

13. Take of vinegar, one part; of honey, well Book ir. 
cleansed, two parts; of water, the fourtli iwH ; then < '■• i'^- 
seethe clo^vn to the third or fourth part of the liquid, 

and skim the foam and the refuse off continually, till 
the mixture be fully sodden. If thou wish to work 
the drink stronger, then put as much of the vinegar 
as of the honey, and use the leechdom either for this 
disorder, or for full nigh any one. Take always of the 
acid drink, so wrought, as much as may seem good to 
thee. For these disorders put a radish into the liquor 
of the drink ; let it be in it for the space of a night ; 
then give in the morning to the sick man, after his 
nights fast, the radish so liquored to eat, as he best 
may; and then, when the radish is gone, pour thou 
hot water on the remains of the liquor ; give it to the 
sick man to drink to the full. And then, after about 
a days space, let some one poke a feather into his 
mouth, or a finger ; 1-et him compel him to spew. 
Again, take of oil, one part ; of warm water, two ; of 
salt, two spoons full ; mingle them together ; give to 
drink a jug full, and then poke a finger into his moutli ; 
bid him spew; let him spew into the same jug from 
which he before di'ank ; then examine whether the 
vomit be as much as he ere drank. If it be more, tend 
him then ; if it be just as much as he before dranlc, 
give him again in the same wise, till he spew more 
than he drank before. This must be applied chiefly 
for disease of bladder, and for the stones which are 
in the bladder. 

14. For the half dead [disease]. Take the water on 
which peas were sodden, and overboiled ; give it tJir 
man to drink. That strongly waketh up and cleanseth 

288 JuMCR T,OC. ' 

pnlliiii leaj: on pin jejmben p cl^enpaS ])ane mnac). 
Pi5 pan ilcan ep • ellene)^ bloj'man jenim -j jejnib ^ 
v^ 5emeni;e pi6 liunij 'j [^ebo on box • -j ]?onne ]^ea]\y pi 

;t;eniin bollan pulne hluccjiep jefpettep ptnep jemeuje 
piS ]3 'j apeohhe pyle bpmcan. yrti ];an ilcau betan 
mib liipe pyptjiiiman peo^S on j^retejie butan pealte • 
]-yle l^onne jjtpp psetejiej- bollan pulne to jcbjiincanne. 


fol. io5a. jSce o]?epne healpne penmj ^epeje jejmb fpi|;e finale 
bo ];onne on liluttoji rej -j pele |)am men to fup- 
anne • hio ip fpi];e 50b eac on ]>ap pifan piS hpoftan 
•j pi|? fpjiin^e bo pap ]'y]ite on he bi]? pona hal. Jjip 
ip bakaman fmypmj pi}^ eallum untpnmnepj-um ]>e on 
niannep lieboman bi]? • pi]? pepjie • 'j pi]:> pcmlace -j pri 
eallum jebpolj^mje. Sal fpa pame j-e petpa oleum lie 
]]■ 50b 'jpealb CO bpmcanne pi's mnan ciebepnej-pe 'j 
utan to fmejipanne on pintpep ba:i3e pop ]?on J^e he 
h{iep6 fj'iSe micle hrete poji 5y hme mon fceal bjuncan 
on jnntpa • 'j he ip 30b jip hj^am feo fpjitec o]>fylS 
nime ];onne -j pyjice cjiifcej' mjel unbep hip tunjan *j 
hi]- an lycel fpelje • jTp mon eac op hip jepitte peopSe 

^selcmu? |?onne nime he hip btel "j pypce epiftep mtel on selcpe-^ 

, lime bucan epuc on J^am heapbe popan pe fceal on 

balzame beon -j o]jep on ]7am heapbe upan. Tyjuaca 
"Tp 50b bpenc pi}) eallum innoS tybepneppum • *j pe 
man fe ]>e hme f])a bejas]) fpa hit hep on pejS j^onne 
msej he him miclum ^ehelpan. To ]?am boeje ]>e he 

fol. 105 b. pille hine bpincan he fceal preftan o]? mibne brej *j ne 
Itete hme pinb beblapan ])y btej^e • ;^a liim ]wnne on 


the inwards. Again, leaves of liouseleek bruised in Book li. 
wine; that cleanseth the inwards. For the same again ; CU. lix. 
take blossoms of elder, and rub them, and mix them 
with honey, and put them in a box, and when need 
be, take a bowl full of clear sweetened wine, mingle 
with that and strain : administer. For the same ; 
seethe beet with its roots in water without salt ; then 
administer a bowl full of the water to drink. 

Ixiv. Patriarch 

Ilelias sends 
******** -:ij these to King 


so much as may weigh a penny and a half, rub very 
small, then add the white of an egg, and give it to the 
man to sip. It (balsaon) is also very good in this wise 
for cough and for carbuncle, apply this wort, soon shall 
the man be hole. This is smearing with balsam for 
all infirmities which are on a mans body, against 
fever, and against apparitions, and against all delusions. 
Similarly also petroleum is good to drink simple for 
inward tenderness, and to smear on outwardly on a 
winters day, since it hath very much heat ; hence one 
shall drink it in winter : and it is good if for anyone 
his speech faileth, then let him take it, and make the 
mark of Christ under his tongue, and swallow a little 
of it. Also if a man become out of his wits, then 
let him take part of it, and make Christs mark on 
every limb, except the cross upon the forehead, that 
shall be of balsam, and the other also on the top of 
his head. Triacle (Syj^iuxov) is a good drink for all in- 
ward tendernesses, and the man, who so behaveth him- 
self as is here said, he may much help himself. On 
the day on which he will drink triacle, he shall fast 
until midday, and not let wind blow on him that 
day : then let him go to the bath, let him sit tliere 

290 L^CE BOC. 

hve]? yicte }^£e]i on oS f he fpfete • nime ];onne ane 
cuppan bo an lytel peapmep pcetpej' on mnan nime 
jjonne ane lytle pnreb ]>£&]" cypiacan -j jemenje ' pi|> ]3 
psetep "j peoh J>upli }>ynne lipsejl bjimce ]7onne • -j ja 
s him j7onne to hip pefre "j beppeo hme peapme • ^ hcje 
fpa o]7 he pel fpaste • apij'e ]?onne -j fitre him up "j 
fcippe hme -j J^ic^e pi]7);an hip mete to nonef -j beopje 
him jeopne pi); ];one pmb p^jep baejep • ]?onne ^elype 
ic to jobe ^ hit ]7am men miclum jehelpe. Se hpita 

1 ftan msej pi]> fcice -j pi]? pleojenbum atcpe • -j pi|? 
eallum uncuj^um bpocum • bu j-cealt hme fcapan on 
psetep "j bpmcan tela mieel "j J'sepe peaban eopj^an bsel 
pcape jfseji to -j ]?a franaf fmt ealle fpiSe jobe op to 
bpmcanne pi]? eallum uncu]7licu ]?in5 • ^ honne f pyji 

1 1 op ]?am fcane aplejen Wt ip 50b pi^ lijetta • -j pi^ 
]7unoppaba -j piS aelcep cynnef jebpol j^m^ • "j jip mon 
on hif pege bi]> jebpolob j-lea him anne fpeajican 
bepopan bi]? he j-ona on jiihtan. bip eal het ]ju]' 

fol. IOC a. pec;5ean ffilppebe cynin;<;e bomne heliaj' patpiapcha on 
2 b ^epuj-alem. 


Q^p hopf oj'fcoten pie • Nim Jjonne ■^ peax j^e ^vet 
lisepte fie pealo h]iy];e]ief hojm -j pien . III. rejiene 
nse^laf on • Pjiit }?onne j^am hopj-e on pam heapbe 
pojian cpifcep msel "j on leoJ»a jehpilcum ]?e J?u aetpeo- 

ixs Ian TOseje • Nim ]?onne f pmefcpe eape ]7U]ili ftmj 
fpi^enbe • ]?ip j^u j-cealt bon • ;5enim ane jipbe pleah 
on f base {?onne bi]; f hopp hal • -j appit on ]isey 
pcaxep hopne ];a]' jjojib • benebicite omnia opepa 
bomini bommum. Sy f ylpa ];e him fie ]np him maej 

3c Co bote, pi]? utppepce bpembel ]?e pien bejeii enbaf 

After semense, MS. lias ])e pij'. | -' Head ealle. 


till he sweat ; then let him take a cnp, and j)iit a Book II. 
little warm water in it, then lot him take a little bit '" '"^' 
of the triacle, and mingle with the water, and drain 
through some thin raiment, then drink it, and let him 
then go to his bed and wrap himself up warm, and 
so lie till he sweat well ; then let him arise and sit 
up and clothe himself, and then take his meat at noon, 
three Jiours past midday, and protect himself earnestly 
against the wind that day : then, I believe to God, 
that it may help the man much. The white stone is 
powerful against stitch, and against flying venom, and 
against all strange calamities : thou shalt shave it into 
water and drink a good mickle , and shave thereto a 
portion of the red earth, and the stones aie all very 
good to drink of, against all strange uncouth things. 
When the fire is struck out of the stone, it is good 
against lightenings and against thunders, and against 
delusion of every kind : and if a man in his way is 
gone astray, let him strike himself a spark before him, 
he will soon be in the right way. All this Dominus 
Helias, patriarch at Jerusalem, ordered one to say to 
king Alfred. 


If a horse is elf shot,' then take the knife of whicli 
the haft is horn of a fallow ox, and on which are three 
brass nails, then write ujDon the horses forehead Christs 
mark, and on each of the limbs which thou may feel 
at : then take the left ear, prick a hole in it in silence ; 
this thou shalt do ; then take a yerd, strike the horse 
on the back, then will it be hole. And write upon the 
horn of the knife these words, " Benedicite omnia opera 
domini, dominum." Be the elf^ what it may, this is 
mighty for him to amends. Against dysentery, a 

* Elf shot in the Scottish phrase. I partitive, as II)nlc haele'Sa, what 
- The construction as in Ic hir I hero. 
eom, / am he ; combined with the I 

T 2 

fol. lOG b. 

292 L^CE BOC. 

on eo]i)?an • jenim ]?one neopjian pyjittjiuman belj: up 
]7pi'c iiijon fponaf on ];a pmfcjian hanb *j ymj ]?pi]ia 
miSejiejie mei beuj- • -j nijon fijmm patep nojfteji • 
jennn j^omie mucjpyjit; • -j epelafcan • pyl ]?ap ]>peo ^ on 
meolcum o]> p hy jieabian fiipe }>onne on neahc nejxij 
jobe blebe puUe hpile sep he oJ?ejine inete J^icje • pefce 
lime j'opre • -j ppeo hme peapme • jip ma j^eapp fie bo 
eft fpa • jip ]>n J^onne jit ]?uppe bo }>pibban pi]je ne 
}>eappt ]m optop. rtp utjanj popfeten fie jenim ji'S- 
cojmep leapa jobe hanb pulle -j pa pupan pejbpseban 
nio]?opeapbe • "j boccan ];a ]>e fpimman pille • pyl paj" 
|7peo on ealbum ealab fpi]7e -j bo pealte butepan on 
pylle l^icce Iset; bpmcan jobe blebe pulle lipile sep oSpum 
mete -j ppeoh lime peapme • 'j pefce fcille bo }>up ];pipa 
iS ne ]7eapp opto*^. 

pip lunjen able laecebom bun caslire • paluie • pube be 

liealpan ]:'sepe paluian • pepep pujian emmicel |)apa tpejea 

pypta ]7a3]ie j-aluian ]?peo fpelc bpeopje bpoftlan liiepe ])e 

nu^ ealpa pypta pypmej-t on ]?a pealpe ]>e him J^ipej' 

20 laecebomep peapp fie healbe hme jeojme pi]? jefpet eala 

bjimce hluttop eala -j on ]?£e)' hluttpan ealaS pyjite 

pylle jeonje acpmbe "j bjimce. pij? utpsepce gemm 

unfmepijne healpne cyfe bo enjlipcep huni^ep .ill. 

fnseba to • pylle on pannan op f hit bpunije • jenim 

?i l^onne jeonjpe acpmbe hanb pulle "j fpa fpijenbe set 

ham jebpmj 'j nseppe m on j^one mon j-ceape p jjiene 

on utan pylle pa fagp fpone on cu meolce jefpete mib 

fol. 1U7 a. })pim fn^ebum humjef pone bpenc picje ponne mib Sy 

cype jepceji bpence .vii. niht eala popja *j meoloc 

,. picje unfiipe. ^ip unlybbum fupe cu butejian .villi. 

' Two herbs are named : the chips | - These words are scarcely with- 
are third. I out error. 


bramble of which both ends arc in the earth ; ^ take Booli il. 

the newer root, delve it up, cut up nine chips into the ^'^' '■''^' 

left hand, and sing three times the Miserere mei, deus, 

and nine times the pater noster ; then take mug wort 

and everlasting, boil these three, the vjorts and the 

chips, in milk till they get red, then let the man sip 

at night fasting a good dish full, some while before he 

taketh other meat ; let him rest himself soft, and wrap 

himself up warm ; if more need be, let him do so 

again : if thou still need, do it a third time, thou wilt 

not need oftener. If the fsecal discharge be lodged, 

take of the leaves of githcorn a good hand full, and 

the nether jDart of the rough waybroad, and the dock 

which will swim ; boil these three in old ale thoroughly 

and add salt butter, boil it tliick, let the inan drink 

a good dish full a while before other meat, and let 

him wrap himself up warm, and let him rest quiet ; 

do this thrice, no need to do it oftener. 

2. For lung disease, a leechdom ; Dun taught it ; 
sage, rue, half as much as of the sage ; feverfue as 
much as of the two worts ; of pennyroyal three 
times as much as of the sage ; take thee of it of 
all worts foremost to put into the salve. Let the 
man, who hath need of this leechdom, withhold him- 
self earnestly from sweetened ale, let him drink 
clear ale, and in tlie wort of the clear ale let him 
boil young oak rind, and drink. For dysentery, take 
an ungreasy half cheese, and four parts of English 
honey, boil in a pan until it browneth, then take a 
liand full of young oak rind, and so in silence bring 
it home, and never bring it in to the mans presence, 
shave off the green outside the house, boil the sappy 
chips in cows milk, sweeten it mtli three parts of 
honey, let the man take the drink with the cheese, 
afterwards let him drink : for seven days let him fore- 
go ale and take milk ' not turned sour. For poisons ; 
let him sip cows butter for nine mornings, for three, 

' Frequently seen : spontaneous propagation 

294 L2ECE BOC 

mojijnaj" . III. yopan , viii. mojxjnay cepfillan jemefclice 
on pine ])]ubba bsel psetpef mme j^onne lipejilipettan 
nio])opea]ibe jmb on pylifc ^ ealo fpete mib liumje 
bpmce l^sepe teoj'an niht • Co mete ]7one bjienc on J^jieo 
Jjicje sQu ]7am ]?pim honcpebum. 

Pi]? ]?£epe jeolpan able • jenim nio]7opeapbe eolenan 
jebo ]3 J>u hsebbe on Jmm jzopman baaje J?onne J?ii hipe 
eepefc bpuce on mopjen nnn jjjieo fnseba *j )?peo on mht 
■j hipe pculon beon on hunij ^efnseb • ^ ]yj sepcejian 
mepjen . Iiii. fnseba -j iiii. on mhc • "j ]?pibban mep- 
jen .V. fnaeba -j . V. on niht • -j J^y peop]?an mepjen. 
.VI. "j VI. on nihr. j)ep bpenc pceal pi]? |)on ilcan. 
jemm alexanbpian "j jpunbefpeljean cnua fmale -j bo 
Co bpence on bluccjium eala^. Tiy. men fie pseplicc 
ypele j^ypce . iii, cpifcep msel an on J^eepe cunsan o]7ep 
on |?am heajzbe • Jppibbe on J^am bpeofcum pona bi8 pel. 
To jehealbanne lichoman liselo mib bjnhcnep jebebe • 
j^if ip 8e]?ele Isecebom • genim myppan -j jejnib on ptn 
fpilce fie cela micel fceap ful -j J^icje on nihc nepcij • 
fol. 107. b. "j epc ]?onne pefcan pille f jehealbe]? punboplice Iteho- 
man liselo "j htc eac beah pi)> peonbep cofcunjtim 

Jjonne ip epfc pe je];elefca Isecebom Co ]7on ilcan • jenim 
N/ myppan -j lijnc pecelp *j fap man • -j faluiam • 'j pupman -j 

jyvey pecelj-ep -j myppan fy mjepc • -j ]?a o]7]ie fyn aj^ejene 
)?apa fien empela • 'j aecfomne on mojicepe jejnibe Co 
bufce pefcCe unbep peopob jjonne cpifcep Cib fie -j 
jefmje mon .iii. maejyan opep J>a .in. bajaf on mibne 

V pmcep -j sec fcepanep cibe "j See lohannep euanje- 
bfca -j ]?a ]7py bajap ]>icje on pme on nealiC nepcij -j 

V f ]>8ep Co lape fie Jjsep bufcep haja -j jebealb; hit 

' pyhcf, MS. 


soap, for eight mornings of chervil, a moderate quantity, Book II. 
in wine., a third part cdso of water ; then let him take '' ^^' 
the netherward part of cucumber, rub it up into 
foreign ale, sweeten with honey, let the man di-inlc 
that the tenth night, for meat let him take the drink 
at three times at the three cock crowings, 

3. For the yellow disease ; take the netherward part 
of helenium, contrive that thou mayest have it on the 
previous day ; when first thou usest it, take three 
pieces in the morning and three at night, and they 
shall be hits of it sliced into honey ; and the second 
morning four pieces, and four at night; and the third 
morning five pieces, and five at night ; and the fourth 
morning six, and six at night. The following drink 
shall avail for the same ; take alexanders and ground- 
sel, pound them small, and form them into a potion in 
clear ale. If a man have sudden ailments, make three 
marks of Christ, one on the tongue, the second on the 
head, the third upon the breast, soon he will be well. 
To keep the body in health with prayer to the Lord : 
this is a noble leechdom : take myrrh and rub it into 
wine, so much as may be a good stoup full, and let 
the man take it at night fasting, and again when he 
will rest ; that wonderfully upholdeth the health of 
the body, and it also is efficacious against the evil 
temptings of the fiend. 

4. This is the noblest leechdom for the same ; take 
myrrh and white frankincense, and savine and sage, and 
dyeweed, and of the frankincense and of the myrrh 
let there be most, and let the others be weighed, of 
them let there be equal quantities ; and have them 
rubbed to dust together in a mortar, have them set 
under the altar, when it is Christmas tide, and let one 
sing three masses over them, for three days in mid- 
winter, and at St. Stephens tide, and St. John the 
evangelists day, and for those three days let the man 
take the leechdom in wine at night fasting, and what 
there is left of the dust hold and keep ; it is power- 

296 LiECE BOO. 

mtej ]n]} eallum ym]x ' untpymnej'j'um • je pi]? peppe 
ge pi]? lenccen able ^e pi]? acjie • je pi]? ypelpe lypce. 
Jeppicu eac j'ecjea]? ]-e ]?e ]?one Isecebom beja ^ he 
lime mseje jehealban . Xll. mona]? pi]? ealjia unCpym- 
neppa pjiecenejye, 

^ J>onne epc pi^ 5ic]?an •]? eal pe lichoma jy clanep 

hipep 'j jlabep -j beophtep- jenim ele "j ealbep pinep 
bjiseptan empela bo on moptepe jemenj pel to fomne 
•j fmijie mib ]?y ]?one liclioman on funnan. pi^ selpe 
<j ]n]? micu]?um fibpan^ jnib myppian on ptn "j hpitep 
pecelpep em micel • -j peeap jajatep bsel ]?fep fcanep 
fol. 1(38 a. on p ptn bpmce .ill. mopjenap neahc nej-tij o]^]?e 
. vim. o]7]?e . XII. pi]? lonb able pyl pepmob fpa bjiijne 
fpa jpenne fpa ]?ep lie hsebbe on oleo [mpipmopum] ^ 
o}> ]? ]?sep elep fie ]?pibban bsel bepylleb -j fmipe mib 
]?oiie lichoman ealne get; pype • "j msejye ppeofr pceal 
bon ]?one Igecebom jip man liffip}?. Pi]? jonjel pjeppan 
bite fmic on ij'en fpat. pi]? utpilite meji ;5eallan • 
bla3C fnejl pyl on meolcum pup on sepenne -j on 
^ mopjenne. !Deapob pealp mupjie -j alpe libania ealpa 
jelice pela menj jn]? eceb fmipe mib ]? heapob. pi]? 
]?on ilcan fpepl "j fpejlep seppel mujijie • -j pejhpilce]' 
^ cynnep pecelf nijon j'yjita enjlifce . poUeie • bpem- 
bel • seppel • elehtjie • bipceop pypt • pmul • pupe peg- 
bpaebe • liajian fppecel • fio liape pyjit • li]? pypt • ealpa 
]?ippa empela • oleuni [mpipmopum] • ^ halij psetep • 
lialij pealc • o]>ep ele • fmipe ]?e mib }?yp upan J?onne 
]?u hi jnibe. 

. LXVI. 
Cf. Marbodscus. Be ]?am fcane ]?e jajatep hatte ip pseb jj? he . viil. 
msejen haebbe. An i]- ]?onne J?unoppab bij? ne pce]?e'S 

' Head jxjiliciim. I •' The letters have been paled 

- Perliaps niiswritten. | away purposely. 


fill against all dangerous infirmities, cither against Book li. 
fever, or against typhus, or against poison, or against ^'''' ''''^' 
evil air. Writings also say, that he who employs the 
leechdom is able to preserve himself for twelve months 
against peril of all infirmities. 

5. Then again, against itch, and that all the body 
may be of a clean, and glad, and bright hue : take oil 
and dregs of old wine, equally much, put them into a 
mortar, mingle well together, and smear the body with 
this in the sun. Against an elf and against a strange 
visitor,' rub myrrh in wine and as mickle of white 
frankincense, and shave off a part of the stone called 
agate into the wine, let him drink this for three morn- 
ings after his nights fast, or for nine, or for twelve. For 
land disease or nostalgia, boil wormwood so dry (or) 
so green, as he hath there, in oleum infirm orum, the 
oil of extreme unction, till a third part of the oil is 
boiled away, and smear all the body at the fire with 
it, and a mass priest shall perform the leechdom, if a 
man hath means to pet one. For a bite of r'-ano- 
weaving spider, smudge hydromeP on iron. For dia- 
rhoea, boil in milk horse gall and black snail, sip in 
the morning and evening. A head salve ; myrrh and 
aloes, and libanum or frankincense, of all a like quan- 
tity, mingle with vinegar, smear the head therewith. 
For the same ; sulfur and swails apple, myrrh and 
fi-ankincense of every sort ; nine English worts, pule- 
gium, bramble, apple, lupin, bishopwort, femiel, rough 
waybroad, vipers bugloss, the hoar wort, lithewort, of 
all these equal quantities ; oil of unction, holy water, 
holy salt,'^ common oil, smear thyself with this up- 
wards on the head, when thou hast rubbed them. 


Of the stone which liight agate. It is said that it 
hath eight virtues. One is when there is thunde)-, it 

' Interpreted by Herbarium cxi. 3. I ^ Salt which has had the formula 

^ Perhaps 'S'weaf. | of benediction pronounced over it. 

298 LiECE BOC. 

}?am men ])e ];one lean mib linn heefS. Oj^eji msejen 
ly on fpa hpilcum Lufe fpa he bi]? ne msej J)8ep mne 
peonb pefan. bjiibbe maejen ip f nan attoji jmm men 
fol. 108 b. ne rasej pce]?]?an l^e ];one fran mib hnn liapa]?. Feop]7e 
msesen ip p fe man pe pe jjone la];an peonb on hmi 
beajollice liEepj^ jip he ]>8e]' franep jepceapenep hpilcne 
bsel on ptetan onpehS ];onne bi]^ pona fpeotol a3'ceopob 
on him f sep beajol maS. Fipte msejen if pe ]>c 
jienijjie able jebjieht bi]> jip he pone fean on psecan 
pijep him hip pona ]-el. Syxre mjBjen if f bjiycjuepo 
pam men ne bejiej) pe ];e lime mib him hsepS. Seopope 
masjen if ^ pe ]ye pone fcan on bjimce onpehS he hrepp 
pe fmeppan lichoman. Gahtope ip pjBp franej- msejen 
']3 nan nsebjian cynnep bite pam pceppan ne mtej pe 
pone fcan on psetan bypijp. 


bimifcce. Punb elep jepih'S . xii. penejum Iseppe ponne punb 

paBtjief • "j punb ealo^ jepihS . vi. penejum mape ponne 

punb p^tjief • "j . I. punb piiiej- jepiliS . XV. penejum 

map.e ponne . I. punb psetpef • -j punb hunijej* jepihS 

^ . xxxiiii. penejum mape ponne punb pastpep • -j . i. 

punb butejian jepiliS • Ixxx. penejum Iseppe ponne punb 

^ psetpep • "j punb beojief jepiliS . xxii. penejum Iseppe 

ponne punb pa3t]iep • "j I. punb melopep jepihB . cxv. 

» penejum Irepj'e ponne punb psetpep • 'j I. punb beana 

jepihS . Iv. penejum Iseppe ponne punb psecpef • -j XV. 

fol. 109 a. punb * psetjief jap to peptpe :• 

balb liabet hunc^ libpum cilb quem confcpibepe lufpic: 
lOte pjiecop appibue cunctif m nomine cpipti' 
Quo ^ nuUup to Hat litinc libpum peppibuf a me • 
Nee ui nee pupto nee quobam pamme palpo- 
Cup qiua^ nulla nnhi tam cajia eSc optima jaza- 
Qiiam capi libpi quop cpipti jpatia comit. 

' An error, read yntj-an, ounces. I '-^ Head Quod. 

- liunb, MS. I ' Read as Cur ? Quia. 



cloth not scathe the man who hath this stone with liim. 
Another virtue is, on whatsoever house it is, therein ;i 
fiend i')erha'ps enemy may not be. The third virtue is, 
that no venom may scathe the man wlio hath the stone 
with him. The fourth virtue is, that the man, who 
hath on him secretly the loathly fiend, if he takcth in 
liquid any portion of the sl)avings of this stone, then 
soon is exhibited manifestly in him, that wliich before 
secretly lay hid. The fifth virtue is, he who is afilicted 
with any disease, if he taketli the stone in lic^uid, it 
is soon well with him. The sixth virtue is, that sor- 
cery hurteth not the man, who has the stone with him. 
The seventh virtue is, that he who taketh the stone 
in drink, will have so much the smootlier body. 
The eighth virtue of the stone is, that no bite of any 
kind of snake may scathe him who tasteth the stone 
in liquid. 

Book II. 
(Jh. Ixvi. 


A pint of oil weigheth twelve pennies ' less than a 
pint of water ; and a pint of ale weigheth six pennies 
more than a pint of water ; and a joint of wine weigh- 
eth fifteen pennies more than a pint of water ; and a 
pint of honey weigheth thirty-four pennies more than 
a, pint of water ; and a pint of butter weigheth eighty 
pennies less than a pint of water ; and a pint of beer 
weigheth twenty-two pennies less than a pint of water ; 
and a pint of meal weigheth 115 pennies less than a 
pint of water; and a pint of beans weigheth fifty-five 
pennies less than a pint of water; and fifteen ounces 
of water go to the sextarius.^ 

' This is the Saxon silver penny 
of twenty-foiir grains, ovir penny- 

- " Sextarius medieinalis habct 
uncias deccia." Plin. Valer. Pref. 

300 LMCE BOC. 

[Book III.] 

y\]> heaj-'ob ece • -j yip ealbum lieajrob ece • -j pi]> 
liealpej' heafbej- ece. II. pi]? afpollenum eajum -j 50b 
V eab yealj: • -j pi^ mifce on eajan -j pi^ plie • "j pi8 pyp- 
mum on eajum -j yip p?em. jip jrlsej'c on eajum peaxe • 
J "j 6^r o^ ea^um peaxan peabe fponje • "j jip ea^an 
rypen *j j'ceabe j'ealp to eajum • *j fme]?e eali 

.III. yip eappsepce -j pij> j^sem jip pypmaf jyn on 
eapan -j 50b eap pealp. IIII. ]?!]? to]:' ece "j jip tej> fyn 

• V. pi|? mnan tobpocenum muSe .VI. ])ip ceoc able 
•j pij> ceol psepce. Vii. pi]? healp psepce. VIII. pi}? 
bice. Villi, yip hpoftan. X. pi]? ]7am pe mon blobe 
lipsece. XL pij? ]-eonbum ^eallan. xii. pi]? pseye 
jeolpan able. xill. pi]? bpeofc ])^pce. xiiii. pi]? 
h]?ofean -j yip lunjen able. XV. pij? majan psepce -j 
pi]? a]?unbene]ye. xvi. piS milt ])8epce. 
fol. 109 b. .XVII. pi]? Imben ppepce. xviii. pi J? pambe psejice 

•j p^ypel paepce. xviiii. yip bl8ebbe]^ ppepce. 

. XX. yip ]?am jip man ne mseje gemijan -j ]?am 
men pe ftanaf peaxan on ]?8epe blsebjian. xxi. pj]? 
]?am jip men fie fe utjanj popfeten. xxii. yip iicj-iht 
able bpenc "j bpip. xxiii. yip ]?am pypmum ]?e beo]? 
on mannep inno]?e. xxiiii. yip li^ psejice. XXV. yip 
peaptum. XXVI. piS ]?am miclan lice fmipmj -j ba)]? 
•j bpenc *j bjup. XXVII. pij? finjalum ]?upfi:e un- 
tjiumpa manna, xxviii. yip mnan pojitoje -j fma3l 
]?eapma ece. xxviiii. pi]? ]?am ]?e man fie mib pyjic 
anum pojxbsepneb -j pi]? pniw pe man fie mib psetan 
po^bsepneb • -j yip funbjiyne. xxx. yip ]?eope bjienc 
'^ Head i^cojie. *j ept pi]? }?£epe=^ "j fceotenbum penne -j ept be]?in3 pi]? 
J?am jip ]?eo]i [^epunije on anpe frope. XXXI. pij? 
penne pealp. xxxii. pi]? bolje pealp. xxxiii. yip ]?am 

LEECTI 7100K. TIT. 301 

Booh III. IJooklTI. 

1. For head ache, and for old head ache, and for Contents. 
ache of half the head, commonly called megrim. 2. For 
•swollen eyes, and a good eye salve, and for mist in the 
eyes, and against white speck, and against worms in 
the eyes, and in case flesh wax upon the eyes, and if 
red sponges wax on the eyes, and if the eyes are 
bleared, and a salve for obscure vision of the eyes, 
and a smooth eye salve. 8. For pain of ear, and in 
case worms are in the ears, and a good ear salve. 4. 
For tooth ache, and if the teeth are hollow. 5. For a 
mouth broken out within. 6. For cheek or javj disease, 
and for pain in the jowl. 7. Against neck pain. 8. 
Against cancer, 9. For cough. 10. In case a man 
break up blood. 11. For flowing gall. 12. For the 
yellow disease or jaundice. 13. For breast pain. 14. 
For cough and for lung disease. 15. For pain in the 
maw or stomach, and distention. IG. For pain of spleen, 
17. For loin pain. 18, For wamb or belly pain, and for 
pain in the fat about the belly, where the kidneys are 
lodged. 19. For bladder pain. 20. In case a man may 
not mie, and for the man in whose bladder stones wax. 
21. For the case where a mans fsecal discharge is ob- 
structed. 22. For diarrhoea, a drink and a brewit. 23. 
For the worms which be in a mans inwards. 24. For 
joint pain. 25. For warts. 26. For leprosy or elephan- 
tiasis, a smearing, and a bath and a drink, and a 
brewit. 27. For the constant thirst of men out of 
health. 28. For gripe and ache of small guts. 29. In 
case a man be burnt with fire only, and in case a 
man is burnt with liquid, and for sun burning. 30. 
A drink against the "dry" disease, and again for 
that, and for a shooting wen, ivith shooting pai/ns, 
and again a fomentation for it, if the "dry" disease 
remain in one place. 31. A salve for a wen. 32. A 
salve for a wen. 33. In case a man be wounded in 

302 L^CE BOC. 

pj: man fie uj:an on heapob piinb -j fie ban jebjiocen 
•j pi]; |?am jij: fio eaxl upfcije , -j 30b bolh bjienc 
'j jip jebpocen ban fie on heapbe -j op nelle. xxxiiii. 
j7i]? hunbep plite -j pi]? pon ^ip junpe pojicoppene -j pij? 

fol. 110 a. j'am jip fmpe fien jefcpuncene. xxxv. pij? jonje- 
pipjian biCe. xxxvi. Pi}? cancjie. xxxvii. pi]? pam )?e 
jnp ne mseje beapn acennan -j gip op pipe nelle jan 
sepcep ]?am beop]?pe f jecynbelic fie • •j jip op ^ pipe fie 
beab beapn • 'j pi]? ]?am pp pip blebe to fpi]?e sepcep 
pam beop]?pe. xxxviii. pi]? ]?am ]?e pipum fie popfcan- 
ben hipa monaS jecynb ^ pi]? ]?am jip pipe ro fpi]?e 
opplope fio mono]? jecynb. xxxviiil. pi]? fmeajea 
pyjime fmipmj -j anlejen* -j bej?inj -j pealp. XL. pi]? 
]?am ]?e man fie mona]? feoc. [XLI.] ^ pi]? ealle peonbep 
cofcunja bpenc *j pealp. pi]? ]?on ilcan -j hu man j'cyle 
jepitfeocne man lacnian • "j hu mon pcyle pypcean 
fpipbjienc ucypnenbum. XLii. pi]? ]?am jip fpi]?bpenc on 
men jefittan^ ^ he nelle utjan. XLili. pi]? atcjiep 
bpence. [XLiili.] * pi]? lupuni, XLV. J}i]) ]?am jip }?opn 
fcmje mon on pot oSSe hjieob *j ]?onne nelle opjan. 
XLVI. Pi]? sepmselum -j pi]? eallum ea^na psepce. XLVii. 
Pi]? lypc able jip fe mu]; fie poll o}?]?e pon Isecebom 'j 
bepmj -j bse]? pealp -j leah "j blobej' Isep. XLVili, pi]? 
pic able bpenc -j be]?in5. XLVIIII. pij? fculbo-^ psejice 

fol. 110 1). -j eapma. L. pi]? cneopa pape, LI, pi]? pota pape. LIL 
Pi]? ]?am jip pu ne maije blob bolj pojipjii]?an. LilL 
Pi]? ]?am jip meoloc fie jepepb. liiil ]}i]> nihc jengean 
v^ pealp. lv. pi]? ]?am jip men beo fio heapob paime 

jehlenceb. LVI. PiS }?am jip men nelle meltan hip 
mete. LVii. pi]? p'Tp jemEeblan. LVIII. pi}? peonbep 
cofcunja, LViiii, Pi]? ]?eo'^ penne jip he fie men on 
cneope o]>]>e on o]?pum lime. LX, be ]?am hu mon 
pcyle eap pealpe pypcean. 

. LXI. pi]? telp cynne pealp 'j pi]? nihc jenjaii , "j 

' Read on. 

^ xij. is omitted in MS. 

' Read j;cfitce. 

' xLiiii. is omitted in MS. 


the head and bone be broken, and in case the shoulder r.uok ill. 

rise by dislocation, and a good wound drink, and if a <-'"^"i''^^"''''- 

broken bone be in the head and will not come aAvay. 

34. For tear by a hound, and if sinews be cut tlirough, 

and in case sinews be shrunken. 85. For the bite of 

the gangwayweaving spider. 30. For cancer. 37. In 

case a woman may not kindle a child, and if, after the 

birth, that which is natural will not come away from a 

woman ; and in case there be a dead bairn in a woman, 

and in case a woman bleed too much after the birth. 

38. In case womens natural catamenia be stopped, and 

in case the natural catamenia flow too freely. 39. A 

smearing, a,nd an onlaying, and a fomentation, and a 

salve against a boring worm, 40. In case a man be a 

lunatic. 41. A drink and a salve for all temptations 

of the fiend. For the same, and how one must treat a 

deranged man ; and how a man shall work a spew 

drink for those that have diarrhcea." 42. In case a 

strong dose lodge in a man and will not come away. 

43. Against a drink of poison. 44. Against lice. 45. 

In case a thorn, or a reed, prick a man in the foot, 

and will not be got rid of 40. Against imminutions 

and all pain of eyes. 47. Against palsy, if the moutli 

be awry or livid, a leechdom and a fomentation, and 

a bath salve, and ley and bloodletting. 48. Drink and 

fomentation for "fig" dieease. 49. For pain of shoulder 

blade and arms. 50. For sore of knees. 51. For sore 

of feet. 52. In case thou be not able to bind up a 

bloodletting incision. 53. In case milk is turned sour. 

54. A salve against night comers, incubi, etc. 55. In 

case a mans skull is " linked," or seems to feel bound 

round. 56. In case a mans meat will not digest. 57. 

Against womens prating. 58. Against temptations of 

the fiend. 59. Against a "dry'' wen, if a man hath 

it on his knee or on another limb. CO. Of this ; liow 

a man must work an earsalve. 61. A salve against 

the elfin race and night goblins, and for the women, 

304 L^CE BOC. 

]?am raonnum j^e beojrol mib liEem^. LXii, pi]? ?elf 
able Isecebom -j eyt liu mon j-ceal on J?a pypte pinjan 
sep hi mon nime -j ept liu mon j-ceal |?a pypta bon 
rnibeji peopob -j opeji fmjan • -j ept tacnu be ]?am 
hpsej^eji hit fie telp pojoj^a -j tacn hu ]pu onjitan 
meahc hpsej^ep hme mon msej jelacman -j bjiencaf "j 
jebebu pi]; selcpe peonbep cofcunje. LXiii. Tacnu hii 
J>u meaht onjitan hpEej^ep mon fie on pfetep selp able • 
-j Isecebom yi]> j^am -j jealbop on -co fmjanne -j ]5 ilce 
mon msej fmjan on punba. LXilil. pi^ beople li|?e 
bpenc • -j unjemynbe • -j pi]? beoplef cofcunja. Lxv. 
fol. Hi a. pi]? }?on pp mon fie jejymeb "j cacnvi hp8e}>ep he 
libban mseje. lxvi. bpenc pi]? }7am jip ]?eop fie on 
men. LXVII. Pi}? beople feoce "j pi]? beople. LXViii. 
Pi]? peben heopfce leoht bpenc. LViiii. pi]? ]?am^ pp 
men fie maja afupob -j po'^]?unben • -j pi]? majan 
pjepce • -j jip man bi]? a]?unben. Lxx. pi]? pambe 
psGpce • "j pi]? majan psepce • 'j pij? pambe heapbneppe. 
LXXI. piS fppmje fraipmj -j fealp. LXXii. Pi]? attpe 
bpenc "j fmipinj. LXXiii. pi]? ]?0epe jeolpan able. 
Lxxiiii. pi]? }^am pp mnelpe fi uce. Lxxv. pi]? 
selcpe innan untjiymneppe -j pi]? hepijnejje -j pi]? 
hleopblsece. LXXVI. be ]?am hu man fcyle halite 
pealpe pypcean. 

Pi}? ]?on ]?e mon on heapob ace • jenim nio]?o- 
peapbe ppsecce bo on jieabne ppasb bmbe ■]? heapob mib. 
PiJ? ]?on ilcan • mm fenepej- preb -j jmbun jejnib on ele 
bo on hat; psetep ]?peah jelome ]? heapob on ]?am p?et]ie 
he bi]? hal. pi]? ealbum heapob ece jenim bpeopje 

> f i)>a, MS. 


with wlioin tlio devil liatli commerce. 02, Against elf Hook irr. 
disease, a leeclidom ; and again, liow one nnist sing ^''""'-■"»'*- 
upon tlie Avorts, ere one take them ; and again, how 
one must put tlie worts nnder the altar, and sing over 
them ; and again tokens of this, whether it be elf 
liicket, and tokens how thou mayst understand, whether 
one may cure the man ; and drinks and praycM-s against 
every temptation of the fiend. 63, Tokens how thou 
mayst understand whether a man he in the water elf 
disease, and a leeclidom for that, and a charm to lie 
sang upon it, and that ilk may be sung over wounds, 
G-t. A lithe or soft drink against the devil, and want 
of memory, and against tem})tations of the devil. (i5. 
In case a man be overlooked, and tokens whether lie 
may live. GQ. A drink in case the " dry " disease be 
on a man. 07. For the devil sick or demoniac, and 
against the devil, G8, A light drink against the Avild 
heart, 09, In case a mans maw be soured and dis- 
tended ; and against pain of the maw, and if a man 
be inflated. 70. For pain of the wamb, and for })ain 
of the maw, and for hardness of the wainb. 71. Against 
carbuncle ; an ointment and a salve. 72. A drink and 
smearing against venom. 7o. For the yellow disease, 
jaundice. 74. In case the bowels be out. 75. For 
every inward inflrmity, and for heaviness, and for cheek 
blotch. 7(5. Of this, how a man must make a holy 


In case a man ache in the head ; take the nether- 
ward part of crosswort/ put it on a red fdlet, let In'ni 
bind the head therewith. For that ilk, take seed of 
mustard and rue, rub into oil, put into hot water, wash 
the head often in the water, the nnan will be hale. 
For an old head ache, take penn^'royal, lioil in oil, (.r 

' Galium criiciiitiim. 

30G L^CE BOC. 

bpofclan pyl on ele 0iS6e on butjian fmipe mib ^ ]><a 
Jmuponjan 'j bupan ]?ani eajum on upxn f heapob 
J?eah him fie jemynb oncypped he bi]^ hal. pi]? fpi}>e 
fol. iiib. ealbum heapob ece mm pealc *j puban -j ipij cpop cnua 
ealle to pomne ^ bo on hunij -j fmipe mib j;a Jmnpan- 
^ jan • *j }?one hnij:el "j upan ^ heapob. To pion ilcan 

pec lycle franaf on fpealpan bjiibba majan -j healb f 
liie ne hpman eopj^an ne pcetpe • ne o]?]ium fcanum 
bepeopa hipa . ill. on ])on ]?e ]?u piUe bo on ];one nion 
]?e hira ];eapp fie him h\]> j'ona pel • hi beo]? jobe pi]> 
heapob ece -j pi]> ea^psepce -j pi]? peonbep cofcunja -j 
nilitjenjan • "j lencten able "j majian -j pyjitpopbojie • 
" "j malfcpa • -j yplmii jealbo-^ cpsepcum • hit fculon beon 

micle bpibbaj' ]?e ]?u hie pcealc on pmban- i^ip mon on 
healp heapob ace ^ecnna jiuban fpi];e bo on fcjian^ eceb 
•j fmipe mib ]> heapob iipan julite. pij? J)on ilcan abelp 
pejbpseban butan ifene se]\ funnan upjanje binb \)a, 
mojian ymb ]3 heapob mib ppsete peabe ppsebe pona 
liTm bi6 pel. 


\)i\> afpoUenum eajum jenim cucune hjiepn " abo 
|7a eajan op -j ept eucnne jebpmj on p?etpe "j bo ]?a 
eaii^an ]>am men on fpeopan ])e him ]'eapp pie lie bi]? 
j'ona hal. Pyj^c jobe ea^pealpe Nim celeJ?oman -j 
bipceop pyjit • pepmob • jnibu mejice • piibu bmbep 
leap • bo ealpa empela cnupa j'el bo on hunij • -j on 
jun • *j on tt;pen pcet oiSSe on cypepen bo tpiebe J^sej' 
fol. 112 n. pmep • -j ];]nbban basl ])?ej' hiini^ep bo y j'e pseta maeje 
puji]nim opep ypnan ]?a pypta Itet ftanban .VII. mht 
•j ])peoh inib b]iebe afeoh J^iiph clsonne claj? '5one bpenc 
bo ept on p lice pa3t nytta fpa ];e ]?eapp pie. Se mon 

> The MS. has a stop after mih. j ^ Nearly as Marcellns, col. 269 f. 

2 j-ome, MS. 


in butter, smear tlicrewitli tlio temples, and over the ^o^^ ^T. 

eyes, and on the top of the head; though his intellect 

be deranged, he will be hale. For a very old head 

ache ; take salt and rue, and a bunch of ivy berries, 

pound all at once, add honey, and therewith smear the 

temples, and the forehead, and the top of the head. 

For that ilk ; seek in the maw of young swallows for 

some little stones, and mind that they touch neither 

earth, nor water, nor other stones ; look out three of 

them ; put them on the man, on whom thou wilt, him 

who hath the need, he will soon be well. They are 

good for head ache, and for eye wark, and for the fiends 

temptations, and for night gohlin visitors, and for 

typhus, and for the night mare, and for knot, and for 

fascination, and for evil enchantments by song. It must 

be big nestlings on which thou shalt find them. If a 

man ache in half his head, pound rue thoroughly, put 

it into strong vinegar, and smear therewith the head, 

right on the top. For that ilk ; delve up way broad 

without iron, ere the rising of the sun, bind the roots 

about the head, with crosswort, by a red fillet, soon 

he will be well. 


For swoUen eyes, take a live crab, put his eyes out, 
and put him alive again into water, and put the eyes 
upon the neck of the man, who hath need ; he will soon 
be well. Work a good eye salve thus; take celandine 
and bishop wort, wormwood, wood march e, leaves of 
woodbind ; put equal quantities of all, pound them well, 
put them into honey, and into wine, and into a brazen 
vessel, or a copper one ; put in of the wine' two parts 
in three, and a third part of the honey, order it so 
that the liquor may just overrun the worts ; let it 
stand for seven nights, and wrap it up with a piece 
of stuff"; strain the drink through a clean cloth, put it 
again into that ilk vessel, use as occasion may be. 

u 2 

308 LiECE BOO. 

ye him jebe]? ymb .xxx. nilita jroxej' jelynbc]' b?el 
on ]';x ea-(;an lie bi]; ece lial ; 

Ti): mifc ]ne pope eajum mm cilbcy lilonb "j liiinijej' 
ceaji menj CO]^omne bejea emjrela friiijie mib ]>a ea^aii 
Jnnan ; 

6j:c lijiepne]' jeallan -j leaxe]' "j eley -j ye]h beon 
huuij menj to j^omne fmijie raib ];a'jie j-ealjre mnan ]>a 
eajan ; 
\ ])i]> ybe jebrejmeb j^ealc *j fpejley [eppel -j atcpum 
ealjia emjrela jmb to bufte ^ bo on ]^a eajan ]>])eali 
leohrlicc mib pylle j^retjie -j fmijie cefteji mib piyey 
meolce ; 

Tij: pj'pma]' fien on eajum j'ccajipa ]>a bpropaj' mnan 
bo on ]>a pcea]ipan celeJ)onian yeaj' • ))a ])yjimaf bio]^ 
beabe "j j^a eajan hale. Tip pLDj'c on ea^um peaxe 
pjnnj ]'ypii^ Pyp'^^ ^^ 1^^ eajan o]? ]> him ]-el yie. 

Tip on ea;5an peaxcn peabe fponje bjiype on hat 

ciilp)ian blob o]?pe fj'ealpan obiSe ]'ipep meoluc o]> -p ]>a 

fponje apej pynb. Tip eajan cyjien mm bjiije puban 

•j hunijep teaji menj cofomne last fcanban .III. nihr 

fol. 112 1). •'^Ppii^S ]m]ih ]?icne cla"iS Imenne -j bo on ]:>a eajan 

]'i]>]>an. Py]ic 5obe bpije fcabe fealpe mm fpe^lep 

V a^pjjel -j jebaspneb j'ealc "j pipo-^ 'j atcjium -j hpit 

epubu jejmb to bufce apipc ]?n]ih cla5 bo lytlum on. 

6pt hpit c])ubu "j jeboepneb ofcep pcyl jmb to bufce 

■j nytta fpa ]>e ];eapp fie a^jl^eji m?e^ abon plie op 

eajan. Py]ic fme])e eajpealpe mm butepan pyl on 

^ pannan apleou p pam op 'j ahlytcpe ]?a Initejian on 

blebe bo ept •]> hlutt|ie on paiinan jecnua celepoman 



The man who putteth upon his eyes for about tliiiLy 
nights, part of tlie suet of a fox, he will be for ever 

2. If there be a mist before the eyes, t;ike a 
urine and virgin honey, mingle together of both eipial 
quantities, smear the eyes therewith on tlie inside. 

3. Again, mingle together a erabs gall/ and a sal- 
mons, and an eels, and field bees honey, smear the 
eyes inwardly witli the salve. 

4. Against a white spot in the eye; rub to dust 
burnt salt, and swails apple, and olusatrum, of all equal 
quantities, rub to dust, and put on the eyes, wash 
lightly with spring water, smear afterwards with 
womans milk. 

5. If there are worms in the eyes, scarify the lids 
within, apply to the scarifications the juice of celan- 
dine ; the worms will be dead and the eyes healthy. 
If flesh v/ax on eyes, wring wormwort into the eyes, 
till they are well. 

G, If red sponges wax on the eyes, drop on them 
hot culvers blood, or swallows, or womans milk, till the 
sponges be got rid of If eyes are bleared, take dry 
rue and virgin honey, mingle together, let it stand for 
three nights, wring through a thick linen cloth, and 
afterwards apply to the eyes. Work a good dry salve 
for dim vision thus : take swails apple, and l)UiMit 
salt, and pepper, and olusatrum, and mastich ; rub 
to dust, sift through a cloth, apply by little and 
little. Again, reduce to dust mastich, and burut 
oyster shell, and use as need be ; either hath power 
to remove white spot from the eyes. Work a 
smooth eyesalve fJtus ; take buttei-, boil in a pan, 
skim the foam off, and purify the butter in a dish; 
put the clear part again into a pan ; pound celandine 

15(...k III. 
Cli. ii. 

' " Corvi marini fcl." Marcellus, 
col. 277. F. If that passage were 
in view, this fish would be the 

mullet, MiKjil cefalus : hut I follov/ 
the passage in Wanlc}, p. IG8a. 
IIa3)ci>n v.i another spelling. 


•j bilceop pyjit; • pubu mejice • yyl l'pi]?e aj'eoli j;u]ili 
cla'S nycra Ipa ];e J^eaji}: lie ; 


pi]? eap psejice jenim henne jelynbo -j ofcep ycylle 
yete on gleba jepypm hpon -j bpyp on J^a eapan Ibua 
Leo's hale ; Gft: celenbpan ^ j-eap -j jnpejf meoluc jepypm 
on pcylle -j bjiyp on ]?a eajian • jij: pypniaf jpien on 
eapan bo belenaii peap peapm on ]7a pypmaf hie beo]? 
beabe 'j peallaS op "j ]?a eapan hale. 

GpT pjnnj cupmeallan j-eap on o^^e mapubian o^^e 
])ejunob peapmne Sona hmi biS ]-el. Pypc jobe eaji 
j-ealpe • jenim bajiej- jeallan • -j peappef • *j ele ealpa 
empela Iset bpypan peajun on ]5 eape. 


^0^' ^^3^- Pi|j to]) ece ceop pipop jelome mib pain to)7nni 

him bip* pona pel. 6pr jeoS beolenan mojian on 
Ibjianjum ecebe o]>j7e on pine pete on ]7one papan coj? 
^j hj)ilum ceope mib ]>y jajian cope he biS hal. gip pa 
tep lynb hole ceop bopenej-" inojuin mib ecebe on pa 

Pip iimaii trobjiocenmn niuSe mm plum tjieopej- leaj- 
pyl on pme -j Ipile mib pone mup :• 


VrS ceoc able mm pone hj7eoppan ])e ptp inib 
fpmnab bmb on hip fpeopan mib pyllenan ppsebe "j 

licad celeK'Uian. 

bosenc)-, with <t;e dotted, and W written above, MS. 

LEECH JJUOK. 111. 311 

and bishopwort, wood iiiarclic, boil thoruiiglily, stiain ^^ok III 
through a cloth; use as need may be. 


1. Against earwark ; take a hens fat and oyster 
shells, set them on giedes, warm a little, and drip into 
the ears, soon they will be liale. Again, warm juice of 
coriander (celandine rather ?) and womans milk in a 
shell, and drop them into the ears. If worms bo in 
the ears ; apply juice of henbane warm, to the worms, 
they Avill be dead and fall off, and the ears will be 

2. Again, wi'ing juice of centaury upon them, or 
marrubium, or wormwood warm ; soon they will be 
well. Work a good earsalve thus : take a boars and 
a bulls gall, and oil, of all equal quantities, have this 
dropped warm into the ear. 


For tooth ache ; chew pepper frequently with the 
teeth, it will soon be well with them. Again, seethe 
henbane roots in strong vinegar or in wine, set this 
into the sore tooth, and at whiles chew witli the sore 
tooth ; it will be well. If the teeth are hollow, chew 
rosemary roots with vinegar on that joart. 


For a mouth troubled with eruption within ; take 
leaves of plum tree, boil in wine, and swill the mouth 


For cheek disease, take the whorl, with which a 
woman spinneth, bind on the 'mans neck with a 
woollen thread, and swill him on the inside with hot 

312 L.ECE BOC. 

I'pile innan mib hate gate mcolce biiii bi]? yel. ]?iS 
ceol piejice abelj: iV]\ liiiinan up7;aii5e pe-^b)uvban bmb 
on lily ipeojian. Gft biT&jni fpealpaii to biiltc • -j menj 
pi]) pelbbeon hiini^ pele linn etan jelome. 


Pi]' healj* psejTce pyl neo]7epca]ibe nctelan on oxan 
finejipe "j on butejian ];oime ^ ]?one healfpnijic Imijie (5a 
]'eoh . jtp Ja ];eoh j^epce fmijie ]?one liealp nnb j^iBjie 
yealpe. Gyt pyl ni]7epea]ibe netelan ou ecebe bo oxan 
jeallan on ]3 eceb -j ]r,i pyjite op Imipe mib pone 


fol. 113b. \'^i]' bite pyjic j'calpe • nun Jap J'ypte papenan 'j 

mejii'c mealpan "j attojila]?an --j peoj^obenb "j lipejilipec- 
tan -j chippy pt -j lijel hpeoppan • ]iinb beolo]7an • 
inucjpypt • jHibu pllan • japclipan • pjiu^tte • lupef-cice • 
niajejnin • jij'cojin • ]'ab • piniil • ]>epan ]'opn • jelpretc • 
eopo)i];pote • cicena mete • bnlhjuine • j^ylilc luojui • 
liiiiit beaniep leap • nsep • gcajrpe • ho}:c • hoc leap • 
alexanbjie • pica peppica-~ I'e piila pepinob • lio jjieate 
banpyjic • acleap • pegbpiube • jjmnbe fpelje • peab 
chvpjie • Icahtpic • ]nipe ]>]itel • tajiii • heje clipe • chip 
V J^iinj • enjlipc mopu • bynije. 


Pi]? hpol'tan pyl majiubian on ptetpe jobne bjel je- 
fpet lipon pele bjiincan jcenc pnl/' 6pc mapnbian fpr?e 
pyl on huiiije bo hpon bntejian on pele .ill. i'npeba 
o])]'e .1111. etan on iieaht nej-tij bepup Icenc pulne nnb 
j'eajunc]* ]'iup iL'jipan bpencej-. 

' Read J'oniU' ]M^■ J'onc. | ' j-cenc is inaHC. Kcad jiilnc. 

^ A stop after jica in MS. 

LEECH r.OOK. III. ^13 

soats milk; it will bo well with liim. For jowl pain; l'-',j'l^ !"• 

delve up waybruad before tlie rising ot the ,sini, bind 

upon the mans neck. Again, burn a swallow to dust, 

and mingle lum with field bees honey ; give the man Api» iulvurum. 

that to eat frequently. 


For neck pain ; boil the nether ward part of nettle 
in fat of ox and in butter, then for the hals wark, 
smear the thighs ; if the thighs be in pain, smear the 
neck with the salve. Again, boil the netherward part 
of nettle in vinegar, add ox gall to the vinegar and 
remove the wort ; smear the neck therewith. 


For cancer, work a salve ; take these worts, savine, 
and marsh mallow, and attorlothe, and withywind, 
and cucumber, and clovewort, or ranwiicidas, and 
turnsol, hindhcal, mugwort, wild chervil, agrimou}^, 
crosswort, lovage, maythe, githcorn, woad, fennel, tufty 
thorn, wildoat, everthroat, chickenmeat, pellitory, carot, 
leaves of the nut tree, nepeta cattaria, yarrow, hove, 
hollyhock, alexanders, vinca pervinca, or 'perivjlnkle, 
the foul wormwood, the great bonewort, oak leaves, 
waybroad, groundsel, red clover, lettuce, tufty thistle, 
tar, hedge clivers, cloiiing, wild parsnip, * * * * 


For host or coufjh ; boil inarrubium in water, a good 
deal of it, sweeten a little, give the mail to drink a 
cup full. Again, boil marrubium strongly in honey, 
add a little butter, give three or four bits for tJic man 
to eat ; at night fasting let him sup up a cup full of 
the former drink warm therewith. 

314 LzECE BOC. 

V]]> ]?on ]7e mon blobe lip?ece -j I'pipe • jentm 50b 
bejien mela • *j lipit: yenlt bo on peam o])]>e jobe ylete 
hpep on blebe o]) p hi" I'le ];icce fpa ]7ynne Ljup pele 
fol. ii4ii. ecan .Villi, pnasba .Villi, mopjenaf on' nealic nej-tij • 
bo }>a3p melupej- tpeiebe -j ];tep pealtef jjpibban bsel pyjic 
t)elce bsege mpne. 


Pi]? feonbum jeallan ete pa^bic "j pipo^ on neaht 
neptij • -j apylleb Impteb on meolce I'upe mib ~ bo ]?up 
5elome lnm bi]? j'ona pel. 


Vi^ ]>se]\e jeolpan able fio cymS op feonbum ;5eallan 
jenim ])sey j-ceappan ];iMep mopan "j betonican • -j at- 
Copla]?an hanb fuUe • -j ^yj^pipan hanb pulle "j .villi. 
fnaBba niojjopeapbe fej'cj^potan op jeot mib fcpanjan 
beope • o]7];e mib frpanjnm ealaS "j bpmce ^elome pele 
him etan jepyptobne henpugel *j jepobenne capel on 
jobum bpoSe bo J^up jelome him bij) fona pel. 

Pypc 5obne bufc bjienc pi]> |?8spe jeolpan able . mm 
mepcep yi&b • -j pmolep yseb • bile pseb • eopopf'potan 
V fseb . pelbmopan fseb • pjej^epian j'seb • petojiyilian pasb . 
alexanbpan fseb luf efcicep j'seb • betonican fseb • caulep 
j'seb . cofrej* pseb • cymenep j'seb • -j pipopep ma3p'c 
]?apa oSeppa empela jejmb ealle pel to bufte mm J^sep 
fol. 114 b. buftej" jobne cuclep pulne bo on fcjianj hluttop eala 
bjunce fcenc }:ulne on neaht nepcij • he ij- 50b pi]; 
selcpe hraan untpumuepfe -j pi]> heapob ece -j pij? un- 

' Unless mojisonaf, morrows, can be taken in tlie sense of successive 
days, on must be omitted. Observe, a new page begins. 
- In margin hepco. 


In case a man hreak up and spew blood ; take good 
barley meal, and white salt, put it into cream or good 
skimmings, agitate in a disb, till it be as thick as 
thin brcwit, give the man to eat, nine doses for nine 
mornings after his nights fast : apply of the meal two 
parts in three, and of the salt a third part ; prepare 
it every day new. 


For bile straining out ; let the patient eat radish 
and pepper at night fasting, and let him sup besides 
linseed boiled in milk ; do this frequently ; it will 
soon be well with him. 


1. For the yellow disease, jaundice, which cometh 
of effusion of bile ; take roots of the sharp thistle, and 
betony, and a handful of attorlothe, and a handful of 
githrife, and nine bits of the netherward part of ash- 
throat, pour them over with strong beer, or with 
strong ale, and let him drink this frequently : give 
him to eat a pullet dressed with herbs, and colewort 
sodden in good broth ; do this frequently, soon it will 
be well with him. 

2. Work thus a good dust drink for the yellow 
disease. Take seed of marche, and seed of fennel, seed 
of dill, seed of everthroat, seed of fieldmore, seed of 
satureia, savory, seed of parsley, seed of alexanders, 
seed of lovage, seed of betony, seed of colewort, seed 
of costmary, seed of cummin, and of pepper most, of 
the others equal quantities ; rub all well to dust, take a 
good spoon full of the dust, put it into strong clear 
ale, let the man drink a cup full at night fasting. 
This drink is also good for every ailment of limb, and 
for head ache, and for want of memory, and for eye 

Book III. 
Ch. X. 

316 LiECE BOC. 

jeiiiynhc --j ]'ij> Gajpjqice "j ]?i]» uiigeliyjinej-ye -j bjieolc 
prejice "j liiiijen able "j lenben j'asjice • -j pij; lelcjie 
jjeonbej" cofeun^a gepyjic ];e bufc jcnoli on lia?]i}:elte 
|?onne ]m |?a pyjiui liiubbe nycta j^onne ]>e j^eajij: fie. 

• Xlir. 

j)iL) bjieof'cjnejice mapubie' iiejrte • ontjie bilceop 
j'yjit • penpyjic • yy\ on liunije -j butepan bo )7£e]- 
liunij^ef tpiube • -j ]?ti?]ic biitejian J^jiibban ba^l nytra 
ipa ]>e ]>capp fie. 


Vip* hj^ofran -j limjcii able • jenim fpejlef ieppel -j 
Ipepl "j pecelf ealjia cinpela men^ ])i]^ j^caxe leje on 
liacne lean bjunc ]mjili liojiii )7one jiec "j ere tefCep 
ealbep I'picep .ill. fiucba obSe bucjum "j fu})e inib 
}:letum ; pi]> lunjen able • jenim beconicau • "j majui- 
bian • ajjuinonian • jicpmob • jrel tepjie • pube . acpinb • 
jajollaii • ]'yl on j'iecpe • be])yl \yncy jnetejief ]'pibbaii 
b;ul« bo op ]'a I'yj^ce bjuiice on raojijenne peajimep 
fcenc pulne ere ,IJI. fnteba mib Jnvp bjupep ]'c lieji 
iepceji fejl; :• 

Pyjic b]U]' pi]? lunjeii able mm beromean • ^j niapu- 
bian • pepmob • liinblieolojmn • peupyjiC nio]jO]>eajib • 
elehrpe • elene • juebic • eopo-^j'pote • pelbmope • jecnua 
ealle i]n\>(i ])el "j j>yl on bucepan -j appmj jnijih claJS 
j-ccab on ]) yoy bepen mela hjieji on blebe buran pyjie 
o]> p hit fie Ipa ]ncce fpa bpip ere . III. fmuba • nnb 
]7y bpence peajimef 

6pc pyl on liunijc anum majiubian bo hj'on bepen 
mela ro eCe on ncalic ncpri j -j p»onnc j u liini jelle 

LEF/'It T.OnK. TIT. 317 

WJirk, and for dull licarinii;', and for broast wavk, and I^imk III. 
Inng disease, loin wark, and for every tt'ni|)taiion of 
tlie fiend. Work thj'seli dust enough in harvest, when 
thou hast the worts, nse it when thou hast need. 


For pain of breast ; niarrubium, nepeta, ontre, bisho])- 
wort, wenwort, l)oil in honey and butter; piit two 
parts in three of the honey, and of the l)ntter a third 
])a.rt ; nse as need may be. 


For liost, or couf/Ji, and lung disease ; take swails 
apple, and brimstone, and frankincense, of all eqnally 
much, mingle with wax, lay on a hot stone, let ilte 
imui swallow tlie reek through a horn, and afterwards 
eat three pieces of old lard or of butter, and sip tJds 
with cream. For lung disease ; take betony, and mar- 
rubium, agrimony, wormwood, fel terrse or centaury, 
rue, oak rind, sweet gale ; boil them in water, lioil off 
a third part of the water, remove the worts ; let the 
Tnan drink in the morning of this warm a cup fidl, 
let him eat therewith three pieces of the brewit that 
is here afterwards mentioned. 

2. Work thus a brewit for lung disease ; take betonj', 
and marrubinm, wormwood, hind heal,' the lower part 
of wen wort, lupin, helenium, radish, everthroat, field- 
more ; pound all thoroughly well, and boil in butter, 
and wring through a cloth ; shed on the decoction barley 
meal, shake it in a dish without fire till it be as thick 
as brewit ; let him eat three pieces, with the drink 
of the warm liquor. 

3. Again, boil in honey alone, marrubinm, add a little 
barley meal, let the man eat at night fixsting ; and when 

' Eupatorium cannabimim. 

318 LMCE BOC. 

bpenc obSe bpip j^ele liim liatiie -j Iset jejiefcan ]?one 
man seftep tibe ' bse^ef on ]?a fpiSpan fiban *j hapa |>one 
eajim a];eneb. 


V pi]? majan psepce pyl pTc on cu meolce abo f pic 
op pupe ]ipon peapm pona bi]; ]-el. pi]? a])unbeneppe 'j 
[jip]^ men nelle myltan hip mete pyl on psefcepe 

V poUeian -j leac cepfan pele bpmcan liim bi]? fona 


ViJ? milte pfiepce cnua jpene pealhpmbe feoS on 
hunije anum j-ele him ecan .ill. fn?eba on neahc 

. XVII. 

Dij; lenben poepce mapubie . nepte . bojen em pela 
ealpa bo on 30b ealu pyjic to bjience fpet hpoD pele 
bpmcan licje uppeajib ?eptep }?on ii;obe lipile. 


J b. Pi]? pambe prejice -j jiypel ptejice ]>se]\ ]>n ^ei'eo topb 

piyel on eopj^an li}) peoppan ymbpo lime mib tpam 
hanbum mib hip jepeoppe pa}:a mib ]?inum hanbnm 
fpi]?e "j cpeS |;]upa • Remebium pacio ab uentjii]- bolopem. 
Peopp ]?onne opeji bsec Jpone pipel on pejebehealb ]5 
]ni ne locije sejccep • ]7onne monnef pambe psepce o'SSe 
]iy]-le ymbpoh mib ];inum hanbum J^a pambe liim bi]? 

» Thus MS. I - siy not in MS. 



thou givest liim drink or brewit, give it him liot ; and Book III. 
make the man rest after an hour, by day, on the right ^ '" ^^^'' 
side, and have the arm extended. 


For pain in the maw ; boil pitch in cow milk, re- 
move the pitch, let him sip a little warm, soon the 
man will be well. For distention, and if a mans 
meat will not digest ; boil in water pulegium and leek 
cress, ^ give this to the man to drink, soon it will be 
well with him. 


For milt pain ; pound green sallow rind, seethe in 
honey alone, give the man to eat three pieces at night 


For loin wark ; marrubium, nepeta, thyme, of all 
equal quantities, put into good ale ; work to a drink, 
sweeten a little, give to the man to drink ; let him 
lie with face up afterwards for a good while. 


For wamb wark and pain in the fatty part of the 
belly ; when thou seest a dung beetle - in the earth 
throwing up nfiould, catch him with thy two hands 
along with his casting up, wave him strongly with 
thy hands, and say thrice, " Remedium facio ad ventris 
" dolorem ; " then throw the beetle over thy back away ; 
take care thou look not after it. When a mans wamb 
or belly fat is in pain, grasp the wamb with thine 

' Erysimum alliuria. 
- Our Saxon must have had Tal- 
pam, or 'Ao-7roAa/ca before him in 

this sentence ; but he names tlie 
Scarii/jaus .shrcorarius. 

o20 L/ECE BOO, 

j'ona j-el • xii. mona]; ]>u mealir fpa bon a^):t(']i ])am 


\ \]> h\ix^hhe\\ pa^jtce. piulu mejice • ■^ loaccejife pyl 
fpij'p on eala'S j'ole bpnioaii "j eran ,"^eb]ia^bne fra^ji. 


Qi]: man ne ma^je jemijan 'j linn peaxan fcanap on 
^' \>?e]xe blfebjian yy\ I'unbcojm on eala'5 'j perejifilian yele 

Inm bpmcan. 


(tij: men fie pe urjanj poppetren pyl peiniiob on 
pnpnni eala|> -j bo bntejian y<e\\ to hnn bi]' fona pel 
jTp lie lilt: bjimc)'. 


yi]) urpilit; able • v. leapan • hleomoce • cnjimealle • 
elelitpe. jecnua pa pyjica • 'j ]'yl on meolce pele Inm 
fol. iiGa. hjnncan peajiin on moji^cnne -j on n?pen ; Pyj^c bpip 
ro ])on ilcan ])ubu cunellan • Lleomoc • bepyl Jjajia 
meolce ];jiibban btel ]>iTejie ]'y)ite op ];am meolcnm ^ 
j-ceab lipa3ten mela jwp on *j ete ]?one bjnp cealbne • 
•j ]-npe J>a meoluc linn bi'5 ]-ona pel jlp pe bjiip *j fe 
bjienc inne jepnniae) ]ni niealit ];one man 3;elaonian 
jip Inm oppleo;z,ei5 him bi'S peljie -p ])u Inne na ne 
v/ ibP^^'^ ^^"^^ ^*']^ ^'T F^oph abl 5eten;5e. 


Qtp j'yjima]- beo]> on mannep innoc5e ]>j\ on bntejian 
jpene jiuban bpmc~ on neaht: neptij j-cenc pnlne In 

' Read as before bejiyl on meolce o\> )')iibban fatcl • bo )'a i'3)i~a oy 
pam meolcum. 
- Vowel dropped. 


liands, it will soon be well with the man ; for twelve ^^^ m- 

months after the beetle thou slialt have power so to 



For bladder pain ; wood marche and sauce alone ; 
boil them strongly in ale ; administer to drink, and to 
eat a roasted starling. 


If a man cannot mie, and stones wax in the bladder ; 
boil sundcorns ^ in ale, and parsley ; give hirti this to 


If a mans excrement be lodged ; boil wormwood 
in sour ale, and add butter thereto; it will soon be 
well with him, if he drinketh it. 


For diarrhoea ; cinqfoil, brooklime, churmel, lupin ; 
pound the worts, and boil them in milk ; give this to 
the man to drink warm in the morning and in the 
evening. Work thus a brewit for the same : wild 
cunila, brooklime ; boil in milk to a third part, remove 
the worts from the milk, shed wheaten meal thereon, 
and let him eat the brewit cold, and let him sip the 
milk, it will soon be well with him. If the brewit 
and the drink remain within him, thou mayst cure the 
man ; if they flow away, it will be better for him, that 
thou should not meddle with him, his death sickness 
is upon him. 


1. If worms be in a mans inwards ; boil green rue 
in butter, let the man drink at night fasting a cup 

' Saxifragia yranulata. Prescribed because saxa fraiigit. 

fol. 116 b. 

322 L^CE BOC. 

jepitaS ealle ape;^ mib ]yy ucjanje "j he bi8 j'ona 
hal ; 

To J>on ilcan jenim cymene)' bufc menj to jate 
jeallan -j jreappej- jnib ]?one napolan mib ealle hi jepita]; 
mjjep; op ];sem meN. 

. XXIIIl. 

Pi|? liS psepce I'lnj . vim. li]?um j?ij- jealbo-^ jjseji 
on • *j ]?m fparl fpip on • Oi^alijnup oblijauit • anjelup 
cupauic- bommu]' Saluauit- him bi}> pona pel. 

To J'on ilcan jenim culppan topb • -j gate topb bjuje 
fjnSe -j jnib Co bufce menj pi]? hunij "j pi]? butrpan 
fmipe mib j^a leo]7u. 

. XXV. 

pi]? peaptum jenim himbep micjean -j mupe blob 
menj to pomne fmipe mib ]?a peaptan hi jepita]? fona 

Pi J? miclan lice ^enim nio]?opeapbe elenan -j ]?un5 • 
■j oinpjian ]>&, J^e fpimman pile ealpa empela • -j ^ecnua 
pel • -j pyl on bucejian bo pel j-ealtej' on -j fmijie mib. 
Pypc bi8 ^ pi]> }?am miclan lice • elene • {elf]?one • 
mapubie • cupmealle • ellen tanaf • *j ac tanap pyl fjnSe 
on psetpe -j be]?e on fpi'Se hatum f Kc. pypc bpeuc 
]n^ ]»am miclan lice hinbhiolo}?an • cujimeallan • bo^en • 
nepte- a^jiimoma* betomca* pmul* bile* bo on 30b 
ealo pele bjimcan on bseje .111. pcencaf pulle. Pyjic 
bpip pi]? ]?on ilcan • jenim nioj'opeapbe elenan • -j eopoji 
J^jiotan • pebic • -j })a jieaban netlan nio]>opeapbe fceappa 
i'msele -j jecnua pel • pyl pi]?J)an on bucejian bo clsene 
ipij tapan }?8eji on jip J?u hsebbe • -j hpon bepenef melpep 
bo on blebe mib ]?am pyptum -j hpep mib fticcan 0]? 

> That is, b8e«. 

LEECH BOOK. Til. 323 

full ; they wiU all depart away witli the evacuation, aud Book ni. 
he will soon be well. ^^* ^^'"" 

2. For that ilk. Take dust of cummin, mingle, it 
with goats and bulls gall, rub the navel with them all, 
the worms will all disappear from the man downwards. 


1. For joint pain ; sing nine times this incantation 
thereon, and spit thy spittle on the joint : " Malignus 
" obligavit; angelus curavit; dominus salvavit." It 
will soon be well with him. 

2. For that ilk. Take doves dung and a goats tord, 
dry them thoroughly and rub to dust, mingle with 
honey and with butter, smear the joints therewith. 


For warts ; take hounds mie, and a mouses blood, 
mingle together, smear the warts therewith, they will 
soon depart away. 

For elephantiasis, take the netherward part of hele- 
nium and aconite, and dock, that namely which will 
swim, of all equal quantities, and pound well and boil 
in butter, add a good spice of salt, and smear there- 
with. Work thus a bath against the mickle body 
brought on by leprosy, helenium, enchanters night- 
shade, marrubium, churmel, elder twigs, and oak twigs; 
boil strongly in water, and bathe the body in it very 
hot. Work thus a drink against the mickle body; put 
hindheal, churmel, thyme, nepeta, agrimony, betony, 
fennel, dill, into good ale ; administer to be drunk in 
a day three cups full. Work a brewit for that ilk ; 
take the netherward part of helenium and everthroat, 
radish, and the netherward part of the red nettle, scrape 
them small, and pound them well. Afterwards boil 
them in butter; add ivy tar besides if thou have it, 
and a little barley meal ; put this on a dish with the 

X 2 

324 L^CE BOC. 

•j3 hit col fie j'ele etan on neaht neytij .III. fnjeba 
jfele jpone bjiip -j ]?one bpenc sep J>am hadpe ]>y Isey hit 
mylea sejztep ]?am ba]?e. 


Pi]? pmjalum J>ujifte ^ untjiumjia manna • Nim pep- 
mob "j hmb hiolo]7an -j 3y]?pi}:an pylle on ealaj? jefpete 
fol. 117 a. hpon pele him bpmcan hit hsel}? )7one jjupfc^ pun- 


Pi]? mnan jioptoje '^ i'msel ]jeapma ece • jenim beto- 
nican • -j pepmob • mepce • prebic • pmul • jecnua ealle* 
•j bo on eala fete ]?onne -j beppeoh bjimc on neaht 
nej'tij ycenc pulne, 


Vi]? bpyne jip mon fie mib fype ane fopbsepneb 
mm pubupofan • -j hhan • -j hleomoc pyl on butejian 
•j fmipe mib. xtp mon fie mib psetan popbsepneb nime 
elm pmbe • "j lilian mojian pyl on meolcum fmipe mib 
]?]iipa on bses- pi}? funbpyne • meppe ipij tpiju pyl 
on butpan fmipe mib. 


pypc jobne "Seop bpenc • pepmob • bojen • japclipan' 
^ polleian • penpypt • J?a fmalan pel tejipe • eajpyjit • 
]?eoppypt • ceafcep sej'cef . ii. fnseba • elenan . ill. com- 
mucef 3 III. pubu peax an jobne b?el • cupmeallan • 
jej-ceappa }?af pypta on job hlutcop eala o]?]?e pylifc 
ealu Iset ftanban .ill. nilit beppijen ]-ele bpmcan 
j'cenc fulne tibe sep o}?pum mete, pi]? J?eope *j pi]? 
fol. 117 b, ]'ceotenbum penne • mm bojen • -j jeappan -j pubu peax 

' bufr, MS. I ^ Read yojicogennerre 1- 

■' )>|.f-, MS. 


worts, and stir it about with a spoon till it Ije cool ; ^^ook ill. 

. , . . . . Ch xxvi. 

give the onan to eat at night lasting three bits of it ; 
give the brewit and the drink before the bath; let it 
strike inwards after the bath. 


For the constant thirst of ailing men; take worm- 
wood, and hind heal, and githrife, boil in ale, sweeten 
a little, give to the man to drink, it healeth the thirst 


For inward griping and small guts ache ; take betony, 
and wormwood, marche, radish, fennel ; pound all and 
put into ale, then set it down and wrap it up ; drink 
at night fasting a cup full. 


For a burn ; if a man be burnt with fire only, take 
woodruff, and lily, and brooklime ; boil in butter, and 
smear therewith. If a man be burnt with a liquid, 
let him take elm rind and roots of lily; boil theui in 
milk, smear therewith thrice a day. For sunburn ; 
boil in butter tender ivy twigs; smear therewith. 


Work a good " dry " drink for the " dry " disease ; 
wormwood, thyme, agrimony, pennyroyal, wenwort, 
the small centaury, eyewort, inula conyza, two pro- 
portions of black hellebore, three of helenium, eight of 
cammock, wood wax, a good deal of it, churmel ; scrape 
these worts into good clear ale, or foreign ale, let it 
stand wrapt up for three nights, give the man a cup 
full to drink an hour before other meat. Against the 
" dry disease " and against a shooting wen ; take Ijothen, 
and yarrow, and wood wax, and ravens foot, put into 

326 L^CE BOC. 

"j hjiepnejf pot bo on job ealu yele bjimcan on bseje 
. III. pcencaf fulle. Tip J^eoji jepunije on anjie fcope 
pypc bejjinje nnn ]5 ipij |7e on fcane peaxe • "j jeappan • 
V "j pubu bmbep leap *j cuplyppan jecnua ealle pel leje 
sy on hatne fcan on tjioje jeot hpon psetepief on Iset; 
peocan on f lie }jte)i J^sep liim Jpeapp pie ]7onne pe col 
fie bo ojpepne hatne on he]>e fpa jelome him bij> 
fona pel. 

. XXXI. 

Pypc jobe penpealpe mm pubu mepce- "j hpepnep 
pot • "j pepmob nio)?opeapbne • cii plyppan • puban • 
pubu bmbep leap- ipij leap ]7e on eopj^an yixp- pa, clu- 
pihtan* penpypt* jecnua ealle- pyl on pammep fmeppe 
o]>]>e on buccan bo ])pibban bsel butepan appmj ]?uph 
claj? bo |7omie ^obne fcip tapan to -j hpeji o]? f hit 
col fie. 


Vy^ic jobe bolh pealpe mm jeappan- -j pubu popan 
mo]7opeapbe- pelb mopan • "j mojjopeapbne pijel hpeop- 
pan pyl on jobpe butepan appmj J?uph cla6 'j Iset je- 
fuanban pel selc bolh ]7U meaht lacman mib. 


Ztp mon fie upan on heapob punb -j fie ban je- 

fol. 118 a. bpocen mm pijel hpeojipan - -j hpite clseppan pifan - 

■j pubupopan bo on jobe butpan aj^eoh puph claS "j 

lacna pi]?]^an. :• 

Tip fio eaxl upfuije mm ^ J^a j-ealpe bo hpon peapme 
mib pe}»epe him bi^ pona pel. Pypc jobne bolh bpenc 
mm ajpimoman 'j pubu popan bo on 50b ealo pele 
bpincan jobne j'cenc pulne on neahc neptij. jip je- 

' ni bo, MS. 


good ale, give the man to drink three cups full a day : Book III. 
if the "dry disease" remain in one place, work a 
fomentation thus ; take the ivy, which groweth on 
stone, and yarrow, and leaves of woodbind and cow- 
slip ; pound all these well, lay them on a hot stone in 
a trough, pour a little water upon them, let it reek 
upon the body, where need may be ; when the stone is 
cool, put another hot one in, foment the man so fre- 
quently. It will soon be well with him. 


Work a good wen salve thus; take wood marche, 
and ravens foot, and the netherward part of worm- 
wood, cowslip, rue, leaves of woodbind, ivy leaves, that 
ivy which groweth on the earth, the cloved wenwort; 
pound thein all, boil in rams grease, or in bucks grease, 
put a third part of butter, wring through a cloth, then 
add good ship tar, and shake till it be cool. 


Work a good wound salve thus; take yarrow, and 
the nether part of woodruff, fieldmore, and the nether 
part of solwherf; boil in good butter, wring through 
a cloth, and let it stand. Pretty well every wound 
thou mayst cure therewith. 


1. If a man be wounded in his upper quarter, in 
his head, and some bone be broken ; take solwherf, 
and white clover plants, and woodruff; put into good 
butter, strain through a cloth, and so treat the imtient. 

2. If the shoulder get up out of place, take the 
salve, apply a little warm with a feather : it will soon 
be well with the man. Work a good wound drink 
thus; take agrimony, and woodruff, put them into 
good ale, give the man to drink a good cup full, at 

328 LMGE BOCf. 

bjiocen ban fie on heaybe -j oj: nelle cnua jpene beto- 
nican -j leje on f bolh jelome o]> f j?a ban op lyn "j 
^ bolh jebatob. 

, J)i]> Imnbe]' ylite cnupa pibban leje on f bolh *j 
puban pyl on butjian lacna mib f bolh. Tip fmpe fyn 
popcoppene mm penpypmap jecnupa pel lege on o]y ^ hi 
hale fynb. jlp pmpe pien jepcpuncene nime a3mettan 
inib hiopa bebjepibe pyl on psetpe "j bej^e mib "j pece 
])a, )-inpe jeopnlice. 


Vijj jonjepippan bite mm hemie tej jnib on ealu 
lipeap "j ]-ceaj)e]- topb nipe fpa he nyte pele hi in bjiincan 
jobne fcenc pulne. 


Pi]? cancpe mm jate jeallan -j hum 5 menj to 
fomne ■ bejea empela bo on f bolh. To J^on ilcan nipe 
hunbep heapob bsepn to ahpan bo on bolh • jip hit 
fol. 118 b. nelle j5 mm monnef bpojan bpij Ipi^e jnib to bulte 
bo on jip pu mib ]>yp ne meaht jelacman ne meaht 
]m him ?eppe nahte. 


n Dip )?on jje jnp ne mseje beapn acenuan • mm pelb 

mopan nio]7opeapbe pyl on meolcum -j on psetpe bo 
bejea empela j'ele etan ]?a mopan 'j ]5 pop fupan. To 
]7on ilcan binb on ■^ pinfcpe J?eoh up pi8 f cennenbe 
Km moJ?opeapbe beolonan oj^j^e . xii. copn cellenbpan 
psebep "j f j-ceal bon cniht o^8e mseben • fpa f beapn 
)-ie acenneb bo }ja pyjita aj^ej ]>y hey ]5 mnelpe utj-ije. 


night fasting. If there be a broken bone in the head, Rook III. 
and it will not come away, pound green betony and ' ■^^''"'• 
lay it on the wound frequently, till the bones come 
away and the wound is mended, 

For rending of hound ; pound ribwort, lay it on the 
wound, and boil rue in butter, tend the wound there- 
with. If sinews are cut through ; take worms, pound 
them well, lay on till the sinetvs be restored. If sinews 
be shrunken ; take emmets with their nest, boil them 
in water, and beathe therewith, and earnestly reek the 
sinews vjith the vapour. 


Against bite of gangway weaving spider ; take a 
hens Qgg, rub it up raw into ale, and a sheeps tord 
new, so that the 'patient wit it not, give him a good 
cup full to drink. 

XXX vi. 

Against cancer ; take goats gall and honey, mingle 
together of both equal quantities, apply to the wound. 
For that ilk ; burn a fresh hounds head to ashes, 
apply to the wound. If the luound will not give way 
to that, take a mans dung, dry it thoroughly, rub to 
dust, apply it. If with this thou art not able to cure 
him, thou mayst never do it by any means. 


In case that a woman may not kindle a bairn ; 
take of fieldraore the nether part, boil it , in milk and 
in water, apply of both equal quantities, give the roots 
to her to eat and the wash to sip. For that ilk. ^^xA^t^Jco^t.- 
Bind on her left thigh, up against the kindling limb, 
the netlierward part of henbane, or twelve grains of 
coriander seed, and that shall give a boy a or maiden : 
when the bairn is kindled, remove the worts away, lest 

330 L^CE BOC. 

Ttp 6]: pipe nelle jan ?eptep J^am beojij^pe ^ jecynbelic 
fie • feoJ»e ealb fpic on psetpe be]?e mib ]7one cpi]? oSSe 

v^ hleomoc oJ?]?e hoccej' leap pyl on ealo]? j'ele bpmcan 
lilt hat. Ttp on pipe j-ie beab beapn pyl on meolce 'j 

\ on psetpe hleomoc *j polleian pele bpmcan on bsej tupa. 
Teopne if to pypnanne beapneacnum pipe f hio aht 
fealtep ete oS^e fpetej- oJ>J>e beop bpmce • ne fpmef plsepc 
ete ne naht psetep • ne bpuncen jebpmce ne on pej ne 
pepe • ne on hoppe to fpi^e pibe j^y Isef f beapn op 
fol. 119 a. hipe fie sep piht tibe. jip hio ^ blebe to fpi]>e septep 
]7am beop|?]ie nio]?opeapbe clatan pyl on meolce pele 
etan *j fupan ]5 poj\ 


pi]; ]?on ]ye pipum fie popfcanben hipa mona]? jecynb 
pyl on eala^S hleomoc -j tpa cupmeallan pele bpmcan 
•j be]7e f ptp on hatum baj^e "j bjimce |7one bpenc on 
)?am ba]?e hapa ]?e sep jepopht clam op beop bpseptan 
•j op 5penpe mucjpypte •j mepce • -j op bepene melpe 
menj ealle tofomne jehjiep on pannan clsem on f 
jecynbe lim -j on ]?one cpi'S nio]7opeapbne ]7onne hio 
op )?am babe jse]? 'j bpmce pcenc pulne Jjsep ilcan 
bpencef^ peapmep ^j beppeoh f pip pel -j Iset beon fpa 
becl^meb lanje tibe l^sep bas^ef bo fpa tupa fpa ]7pipa 
fpiB];ep ]7U I'cyle • j)u pcealt fimle pam pipe bee]? pyji- 
cean -j bpenc pellan on ]?a ilcan tib • ]>e hipe fio jecynb 
a3t psepe ahj-a ]fsey set ];am pipe. 

Ttp pipe to fpi]?e opplope fio mona5 jecynb • jemm 
nipe hoppej- topb leje on hate jleba Iset peocan fpi]?e 

• Ino in MS. follows Ipy laef ; the scribe having copied from some 
older writing in which it had been placed out of the line. 
2 fcencef, MS 



the matrix prolapse. If what is natural will not come 
away from a woman after the birth, seethe old lard 
in water, bathe the vulva therewith ; or boil in ale 
brooklime or hollyhock, administer it to drink hot. If 
there be a dead bairn in a woman, boil in milk and 
in water brooklime and pulegium, give it her to drink 
twice a day. Earnestly must a pregnant woman be 
cautioned, that she eat naught salt or sweet, noi- drink 
beer, nor eat swines flesh, nor aught fat, nor drink to 
drunkenness, nor fare by the way, nor ride too much 
on horse, lest the bairn come from her before the right 
time. If she bleed too much after the birth, boil in 
milk the netherward part of clote, give it her to cat, 
and the ooze to sip. 

Book III. 
Ch, xxxvii. 


1 . In case mulieribus menstrua suppressa sunt ; boil 
in ale brooklime, and the two centauries, give "Aer"^ 
this to drink, and beathe " the woman " in a hot bath, 
and let her drink the draught in the bath ; have ready 
prepared a poultice of beer dregs, and of green mug- 
wort, and marche, and of barley meal ; mix them all 
together ; shake them up in a pan, apply to the natura, 
and to the netherward part of the vulva, when she 
goeth. off the bath, and let her drink a cup full of the 
same drink warm, and wrap up the woman well, and 
leave her so poulticed for a long time of the day,^ do 
so twice or thrice, whichever thou must. Thou shalt 
always prepare a bath and give the potion to the 
woman at that ilk tide, at which the catamenia were 
vipon her ; inquire of the woman about that. 

2. Si muliebria nimis fluunt ; take a fresh horses 
tord, lay it on hot gledes, make it reek strongly 

' The Saxon text varies the 
numbers, plural and singular. 
- By a transposition in the text, 

we should get " twice or thrice a 
" day." 

832 L^CE BOC. 

becpeoli ]n\ |?eoli tip unbeji ];a3'c lipsejl f ye mon 
fptete fpi]?e. 


fol. 119 b. Vi'S fmeapypme fmipinj • mm fpmep jeallan *j 

pipcep jeallan* -j hpepnep ^eallan- -j liapan jeallan 
menj to pomne fmipe j^a bolh mib blap mib hpeobe on ^ 
f peap on f bolh cnua ]70une heopoc bpembel leap leje 
on |?a bolh. Pypc bejjinje to J^on ilcan mm sepp pmbe • 
"j pi]i pmbe • epic pmbe • plah ]7opn pinbe • pippmbe • ^ 
V bepc pmbe- cnua ealle"^ ]7a junba pyl on cype hpseje 
ppeah mib *j be])e f Itm ])e pe pypm on fie • 'j septep 
J)8epe bej^mje abpij *j fmipe mib j^sejie pealpe • -j blap 
]7a pealpe on J>a bolh "j leje Sa bpembel leap on bo fpa 
on bseje Spipa on fumepa -j on jnntpa tpipa. 

Pypc ]?a blacan )'ealpe 31}: J^e J>eapp fie • jepamna 
]7e cu ambpu hpy]?pa micjean • 'j ambep pulne holen 
jimba • -j sepcpmba • -j j^unjep • pylle })onne on cetele 
o]> ^ pe pseta fie tpjebe on bep^^lleb abo op ])a pypta 
■j ba pmba • j'yl ept oj? p hi~ pie fpa ]?icce fpa molcen 
v/^ -j fpa fpeapt fpa col fmijie mib pi]p];an ]3 bolh -j hapa 
clam jepopht op mealtej' fmebman 'j op hpitmj melpe- 
-j elehtjian clupa cnua -j jnib topomne pypc to clame 

fol. 120 a. jip he fie to bpije bo on bpeopenbe pypt hpon clseni 
on ]?a bolh -j utan ymb • ]-i];]mn hie jefmypeb fynb 
feo j-ealp ]>ile sejiefc ]?a bolh pyman *j f beabe plsepc 
opetan -j j^one fpile a|>psenan -j ]wne pypm ]?8e]i on 
beabne ^ebe]? o]?]?e cpicne opbpipcS -j ]>a bolh jelacna'S. :■ 

' )> rea)), MS. j ^ die, MS. 

2 ))i]i)nnbe is thus repeated in MS. I 


between the tliighs, up under the raiment, that the Book III. 

, 1 Ch. xxxviii. 

woman may sweat much. 


1. A smearing for a penetrating worm; take swines 
gall, and fishes gall, and crabs gall, and hares gall ; 
mingle them together, smear the wounds thereAvith ; 
blow with a reed the liquid into the wound ; then 
pound hart bramble^ leaves, lay them on the wounds. 
Work up a fomentation for that ilk ; take aspen rind, 
and myrtle rind, quickbeam rind, sloethorn rind, birch 
rind ; pound all the rinds together, boil them in cheese 
whey, wash therewith and foment the limb on which 
the wound is, and after the beathing dry and smear 
with the salve, and blow the salve into the wounds, 
and lay on the bramble leaves ; do so thrice a day in 
summer, and in winter twice. » 

2. Work up the black salve, if need be, thus; collect 
two buckets of bullocks mie, and a bucket full of holly 
rinds, and of ash rind, and of aconite ; then boil in 
a kettle till the liquor be boiled to two thirds, remove 
the " worts " and the rinds ; boil again till it be as 
thick as milk porridge and as swart as a coal ; after- 
wards smear the wound therewith, and have a plaster 
ready wrought of fine smede of malt, and of whiting 
meal, and lupins; cleave, pound, and rub them together, 
work them into a paste ; if it be too dry, add brew- 
ing wort, a trifle of it; dab it on the wounds and 
round about them. After they are smeared, the salve 
will first enlarge the wounds, and eat ofi" the dead 
flesh, and soften the swelling, and it will do to 
death the worm therein, or diive him away alive, 
and will heal the wounds. 


334 L.ECE BOO. 


yiy Jpon ];e mon fie mona]^ j-eoc mm mepe fpmejf pel 
pyjic to fpipaii fpmj mib pone man j-ona bi^ j'el • 



Vypc - jobne bpenc pij> eallum jreonbef cofcunjum • 
Nim betonican • bifceop pypt • elehtpan • jyjjpipan • 
attoplajpan • pulpep camb • jeappan • leje unbep peopob 
jefjnje .villi, msejjan opep jefceappa ]?a pypta on 
lialij psetep pele bpmcan on neaht neptij pcenc pulne • 
•j bo j5 lialij psetep on ealne ]?one mete J?e pe man 
, I'lcje. Pyjic jobe pealp e pij? peonbej- cofcunja • bifceop 

pypt . elehtpe • hapan^ fppecel • fcpeapbepian pipe • fio 
clupihte penpypt eopSpima • bpembel seppel • polleian • 
pepmob . jecnua Jja pypta ealle apylle on jobpe 
bntepan ppmj ])uph cla^ fete unbep peopob j'mje 
fol. 120 b. .vim. mseppan opep • fmipe ];one man mib on |?a J7un- 
ponje • "j bupan )?am eajum -j upan f heapob • -j |?a 
bpeoft -j unbep ]7am eapmum J)a fiban. beop pealp 
ip 50b pi}> selcpe peonbep cofcunja -j selpfibenne -j 
lencten able. jip pu pilt lacnian jepitfeocne man 
jebo bybene pulle cealbep paetpep bpyp ]7pipa on ]?se]' 
bpencej' • bef'e J?one man on Jjam pastpe -j ete pe man 
jehaljobne lilap • ^ cype • *j japleac • -j epopleac -j 
bpmce ]?8ep bpencep pcenc pulne -j ];onne he pie 
beba]?ob fmipe mib ]78epe j-ealpe fpi]?e • -j pi}>]?an him 
pel pie pypc him |7onne fpi^ne bpenc titypnenbum.^ 
Pypc ]?U]' )>one bpenc mm lybcopnep leap • -j cele];o- 
nian mopan • -j jlsebenan mopan • -j hoccep mopan • 
■j ellenep pypttpuman pmbe pyl on ealaS Iset fcanban 
neahrejme ahlyttjie ]?onne -j gepypm bo butepan to *j 

' amen is in a different hand. I ' hajia, MS. 

- Vjic, MS. I ^ Read ucypnenbe, for -bne. 


xl. Book III. 

Ch. xl. 

In case a man be lunatic ; take skin of a mereswine 
or porpoise, work it into a whip, swinge the man 
therewith, soon he will be well. Amen. 


Work thus a good drink against all temptations of the 
devil. Take betony, bishopwort, lupins, githrife, attor- 
lothe, wolfscomb, yarrow ; lay them under the altar, 
sing nine masses over them, scrape the worts into holy 
water, give the man to drink at night fasting a cup 
full, and put the holy water into all the meat which 
the man taketh. Work thus a good salve against 
temptations of the fiend. Bishopwort, lupin, vipers 
bugloss, strawberry plant, the cloved wenwort, earth 
rime, blackberry, pennyroyal, wormwood ; pound all the 
worts, boil them in good butter, wring through a cloth, 
set them under the altar, sing nine masses over them ; 
smear the man therewith on the temples, and above 
the eyes, and above the head, and the breast, and the 
sides under the arms. This salve is good for every 
temptation of the fiend, and for a man full of elfin 
tricks, and for typhus fever. If- thou wilt cure a wit 
sick man, put a pail full of cold water, drop thrice into it 
some of the drink ; bathe the man in the water, and let 
the man eat hallowed bread, and cheese, and garlic, and 
cropleek, and drink a cup full of the drink ; and when 
he hath been bathed, smear with the salve thoroughly ; 
and when it is better with liim, then work him a 
strong purgative drink. Work the drink thus ; take 
leaves of libcorn, and roots of celandine, and roots of 
gladden, and root of hollyhock, and rind of root of 
elder; boil in ale, let it stand for the space of a night, 
then clarify, and warm it, add butter and salt, ad- 

336 LJECF, BOC, 

j-ealc yele bjuncan. Py]ie fpipe bpenc uryjineiibne nim 
feopejitij lybcopna bepenb pel -j jejnib on niojjopeapbe 
celeJ?onian -j lioccep mojian -j tpa clupe j^sepe clupehtaii 
penpypte -j hpeplij^ette nijjepeapbe an lytel • 'j ham- 
j'yjite mojian mebmicel • jebo ealle ]?a pypta fpij>e pel 
clsene "j jecnua bo on eala beppeoli Iset fcanban neah.- 
fol. 121 a. tepne yele bpmcan pcenc pulne. 

Qip fpiSbpenc on man jepitte -j he nelle opjan 
mm mj^epeapbe cele}?onian • "j lybcopuep leap o]>]>e 
apob pyl on ealaS bo bute]\an "j pealr to yele bpmcan 
peapmep pcenc pulne. 


J)}]> attpep bpmce feo|? henne -j hoccep leap on 
p?etpe abo ]?one pujel op -j ]?a py]^ta j-ele fupan -p 
bjioS pel jebutepob fpa he hatofc raseje • jip he seji 
hsepj) attoji jebpuncen ne bi]? him alite j^e pypp pp 
he f bpo^ ]?onne sep fyp^ ne meahc |7U him |7y bse^e 
atco^ jepellan ; 


Vijj luj'um pele him etan jefobenne capel on neaht 
neptij jelome he bij; luptim bepepeb. 


Qip pojxn fcmje man on p6r dppe hpeob -j nelle 
opjan mme mpe joj-e topb • -j jpene jeappan cnupije 
fpi])e topomne clasm on -^ bolh fona bij» pel ; 


minister to drink. Work iltvf! a purgative spew drink ; Book in. 
take forty libcorns, rend tliem Avell, and rnl) them ^'''- x'"- 
simall upon the netlierward part of celandine and 
mallow roots, and two cloves of the .cloved wen^ 
wort, and a little of the netlierward part of cucumber, 
and a moderate quantity of the root of homewort ; 
make all the worts thoroughly well clean, and pound 
them; put them into ale, wrap up, let it stand for a 
nights space, give the man a cup full to drink. 


If a strong potion lodge in a man, and will not 
come away, take the netlierward part of celandine, 
and leaves of libcorn or arod,' boil in ale, add butter 
and salt, give to drink a cup full of it warm. 


For drink of poison ; seethe a hen and leaves of 
mallow in water, remove the fowl and the worts, 
give the man the broth to sip, well buttered, as hot 
as he can tal'e it. If he hath drunken j^oison before, 
it will be none the worse with him. If he supneth the 
broth beforehand thou mayst not that day give him 
poison (effectually), 


Against lice ; give the man to eat sodden colewort 
at night fasting, frequently : he will be guarded against 


If a thorn or a reed prick a man in the foot, and 
will not be gone ; let him take a fresh goose tord and 
green yarrow, let him pound them thorousfhly together, 
paste them on the wound, soon it Avill be well. 

» Aron ? 

338 LMCE EOC. 

J)\\> {Bj-mselum • -j pi]? eallum eajna pnepce • ceo]' 
pulpep comb j'jimj ])onne ]>uph hsepenne claS pyllenne 
on |)a eajaii f peap on nilit J?onne he pepcan pille -j 
on mojijen bo rejep ]> lipice ])X]\ on. 


^ Vi]? lyp'^ able jTp )-e muS pie poh o]>];e jwn • mm 

fol. if^H), eellenb]ian jnib on pipej- meolce bo on f hale eape hira 
hi]? pona pel. Gpt mm cellenbpan abjnj ^epypc to 
bufce jemenj ]> bufc -pip pipep nieoluc J?e psepneb pebe 
ajjpmj ]7U]ih hsepenne claS "j fmipe p hale ponj^e mib 
-j b]iype on ]5 eape psejiliee. Pypc ]?onne bej^mje • 
jenim bpembel pmbe -j elm jiinbe • £epc pinbe • plah- 
]?opn pmbe apulboji pmbe • ipij pmbe • ealle pap 
nio];opea]ibe -j hpephpetcan • fmejiu pyj^t • eopoji peajm • 
elene • selpjjone • betomce • mapubie • pebic • aj;]!!- 
raonia jefceappa pa pyjita on cetel *j pyl fpi^e • ]?onne 
hit fie fpi]?e jepylleb bo op pam pype -j pete 'j ^epypc 
pam men petl opep pam citele -j beppeop "Sone man 
mib ^ pe £e]?m ne masje tic nahpreji butan he mreje 
jeepian • bepe hme mib J?ippe bepmje ];a hpile pa he 
maeje apsepnan. JDapa him ponne opep beep jeapa • 
;^enim semet beb mib ealle • papa pe hpilum pleojaS 
beop peabe • pyl on psetpe bepe hme mib • onjemet- 
hatum. Pypc him ponne ]'ealpe mm felcep pa]ia 
cynnep ]>y)ita pyl on butejian fmipe mib ]?a papan 
limu Ine cpiciap j-ona. Pypc him leaje op ellen ahj-an 
ppeah hip lieapob mib colpe him bip pona bet • *j pe 
man Irete him blob selce monpe on .v. mhta ealbne 
monan 'j on piptyne -j on .xx. 


xlvi. Book 11 r. 

lor immmutions/ and for all pain of the eyes; chew 
wolfscomb, then wring the ooze through a purple cloth 
upon the eyes, at night, when the man has a mind to 
rest, and in the morning apply the white of an egg. 


For palsy, if the mouth be awry or livid, rub cori- 
ander in v/omans milk, put it into the sound ear, it 
will soon be well with the inan. Again, take coriander, 
dry it, work it to dust, mingle the dust with milk of 
a woman, who brought forth a male, wring through a 
purple cloth, and smear the sound cheek therewith, and 
drip it on the ear warily. Then work a fomentation ; 
take bramble rind, and elm rind, ash rind, sloethorn 
rind, appletree rind, ivy rind, all these from the nether 
part of the trees, and cucumber, smearwort, everfern, 
helenium, enchanters nightshade, betony, marrubium, 
radish, agrimony ; scrape the worts into a kettle, and 
boil strongly. When it hath been strongly boiled, re- 
move it off the fire and set it do^un, and get the man 
a seat over the kettle, and wrap the man up, that the 
vapour may get out nowhere, except only so that the 
man may breathe ; beathe him with this fomentation as 
long as he can bear it. Then liave another bath ready 
fo]' him, take an emmet bed, all at once, a bed of those 
male eniiinets which at whiles fly, they are red ones, boil 
them in water, beathe him with it immoderately hot. 
Then make him a salve ; take worts of each kind of 
those above tnentioned, boil them in butter, smear the 
sore limbs therewith, they will soon quicken. Make 
him a ley of elder ashes, wash his head with this 
cold ; it will soon be well with him : and let the man 
get bled every month, when the moon is five, and 
fifteen, and twenty nights old. 

' Contraction of the pupil. 

Y 2 

.340 L^CE EOC, 

fol. 122 a. .XLVIII. 

Djienc yi]} pc able mm bulut • -j eoyojij^potan 
nio]?opeapbe • ^ pubu pillan • "j jeacej* yupan • -j 
fppeppan jej'ceapjra ]:>a)' pyp'co coSomne bo on pellet: 
mnan Iset franban iieahtepne a^p ]ni hme bjiince. 
\/ PyP*^ belnnje mm -p peabe jiybeii bo on rju;^ lia^t: 

ponne franap f]n|?e hate leje on p rjnj innan -j he 
yitce on frole opeji jnejie bejjinje p liio lime m?e;5e 
rela jepeocan J^onne peallaS ]>a pc pypmap on J>a 
bejwnje liini bi]j j'ona pel • bjnnce ]?one bjienc ve\\ 
Jvsepe bej^mje • jip he ]?onne J?a bejjmje jnijihteon ne 
mpeje bpmce ]>one bpenc felce ba^je o]? p him pel fie. 


Vi|> pciilbop pa?jice "j eajima • j'yl betonican on ealo6 
peie bpinean jelome -j pimle linipe hine rer pype mib 

^ly cneop j'aji yie cnna beolenan ■-] heinlic bepe mib 
-J lei^e on. 


Gip pe por pa]\ pie ellen leap • 'j jjejbjiseban -j 
mncjpyjit jeenua 'j leje on 'j ^ebinb hat pa3]i on. :• 

.LI I. 

Qip ]>u ne msBje blob bolh po]ip]n]?au mm uipe 
fol. 122 b. hoji]-e]- topb abpij on fimnan jej^nib to bufte fpi|;e 
pel leje p bnfc I'pipe piece on linenne clap pjup mib 
py p bolli. 

^"Tp meoluc fie apyjib biub toSomne pejbpa^ban • 'j 
gipjupm • "j cepfan leje on pone pilbcumb ^j ne fete p 
jisec nijep on eojipan feopon uihtum. 


A drink lor the "lig" disease; take bulut, and the 
netherward part of everthroat, and wild cliervil, and 
cuckoosoiir, and iefcrth; scrape these worts togetlier, put 
them into a basin, let it stand for the space of a night, 
ere thou drink it. Work a fomentation thus ; take the 
red ryden, put it in a trough, then heat stones very hot, 
lay them within the trough, and let tlcG man sit on 
a stool over the fomentation, that it may reek him 
well, then the " tig " worms will fall on the beathing, 
and it will soon be well with him. Let him drink 
the drink before the beathing; if then he cannot pull 
through the beathing, let him drink the drink every 
day till it be all right with him. 

Against pain of shoulders and arms ; Ijoil l:)etouy in 
ale, give It the man to drink frequently, and always 
smear him at the lire with wenwort. 

If a knee be sore, pound henbane and hemlock, 
foment therewith and lay on. 


If the foot be sore, pound and lay on elder leaves, 
and waybroad, and mugwort ; and bind hot upon the 

If thou be not able to stanch a bloodletting incision, 
take a new horses tord, dry it in the sun, rub it to 
dust thoroughly well, lay the dust very thick on a 
linen cloth ; wrap up the wound with that. 

If milk be spoilt ; bind together waybroad, and gitii- 
rife, and cress, lay them on the milk pail, and set not 
the vessel down on the earth for seven niiihts. 

Book iir. 

Cli. xlviii. 

842 LiECE EOC. 

Pypc j'ealpe pi^ nihtjengan • pyl on butepan 
elehcjian • hejepifan • bifceop pypt: • peabe majj^aii • 
cpopleac • peak fmijie mib liim bi5 pona pel. 

. LV. 
Zip men I'lo heapob panne beo jehlenceb aleje ]7one 
man tippeapb bpip .11. fcacan yet j^am eaxlum lege 
|?onne bjieb Jppeopep opeji );a pet pleali ]7onne ]>pipa on 
^ mib pleje bytle hio ^se]> on juht Sona. 

Gtp men nelle mylran hip mete nij^epeapb elate 'j 
mepce -j fimbcopnep leap pyl on eala]? fele bpincan. 

. LVII. 
Vi]? ptp jemseblan jebepje on neaht neptij psEjbicej" 
mopan ]?y bseje ne msej ]>e pe jemgebla pce]?J?an. 

J)i]> peonbep cofcunje pub molin' hatte pypt peaxe]? 
be ypnenbum psetpe • jip ]?u J^a on J?e liapaft "j unbep 
Jjmum heapob bolfcpe • -j opep Jjinep huj'ep bupum • ne 
fol. 120 a. niceg J^e beopol pce]?]?an Inne ne ute. 

. LVil[n]. 

Pi]> l^eojt penile jip he lie men on clieope o]>])e on 
ojjjum lime pyjic clam op puppe pijenpe 5put oS5e 
baje jebo aejef hpit to "j bjioc cepfan leje on f Km 
o]f f ye clam hatije bo op ]?one lege o]?ejine |?8ep on. 

Read molin. 

l.EEUll J.OOK. III. OlS 

liv. Book III. 

. Ch. liv. 

Work Ji salve against nocturnal goblin visitors ; boil 
in butter lupins, hedgeriie, bishop wort, led may the, 
cropleek, salt; smear the rami therev/ith, it will soon 
be well with him. 


If a mans head-pan, or skull, be seemingly iron- 
bound lay the man with face upward, drive two 
stakes into the groimcl at the armpits, then lay a plank 
across over his feet, then strike on it thrice with a 
sledge beetle, the skull will come right soon. 


If a mans meat will not digest, boil in ale the 
nether ward part of clote, and marche, and leaves of 
saxifrage, give Idm that to drink. 


Against a womans chatter ; taste at night fasting 
a root of radish, that day the chatter cannot harm 


Against temptation of the fiend, a wort hight red 
niolin, red stalk, it waxeth by running water : if thou 
hast it on thee, and imder thy head bolster, and over 
thy house doors, the devil may not scathe thee, within 
nor without. 


For a " dry " wen ; if it be on a man's knee, or on 
another limb, work a paste of sour rye groats or dough, 
add the Avliite of an egg and brook cresses, lay on the 
limb till the paste gets hot, remove it then and lay 
another on. 

344? LJECE BOC. 


A^ypc johe eap]"eal}:e hiiiibey timje nij^cpeapb 'j i'ln- 
2;)iene -j linjiulle • timhojre nio]?opea]ib • celej^onian lea]:* 
japleac • qxopleac bo on pin ob«5e on eceb pjunj Jmjili 
hsepenne dab on •]> eajie lust; I'ranban .ill. nilir; leji ]'ii 
lime on bo. Bpr mm c-jiopleac "j I'inpullan jecnua ' 
h]'on pinep to -j j^jimj on f eajie him bi]> yona I'el :• 


Pyjic pealpe ]n]> yelpc^'nne 'j nihtjenjaii -j J^am 
manniim J7C beojjol mib ha^mS • 7;enim eopohnmelan • 
pejnnob bij-ccoppyjit; • clelitjie • ;cpc}i)iote • beolone • 
liajie j^yjit; • liajian lp]iecel • ha^]? bejijean jnyan • cjio])- 
leac • jajileac • liejejiijran copn • syj'pife • pinul. bo 
f'ap py]i'^a on an pet lete nnbeji peopob pmg opep 
.Vim. niteppan apyl on burejum -j on pceapep Imejipe 
bo lialijep j-ealrey pela on apeoli ]>uph clab • peopp j'a 
pypta on ypnenbe pseteji. jip men hpilc ypel coptunj 
peo]i]?e o}>]7e relp o]>]w mho jenjaii • rmijie hij' -jplitan 
mib J'lj'pe pealpe -j on hip eajaii bo -j j'ceji him pe 
lichoma pap lie • -j pecella lime "j fena gelome hij- 
J^inj bi|? poua pelpe. 


V lb iclpablo mm bipeeop pyjit; • piiiul • elehtpe • 
<e]p]7onaii nioj'opeajibe • "j 5eha];t,ober cpiirep maslel" 
jia^^ii • -j Iroji bo a^lcjic hanb piille • bebinb ealle }?a 
j'ypta on cla] e bebyp on pont; pit'tjie jehaljobuin 

' bo is to be added. 


Work a good ear salve thini ; the netherward part 
ol" hoiuid.s tong'uu, and siiigreeii, and sedum, the ne- 
tlierward part of garden liove, leaves of celandine, garlic, 
cropleek ; put tlumi into wine or vinegar, "wi'ing them 
through a coloured cloth into the ear; let tJtc liquor 
stand for three nights Ijelbre thou ap[)ly it. Again, 
take cropleek and sedum, pound them, add a little 
wine, and wring into the ear, it will soon be well 
with it. 


Work thus a salve against the elfin race and noc- 
turnal gohliii visitors, and for the women with whom the 
devil liath carnal conunerce ; take the ewe hop plant, 
probably the female hop plant, wormwood, bishopwort, 
lupin, ashthroat, henbane, liarewort, vipers bugloss, 
heathberry plants, cropleek, garlic, grains of hedgerife, 
githrife, fennel ; put these worts into a vessel, set 
tkeini under the altar, sing over them nine masses, 
boil tliG'in in butter and sheeps grease, add much holy 
salt, strain through a clotli, throw the worts into run- 
ning water. If any ill tempting occur to a man, or 
an elf or goblin night visitors come, smear his forehead 
with this salve, and put it on liis eyes, and where his 
body is sore, and cense him with incense, and sign 
him frequently with the sign of the cross ; his con- 
dition Avill soon be better. 


Against elf disease ; take bishoj)wort, fennel, lupin, 
the lower part of enchanters nightshade, and moss or 
lichen from the hallowed sign of Christ, and incense, 
uf each a hand full ; bind all the worts in a cloth, dip 
it thrice in hallowed font water, have sung over 

Book III. 

346 L/KCE BOO. 

jjpijpii • liGt I'm^aii ofcji .III. iiuej'fan • ane oiiinibus 
Sci]' • o]?pe contjia tjiibulacjonem • ]?ribban pjio in- 
pijimiS • bo ];onrLe jleba an jlebpset -j leje ]>& pypta 
on • jejiec ]?one man niib Jjam j^yjicum sep unbepn "j 

V on niht 'j pmj letania -j cpeban -j patep noycep "j 
ppit hnn cpifcejr msel on selcum lime -j mm lytle hanb 
fulle ]%ep ilcan cynnep ]?ypta jelice jelialjobe *-) pyl on 
meolce bpyp |7pipa jehaljobep pietpep on *j lupe sep 
hif mete him loip pona pel. pi]? ]7on ilcan • janj on 
jjunpep jepen J^onne funne on j-etle fie y^^]^ J?u pite 
elenan franban pmj ]?onne benebicite • "j pacep noptep • 

^ -j letanian • -j fcmj J>m j-eax on }?a pypte Iset fcician 

J?a3p on janj ]?e apej ^anj ept to ]?onne bsej -j niht puji- 

]7um pcabe on ];am ilcan uhte ^anj sepelt to ci]iicean 

•j ]?e jej'ena 'j gobe ]7e bebeob jaiij ];onne Ipijenbe 

ibl. 121 a. "j ]7eah ]?e hpset bpeja ejeflicef onjean cume o]>pe man 

ne epe]? ]?u him semj pojib to teji ]>u cume to ];8epe 

pypte ])e pu on sepen sep jemeapcobeft finj j^onne 

/ benebicite • -j patep noptep • -j letania abelp ]>a, ]>y\\^ 

V last fcician f peax ]?sep on • janj ept fpa ]7U jiajjofc 

msese to cipicean -j leje unbep peop ob mib J)am peaxe 

Itet licjean o]> f fimne iippe fie • apsepc fi]?];an bo to 

bpence • -j bipceop pypt -j cjiiftep meelef paju apyl 

]?pipa on ineolcum jeot ];pi])a halij pgetep on linj on 

patep noptep • -j cpeban • -j jlopia m excelpip beo • -j 

fmj on hme letania • -j lime eac ymb ppic mib ipeojibe 

V on .iiii. healpa on cpuce • -j bpmce Jjone bpenc fi]?|?an 
him bij? pona pel. 6pt pi]? ]7on leje unbep peopob |?ap 
pyjite hec jefmjan opep .villi. niEej'pan • pecelp • 
hahj j-ealt .in. heapob cpopleacep ielpponan nioj7e- 

LEECH BOOK. Til. 347 

it three masses, one " Omnibus Sanctis," ' another ^*{^^^"^' 

" Contra tribulationem," ^ a third "Pro inlirmis."^ Then 

put glecles in a glede pan, and lay the worts on : reek 

the man with the worts before nine'' in the morning, 

and at night, and sing a litany, and the credo, and 

the Pater noster, and write Christs mark on each of 

his limbs, and take a little hand full of worts of the 

same kind similarly hallowed, and boil in milk, drop 

thrice some hallowed water into it, and let him sip of it 

before his meat; it will soon be well with him. For 

that ilk. Go on Thursday evening, when the sun is 

set, where thou knowest that helenium stands, then 

sing the " Benedicite," and " Pater noster," and a litany, 

and stick thy knife into the wort, make it stick 

fast, and go away : go again, when day and night just 

divide f at the same period go first to church and 

cross thyself, and commend thyself to God ; then go in 

silence, and though anything soever of an awful sort or 

man a meet thee, say not thou to him any word, ere 

thou come to the wort, which on the evening before 

thou markedst ; then sing the Benedicite, and the Pater 

noster, and a litany, delve up the wort, let the knife 

stick in it ; go again as quick as thou art able to 

church, and lay it under the altar with the knife ; let 

it lie till the sun be up, wash it afterwards, and 

make into a drink, and bishopwort, and lichen off a 

crucifix ; boil in milk thrice, thrice pour holy water 

upon it, and sing over it the Paternoster, the Credo, 

and the Gloria in excelsis deo f and sing upon it a 

litany, and score with a sword round about it on three 

sides a cross, and then after that let the man drink 

the wort; soon will it be well with him. Again for 

that ; lay these worts under the altar, have nine masses 

sung over them, incense, holy salt, three heads ot 

cropleek, the netherward part of enchanters nightshade, 

' la the missal. [ ^ In early mominc 

- The same as " I'ro quacunque j * Luke ii. 14. 
ueccssitate " ? 1 

;)48 L/ECE BOC. 

peajibe • elenan • mm on mopjen fcenc fiulne meoliice 
bjiyp ]?pipa halige]- j^yetejiel" on I'upe fpa he hatolb 
mteje • ete mib .iii. Ihieba selpj^onan "j j^onne he pel- 
tan pille htebbe jleba ];8B]v nine leje Iboji 'j telpj^onan 

fol. 1 -24: b. on ]ni jleba • -j jiec hme mib f he fpiB'ce • -j f hup 
jeonb pec -j ^eopne ];one man jej-ena • -j ];onne he 
on pelre janje eCe .iii. luseba eolenan • *j .ill. cpop- 
leacep • -j .iii. pealtep • "j haebbe hmi fcenc puhie 
ealaS -j bpyj^e ])]iipa hahj pfetep on • bel'upe selce 
Ihieb • jepefre hme pi]?]7an- bo jnp .villi, mojijenal'* -j 
.Villi, niht hnn bi]> pona pel. Jip hnn bi)> lelplbjol'a 
him beo]:» }?a eajan jeolj^e ]nep hi jieabe beon I'ceolbon. 
V Jip |ni ]'0ue mon lacnian pille j^iienc hil" jebtepa -j 
pite hpilcef habef he lie • jip hit bi]j ptopneb man 
--j locaS tip ]7onne ];u lime nepefc j'ceapalb -j pe -jplita 
"' bi); ^eolj^e blac • ]7one mon ])u. meaht jelacman ?eltseplice 

jip lie ne bi]? j^sep on to lanje • jip hit bi]? ptp *j locaS 
ni)7e]i ]7onne ])u hit jejieft pceapalb • "j hipe -jplita bi]? 
peabe pan f ]m iniht eac jelacnian • jip hit biS bsej- 
Jjejme leii^ on ]>onne , xii. mona]? -j I'lo onfyii bijj 
pyplicu J'oniie mealit ])u hme betaii co lijnle • -j ne 
meaht hpsej^ejie leltreplice jelacnian. P]nt Jnp jepjiit • 
Scjiiptum eSc pex jiejum et bomiimp bommantjum • 
byjinice • bepomce • luplupe • lehe • aiup • aiuj* • aiup • 
Scj' • Sep . Sc)' • bommu]" beup Sabaoth • amen • alleluiah. 
Siii;i; ]'ip opeji ])am bpence -j ]>am jepjute • 6eu]' om- 

fol. l-2b a. mpoteiii" p)ate]i bommi noptjvi lesu cjnpti • peji Inpofi- 
tjonem hmnf pcpiptiijia expelle a painulo tuo N-' Om- 
nem Impecuin'- calbalibum ^'^ be eapitc • be capillif • be 

' mmcn. i =• Castalides, hun t'ljen, Gl. iSomn. 

-■ impiTuii, MS. I p. 79 b. Elves of the duwna. 


lielenium ; take in the mornino- a cun full of milk, Book III. 

r"v 1 - ■ ■ 
drop thrice some holy water into it, let tJie Ttiaoi sup 

it up as hot as he can : let him eat therewith throe 

bits of enchanters nightshade, and when he hath a 

mind to rest, let him have in his chamber gledes, let 

him lay on the gledes crrupa^ and elfthone, and reek 

him therewith till he sweat, and reek the house all 

through ; eai'nestly also sign the man with the sign of 

tlie cross, and when he is going to bed, let him eat 

tln-ee bits of helenium, and three of cropleek, and three 

of salt, and let him have a cup full of ale, and thrice 

drop holy water into it; let him sup up each bit, and 

afterwards rest himself. Let him do this for nine 

mornings and nine nights, it will soon be well with 

him. If a man hath elf hicket, his eyes are yellow, 

where they should be red. If thou have a will to 

cure the man, observe his gestures, and consider of what 

sex he be ; if it be a man and looketh up, when thou 

first seest him, and the countenance be yellowish black, 

thou mayst cure the man thoroughly if he is not too 

long in the disease ; if it is a woman and looketh 

down, when thou first seest her, and her countenance 

is livid red, thou mayst also cure that ; if it has been 

upon the man longer than a twelvemonth and a day, 

and the aspect be such as this, then mayst thou amend 

it for a while, and notwithstanding mayst not entirely 

ciu-e it. Write this writing, "Scriptum est, rex regum 

" et dominus dominantium Veronica,' Veronica, , . . iao,- 

" uyto;, ocyioc, uyiog, sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, domi- 

" nus, dens sabaoth, amen, alleluicih." Sing this over 

tlie drink and the writing, "Deus omnipotens, pater 

" domini nostri lesu Christi, per impositionem huius 

" scripturse expelle a famulo tuo, here insert the name, 

" omnem impetum castalidum de capite, de capillis, de 

' The miraculous portrait on the i - nirT" 
kerchief of St. Verouica. 

-550 L^CE Eor. 

cepebjio • be j: ponte • be Imjua • be publmjua • be juctojie • 
be jraucibuf • be bentibup • be oculif • be najtibus . be 
aujiibus • be manibus • be coUo • be bjiaclinf • be copbe • 
be amma • be jenibiis • be coxif • be pebibiis • be com- 
pa^mibus- omnmm raembjiojium mcuf ec }:opif • amen. 
Pyjie Jjonne bjienc jront pseteji • jiuban • Saluian • cafpue • 
v bjiaconzan • J^a fme|7an pejbpfieban nif'epeapbe pejrep 
fupan* biley cjiop- japleacef .ill. clujze- pmul- pepmob- 
lupefeice • elehtpe • ealpa empela • j^pit , iii. cpiicem inib 
oleum mpipmojium "j cpeS • pas Cibi • Nim ponne ]> 
jeppit ppit cpucem mib opeji J?am bpmce ^ fmj ]ny ptep 
opep. beup omnipotenf pateji bommi • noptjii • lesu 
cpipti peji Inpofitjonem liump fcpiptupjB^ et pep jufcum 
huiuS expelle biabolum a pamulo cuo • ]S • - 'j epebo • 
•j patep • noptep • pset f ^eppit on ]?am bpenee -j ppic 
cpucem mib him on selcuni lime -j cpeS fijnum cpueiS 
xpi eonpepuate In uitam euepnam • amen, jip ])e ne 
V lyfce hat hme pelpne o]>pe fpa jepubne fpa he gefibbofc 
hsebbe -j fenije fpa he pelofc cunne • J?ep cpsefc msej 
pi]> selcpe peonbef cofcunje. 


^ip mon bi]? on pastep selpable ]7onne beo]? him ]?a 
lianb ncejlaf ])onne -j ];a eajan ceapije 'j pile locian 
fol. 12 J b. nij^ep • bo him ]?ip co Isecebome • eopojij^poce • capfuc • 
pone nio]>opeapb • eopbepje • elehtpe • eolone • mepfc- 
mealpan cpop • pen niinte • bile • lilie • atcopla]?e • 
V polleie . mapubie • bocce • ellen • pel teppe • pepmob • 
i'rpeapbeji^ean leap • conpolbe • opjeoC mib ealaj> • bo 
halij psetep to finj |>ip jealboji opep ]?pipa • Jo bmne 
a])pat° beteft beabo ppteba fpa benne ne bupnon ne 

-pa, MS. I ^ Fi'om I'jn^au rather than ppiran. 

■ nomen. 


" cerebro, defronte, de lingua, de sublingua, de gutture, de Book III. 
" faucibus, de dentibus, de oculis, de naribus, de auribus, '^'"- 

' ' de manibus, de collo, de bracliiis, de corde, de anima, 
• de genibus, de coxis, de pedibus, de compaginibus 
" omnium membromm intus et foris. Amen." Then 
work up a drink thus ; font Avater, rue, sage, cassuck, 
dragons, the netherward part of the smooth waybroad, 
feverfue, a head of dill, tliree cloves of garlic, fennel, 
wormwood, lovage, lupin, of all equal quantities ; write 
a cross three times with the oil of unction, and say, 
"Pax tibi." Then take the writing, describe a cross 
with it over the drink, and sing this over it, •' Dominus 
" omnipotens, pater domini nostri lesu Christi, per im- 
" positionem huius scripturse et per gustum huius expelle 
" diabolum a famulo tuo;" here insert the name, and the 
Credo, and Paternoster. Wet the wi'iting in the drink, 
and AVi'ite a cross with it on every limb, and say, 
" Signum crucis Christi conservet te in vitam feter- 
'• nam. Amen." If it listeth thee not to take this 
trouble, bid the man himself, or whomsoever he rany 
have nearest sib to him, to do it, and let him cross 
him as well as he can. This craft is powerful against 
every temptation of the fiend. 


If a man is in the water elf disease, then are 
the nails of his hand livid, and the eyes tearful, and 
he will look downwards. Give him this for a leech - 
dom ; everthroat, cassuck, the netherward part of fane, 
a yew berry, lupin, helenium, a head of marsh mallow, 
fen mint, dill, lily, attorlothe, pulegium, marrubium, 
dock, elder, fel terrse, or lesser centaury, wormwood, 
strawberry leaves, consolida ; pour them over with ale, 
add holy water, sing this charm over them thrice : — 

I have wi^eathed round the wonnds 
the best of healing wreaths, 

.352 LMCE Bor. 

bujifcon ne }:iinhian ne ]:eolo5an • ne lioppetan ne 
jmiib pfico • ne bolli biopian • ac lum yelp liealbe 
hale pa^je • ne ace ]'e ]>on nia ];e eo]i])an on eape ace • 
Smj ]>iY mancj^um yijuim • eo]ij?e ])e on bejie eallura 
liijie mihcum -j nirejenum • J'aj' i;albop mon mrej fmjan 
on pnnbe. 


yi]) beofle h]>e bpenc "j unjemynbe bo on ealu 
caj-puc • elehcpan mojian • jnnnl ontpe • betonice • liinb 
lieolo]?e • mejice pnbe • pepmob. nepce • elene* pelp]jone • 
V pnlpep comb • jefmj . xii. mgeppan opep ]>am bpence -j 

bjiince Inm l)i]^ pona pel. 5penc pip beoplep cofcunja • 
}?epan jjojm cpopleac • elecjie • ontpe • bifceop pypt • 
pmul • caj'puc • beromce • jehalja ]>ap py]ita bo on ealu 
ful. 120 a, balij pietep • -j fie pe bpenc }>?ep mne J>?pp pe feoca man 
inne fie • "j fiinle a^p ]on ];e he bpmce fmj )>pipa 
opeji |;am bpence • beup In nomine tuo pakium 
me pac. 


^•ip man fie jejymeb ^j ]m lime jelacnian pcyle • 
jefeoli p be fie topeapb jjonue j)u mjanje J^onne msej 
be libban • gip be |;e fie pjiampeajib ne jjiet ]m bine 
abte • jip be bbban miei^e pyl on bntejuin betonican ■ 



that tlie ])aueful sores may 

neitlier burn nor burst, 

nor find their way further, 

nor turn foul and ftillow, 

nor thump and throb on, 

nor be wicked wounds, 

nor dig deeply down ; 

but he himself may liold 

in a way to health. 

Let it ache thee no more, 

than ear in earth ^ acheth. 
Sing also this many times, ^ " May earth bear on 
" thee with all her might and main." These cliarms 
a man may sing over a wound. 


A lithe drink against a devil and dementedness. 
Put into ale cassuck, roots of lupin, fennel, ontre, 
betony, hindheal, marche, rue, wormwood, nepeta, hele- 
nium, elfthone, wolfs comb ; sing twelve masses over 
the drink, and let the man drink, it will soon be weU 
with him. A drink against temptations of the devil ; 
tuftythorn, cropleek, lupin, ontre, bishopwort, fennel, 
cassuck, betony ; hallow these worts,^ put into some ale 
some holy water, and let the drink be in the same 
chamber as the sick man, and constantly before he 
drinketh sing thrice over the drink, " Deus ! In 
" nomine tuo salvum me fac." 

Book Iir. 
Ch. Ixiii. 


If a man be overlooked, and thou must cure him, 
see that his face be turned to thee when thou goest 
in, then he may live ; if his face be turned from thee, 
have thou nothing to do with him. If he may live, 

1 In the grave. 

* This seems intended to quell the 


By a fonnula of henediction. 


354 L^CE BOC. 

jyjjpipan • ^eajipan • polleian • bolbjiunan • apjimj ]?u]ih, 
claj? Iset fcanban • jehset fcenc yxAne cu peapmpe meolce 
bo )?fe]ie ]-ealpe .V. fnseba ]7sep on fupe on neaht nepti5 
*j ete pepfc plaepc ]?8ep J^seji hit psetofc fie • -j picje on 
nilit ])a yealf e -j f bolh pec mib ealban fpice o]>J»e mib p 
pepfcpe butepan J^onne hit fie clsene -j pel peab • lacna 
mib ]>& ilcan pealpa • "j ne Iset coSomne ^ip hio fie 
clgene • Iset pi]?j7an toSomne. jtp hic nelle pop )?ifum 
Isecebome batian • pyl on meolcum J^a peaban jeappan 
^ pmul • hnpypt • ealpa jehce Iset apeallan ,v. )'ij)nm 
appin5 ]7uph claS jebpip pel fpi)?ne bpip ]>sd]i on mib 
hpsete melpe -j jepeeap ^obep peaxep ane fnsebe psep 
on -j hpep tofomne laet jecolian • jenim hapan pulle 
lytle fnsebe . ill. bepmb mib ]>y bpipe uCan f he mseje 
fol. 126 b. popfpeljan -j befupe mib cu peapmum.^ 

. LXVT. 

Dpenc pp J'eop pie on men mm |;ap pypte nio])e- 
peapbe • pmol bifceop pypt sepcj'potan ealpa empela 
l^ipj-a cpeja maej't • upepeapbe puban • -j betomcan 6p- 
jeor mib hluttpum eala}> -j jefmje . III. msej'pan opep 
•j bpmce ymb . ii. mht ]?a3p j^e he opjoten fie sep 
hif inete "j ?eptep. 


ViJ) beopol feoce bo on halij paetep 'j on eala bifceop 
pypte hmbhiolo]?an • ajpimonian • alexanbpian • ^y]?- 
jiipan pele him bpmcan. 6pc caj-puc • j^epan j^ojin • fran 
cpop • elehtpe • pmul • eopop]?pote cpopleac opjeot 
jelice. 6p- fpipe bpeiic piS beople • mm micle hanb 

' Supply aieolcum. 


boil in butter betony, gitlirife, yarrow, pulegiimi, pel- Book III. 

litory ; wring through a cloth, let it stand, heat a 

cup full in milk warm from the cow, put five pieces 

of the salve into it ; let the man sup up that at 

night fasting, and let him eat fresh flesh in the part 

where it is fattest : and at night take the salve and 

comfort the wound with old lard or with fresh butter ; 

when it is clean, and a good red, leech with the same 

salve, and let it not unite, if it be clean ; make it unite 

afterwards. If it will not for this leechdom get better, 

boil in milk the red yarrow, and fennel, and flaxwort, 

of all equal quantities, let them boil five times, wring 

through a cloth. Brew up a pretty strong brewit 

upon this, with wheat meal, shave a piece of good 

wax into it, and shake up together ; let it cool, take 

three little bits of hares wool, wind them on the 

outside about with the brewit, that he may swallow 

them, and let him sup it up with milk warm from 

the cow. 


A drink, if the '' dry " disease be on a man ; take 
the netherward part of these worts, fennel, bishopwort, 
ashthroat, of all equal quantities ; of these two folloiu- 
ing more than of the others, the upward part of rue, 
and betony ; pour them over with clear ale, and sing 
three masses over them, and let the man drink about 
two days from the time when it was poured over, 
before his meat and after. 


For one devil sick ; put into holy water and into 
ale, bishopwort, hind heal, agrimony, alexanders, gitli- 
rife ; give to the man to drink. Again, cassuck, tufty 
thorn, stonecrop, lupin, fennel, everthroat, cropleek ; 
pour over them similarly. Again, a spew drink against 
the devil ; take a mickle hand full of sedge, and gladden, 

z 2 


pulle fecje]' • -j jlcTebenan bo on pannan • jeoc inicelne 
bollan }:iilne ealap on bepyl heal}: jejuib . XX. lyb- 
cojina bo on ■]> ]>i]' i)- i;ob bjienc pi]:* beo]:le. 


Leoht: b]\enc pij> peben lieojite elehtjie • bij'ceop pyjic 
ibIj: J?one • elene • cjiopleac • Innb hioloj^e • ontpe • elate • 
Nim ]>a,y pyjita Jjonne bsej "j nihc fcabe • fmj fejiefc 
on cijucean letania • ^ cpeban • -j pateji noj-tep • ^anj 
mib ]>j fanje co ]?am pyptum ymbja hie ])]\iya, sep ]m 
Ine nnne • 'j 3a ept to cipicean jefnij . xii. inpej-j-au 
opep ])am pyptum ]7onne jm hie opjoten hfeblDe. 


T^y. men fie maja afupob "j po]i];unben • jenim holen 
leapa micle tpa hanb pulla jepceajipa fpipe fmale pyl on 
meolcum o]> ■f hie fyn pel meajmpe pupla fnteb mgelum 
ete ]?onne .VI. fnseba • on mop^en . iii. -j on sepen .111. 
-j reptep hip mete • bo ]nip .VIITI. niht lenj jip him 
];eapp fie. :• 

Tip mon bi}> aj'unben ete puban -j bjiince he bi); 
hal. :• 

Pi]; majan psepce jmban fseb 'j epic feolpoji -j eceb 
bepjen on neahc neptij. Gpt jnib on eceb -j on psetep 
polleian j-ele b]iincan fona ^ paji cojlit. 


v^ Vi]> pambe prepce opjeot polleian -j bjiince -j jnime 

bmbe to ]?am napolan • 'j pite jeo^iie f fio pyjit apej 
ne ajlibe ponn bi|> pel. 


put them into a pan, pour a niicklc }jowl lull ol" ale J^ook III. 
upon them ; boil half, rub fine twenty libcorns, put 
them into it ; this is a good drink against the devil. 


A light drink tor the wood heart ; lupin, bishop- 
wort, enchanters nightshade, helenium, cropleek, hind- 
heal, ontre, elote. Take these worts when day and 
night divide ; sing first in church a litany, and a 
Credo, and a Pater noster, with the song go to the 
worts, go thrice around them, before thou touch them ; 
and go again to church, sing twelve masses over the 
worts when thou hast poured — ^ over them. 


1. If a mans stomach be soured and swollen ; take 
holly leaves, two mickle Iiands full, scrape them very 
small, boil them in milk till they be pretty tender, pick 
them out by a bit at a time ; then let the man eat six 
bits, in a morning three, and in evening three, and after 
his meat. Thus do for nine days, longer if need be. 

2. If a man be swollen, let him cat rue and drink 
it ; he will be well. 

3. For pain of maw ; let the man taste at night 
fasting, seed of rue, and quicksilver, and vinegar. 
Agaui, rub pulegium into vinegar and into water, give 
the man to drink, soon the soreness glideth away. 


1. For wamb wark ; drench in pulegium, and 

let him drink it and bind some to his navel, and let 
him earnestly beware that the wort do not glide 
away. Soon he will be well. 

' Not mentioned ; to be supplied 1 * The liquid is not mentioned, 
from above. 

358 L/ECE BOC. 

Pi]7 majaii psepce piibu ];iirley )?one jpenan ^ meaph 
Ipe bi|) on ]>am. henybe jfele him etan mib hatan ele. 

Vi]> pambe heapbnepj'e jeclsenfa jijjcojin jnib on 
cealb ysQte]! pele hnn bpmcan. 

. LXXI. 

Pi]; fpjimje jnib paluian ]n]> liiinij linijie mib Sona 
h\]y pel. 6pt pyjvc pealpe mm hanb pulle fppmj 
pypte • "j hanb pulle pejbjiseban • 'j hanb pulle majj^an • 
fol. 127 b. "J hanb pulle ni'Sepeapibe boccan ]?a3pe ]?e fpimman 
piUe on butpan alilyttpe f pealt; op *j ]3 pam bo hpon 
hunije]^ to enjlij-cej- • bo opep pyji apyl • ]?onne hiu 
pealle- finj . ill. pareji nopcep opeji bo ept op fmj 
]?onne .villi. fi]7um patep noj^tep on -j ]?]npa apyl -j 
fpa jelome op abo -j lacna mib pi|7];an. 


Vi]? J^sepe jeolpan able opjeot ];ap pypte mib fpij^e 
beope • pibban hanb pulle • cptc pmba hanb pulle . vim. 
fnseba mj^epeapbpe iBpcj^potan • -j . Villi. ni|?epeapbpe 

6pc bile • celenbjie • Salman msept pyl on fpi)>um 
beope f hit fie ]7icce • -j jpene • mm nijjepeapbe eolenan 
jefm]? on hunij ete fpa manije fnseba fpa he mseje 
^ebpmce ]?iep bpencep pcenc pulne septep -j eal f jiddc 
ete pceapen plsepc 'j nan oj'ep. 


^ip men fie mnelpe ute jecnua jalluc appinj )7uph 
claS on cu peapme meolce • pset ]?ine hanba )7aep on 'j 
jebo f mnelpe on l;one man jefeope mib feolce pyl him 
|7onne jalluc .villi, mopjnaf butan him lenj |7eapp 
lie peb hme mib pepfce hpenne plsej'c * * * 

The MS. has a stop after sjaenan. 


2. For maw pain; give tho 'man to eat the green BooklH. 
marrow which is in the head of a wood thistle, with ' ^^* 

hot oil. 

S. For hardness of wamb ; cleanse githcorns, rub 
them Jine into cold water, give to the man to drink. 


Against carbuncle ; rub sage with honey, smear there- 
with, soon he will be well. Agam, work a salve, take 
a hand full of spring wort, and a hand full of way 
broad and a hand full of maythe, and a hand full of 
the netherward part of dock, that namely which will 
swim ; boil in butter, clear off the salt and the foam, 
add a little English honey, put over a fire, boil it; 
when it boileth sing three Pater nosters over it, remove 
it again, then sing nine Pater nosters, and boil it thrice, 
and so frequently ; remove it, and after that cure 
with it. 


1, For the yellow disease ; souse these worts in strong 
beer, of ribwort a hand full, of quickbeam rind a hand 
full, nine bits of the netherward part of ashthroat, and 
nine of the lower part of helenium. 

2. Again, boil dill, coriander, most of sage, in strong 
beer, that it may be thick and green ; take the nether- 
ward part of helenium, cut it up into honey, let the 
patient eat as many bits as he can ; let him drink after 
it a cup full of the drink, as above ; and all the time 
let him eat sheep flesh and none other. 

If a mans bowel be out, pound galluc, wring through 
a cloth into milk warm from the cow, wet thy hands 
therein, and put hack the bowel into the man, sew up 
with silk, then boil him for nine mornings galluc, that is, 
comfrey, except need be for a longer time, feed him with 
fresh hens flesh. 

360 LEECH BOOK. Ill, 

Perhaps one folio is mlsslnrj. 

There is some writing along the margin of the last 
page, the few readable syllables of which are unin- 

bila b]ia bmb ]:> yob J;i A Byji 

m i]i bjien. 



The following glossary relies almost entirely npoii 
original authorities ; upon a collation of the manu- 
script ancient extant glossaries with their printed 
editions, which have been falsified by ignorant con- 
jectures ; and upon a careful examination of many 
Saxon volumes never yet published. No reliance has 
been placed on modern productions, in the way of 
dictionaries ; they will be found full of errors.^ Every 
article either supplies a deficiency or corrects an error ; 
but our limits will not admit of the insertion of every 
correction prepared for the press. Corrections wei/e, of 
course, to be accompanied by their proofs, and this adds 
to the length of the various articles. Some refer to 
genders or declensions or terminations, for an exact 
knowledge of our Oldest English is impossible, as long 
as students are deceived on these elementary points. 
The most important printed texts of Saxon works have 
been collated from beginning to end, letter by letter, 
with the original manuscripts. The modern editions in 
particular are, sometimes, very faulty. 

In the names of plants the reader will observe that 
a name, liowever wrong, is within its own bounds, still 

' See Shrine (Williams and Norgate). 


a name. Mistakes often thrive, and even ovei'power a 
true old tradition. Many decided spirits would have 
all error thrown over, but to do so, would render our 
collection less complete. 

The order of the letters is so arranged that K goes 
with C, Y with I, and Jwrn is last of all. 




"" M.G. 


° Bw. 

• C»d. 


° C.E. 

° Ch. 
^ DD. 



" G«. 
<= Hb. 

^Ifrics Grammar, ed. Somner, 
quoted by pages and lines. 

Adrian and Ritlieus, ed. Kem- 
ble, by pages. 

^.Ifreds Will, reprint 1828, by 

Beowulf, ed. Grandtvig, col- 
lated -with MS., by lines. 

Caidmou, if Csedmon, by the 
pages and lines of the ori- 
ginal MS. 

Codex Diplomaticus, by num- 

Codex Exoniensis, by pages, 
ed. Thorpe. 

Channs, Leechdoms, Vol. I. 

(Dooms) Laws and Institutes, 
ed. 1840, by pages. 

Glossarium Diefenbaehii. 

Durham Ritual, by pages. 

Fight at Finnesburg, ed. 

Goodwins Andrew and Vero- 

Goodwins Gu'Slac. 

Herbarium, Leechdoms, Vol.1., 
by articles. 

Horn. ..iElfrics Homilies, ed. Thorpe. 
^ Lb. Leechbook, Leechdoms, Vol. 
n., by chapters. 
M. Mones Glossaries in Quellcn 
und Forschungen, von F. J. 
Mone, 1830. 
M.Sp. Mannings Supplement to Lye, 
paged for the purpose, 
from Testamentum Elfhelmi, 
page 1. 
N. Narratiunculse, 1861. (Russell 
" O clerice, in preface to Leech- 
doms, Vol. L p. Iviii. 
" O.T. Orosius, ed. Thorpe, by pages 

and lines. 
°Quad. Medicina de Quadrupedibus, 

Leechdoms, Vol. L 
' Runl. The Runlio'S, or Runelay, 
quoted by articles. 
SH. Shrine, where some Saxon 

pieces are printed. 
S.S. Solomon and Saturn, ed. Kem- 

SSpp. Spoon and Sparrow, for ety- 



Qenerally cited by folios. 

xii.Ab. De xii. Abusivis. MS. C.C.C. 
BL. Blooms, or Elores Soliloquio- 

D.G. Dialogues of Gregorius, MS. 
' Ai5a|. The treatise irepl SiSd^ecov, in 
Leeehdoms, Vol. III. 
F.D. De Falsis Dis. MS. C.C.C. 
» F.L. Fourth Leeehdoms, for pub- 
lication in Leeehdoms, Vol. 
G.D. Dialogues of Gregorius, MS- 

HID, Liber de Hida. 

Lacn. Lacnunga, in Vol. IIL of 

Leeehdoms, by articles. 
M.H. Minster Homilies of JElfvic, 
except Sigewulfi respou- 
siones, de xii. Abusivis, and 
de Falsis Dis. 
P.A. The Liber Pastoralis of King 

Alfred, MS. Hatt. 
E.M. Rule of Mynchens. 
Sc. Liber Scintillamm. 
SMD, Somnionim Diversitas. 


Gl. Brax. A Brussels Glossary, printed 
by Mone, p. 314, by Thorpe, 
unpublished, p. 30, by 
"Wright, p. 62. 

Gl. C. An early Glossary in MS. 
0!. Dun. An old Glossary in the library 
of the cathedral at Durham. 
The compiler had used the 
Saxon Herbarium, as in 
Lactuca leporina. 

Gl. E. Glossaries pi'inted by Eckhart, 
in Commentarii de rebus 
FrancijE Orientali.3, Wirce- 
burgi, fol., 1729, 2 vols. 
Gl.Hoffm. Althochdeutsche Glossen, von 
A. H. Hoffmann, 1826. 

Gl. M. A manuscript on vellum, the 
property of Rev. W. D. 

Gl. M.M. Glossarj- of Moyen Moutier, 
printed, but unpublished. 
Mone. Glossaries printed by Mone, in 
Quellen und Forschungen, 
Aachen und Leipsig, 8vo., 
1830. The herb glossary 
fetches from. Hb. Used MS. 
N. Bakers Northamptonshire Gl. 
Gl. Prud. Glossary on Prudentius, printed 
but unpublished. 
Gl. R. Junius transcript of the Rubens 
MS. Glossary, MS. 
Gl. Somn. The Glossaries printed by 
Somner, in Dictionarium 
Saxonico - Latino- Anglicum. 
Oxonii, fol., 1059, printed 
■with errors from Gl. R. 
Other manuscript Glossaries numbering 
about fifteen. 



A, as prefix, is a shorter form of— 1. And, 
as in abidan, for andbidan. 

2. On, as in among, for onmang, and 
aweg, for onweg, both of which are oc- 
casionally parallel MS. readings. See 
MH. 115 a, with var. lect. 

3. Un, as in atynan, open, for untynan. 

4. Of, as in acalan for ofcalan. Horn. 
n. 248. 

5. Embe, as in ymbutan, abutan, and 
by apokope buton. 

6. Ge, as in alefed, for gelefed, 
Acumba, -an, masc? oakum, stupa. Cf. 

" Coarse fibres among wool are kemps," 
Gl. N. Putamina, acuman, secumba, Gl. 
Mone, p. 398 a, p. 407 a, as consisting 
of coarse fibres. Nct^Sa is an approxi- 
mation only, explained in SH. p. 10. 
Similarly "Napta, genus fomenti, i.e. 
" tyndir," Gl. M.M. p. 159 b. Acumba 
in ashes seems administered as a sub- 
stitute for "Z-nooiov. Lib. I. i. 1 5 ; xxxiii. 
i ; xlvii. 3. 

M, as a prefix, is commonly a shorter form 
of^f, which answers to the Latin Ob, 
in the sense of annoyance, as in Officere 
and the like. Thus ^bylgan, ^cyrf 
Bed. 552, 1. 13 ; JEmod. 

iEc, Ac, gen. -e, fem., oak, quercus rohur. 
Sume ac astah, Hom. II. 150, got vp 
into an oak. Of t'sere aec, CD. 570, 
p. 78. J^eo)- ac, M.G. 7, 48. Gen. Ace, 


Lb. I. xxxviii. 11. "Vowels dropped, 
CD. 588, 624, etc. Gen. pi. Acana, 
CD. 126. 

2. As a letter of the alphabet the same 
word is masc, gen. -es. Acaj- cpegen 
hasselap ]-pa pome, C.E. 429, two As 
and two Hs along with them. 

JEcelma, gen. an, masc? a chilblain, miila. 
Gl. Mone, p. 359 b. " Mula est quaedam 
" infirmitas in homine quae uocatur 
" gybehos," Gl. Harl. 3388, that is, kihe 
of heel. In Italian, " mule, kibes, chil- 
" blanes " (Florio). In Trench, " mule, 
" a kibe " (Cotgrave). Palagra, secilma, 
Gl. Cleop., where understand podagra 
ani. footsore. The word is compounded 
of M for My, signifying annoyance, 
eel, chill, and the participial man. 
SSpp., art. 943. 

iEdre, vein, vena, gen. both -e, and -an, 
fem., Lb. L i. 13; II. xviii.; II. xxxii., 
etc. Hb. iv. 4. On o>rum monJ>e J>a 
aidron beo'S geworden, N. p. 49, in the 
second month the veins are formed. S.S. 
148, 192. 

2. pi. kidneys, renes. ll.M. 69, a. 
Hb. ixxxvi. 3; cxix. 3. Paris Ps. 
cxxxviii. 11. 

3. In the sense of water spring found 
neut. Jjset wseterfeddre, perhaps by at- 
traction. Hom. n. 144. Ealle eor^an 
ffiddre onsprungon ongean J>am heofon- 

. lican flode. MS. CC.C 419, p. 42. 
iEfer'Se, gen. -an, fem.? an herb unknown. 
Lb. I. xxxiii. 2, etc 



vEgwyrt, gen. -e, fern., eggwort, dande- 
lion, leontodon taraxacum ; like Germ. 
Eyerblume, from the round form of the 
pappus. Lacn. 40. 

^Ifsibenne, from cclf, eJf, and sido, masc, 
manners, asBoet. p. 45,1. 21, p. 131, 1. 10, 
often taken in a good sense as morals. 
Lb. I. Ixiv. The termination -en, like 
-ivos, -inus, does not always relate to 
metals and materials, but as in fyrlen, 
distant, myrteu,mortuari/,is more general. 
We may therefore take this word as the 
accusative of an adjective. It is, how- 
ever, possible that it may be a substan- 
tive. Lacn. 11. 

^IfsogcSa. See Sogo^a. Lb. III. Ixii. 

iElfSone, gen. -an ; fem. ? probably cir- 
c(ea httetiana, enchanters nigJdshade, 
which in old Dutch is Alfrancke. Lb. 
I. xxxii. 4; II. liii. 

./Epenms, masc, gen. -e)% a medlar, fruit of 
viespdus germanica. Lb. II. ii. 2. See 
the passage and the glossarial openaep)-, 

^ppel, gen. -pies, masc. in sing, pi, -pla, 
apple, malum. Numb. xi. 5. P. A. 19 b. 
Also a soft fruit, as fruit of the bramble. 
Lb. I. Ixiv. ; III. xli. Fingersepla, dates, 
M.H. 131 b. A translation of AaicrvXot. 
t'oji'Sseppel, Numb. xi. 3, a cucumber. 
Fic »ppel, a fig (Lye), pi. pcffippla, 
Matth. vii. 16 ; Luke vi, 44. PalmjEpla, 
Gl. Cleop. fol. 66 d. Gl. Mone, p. 409 b. 
Lb. II. i. ; n. xxxvi. SSpp. .543. 

2. A dumpling. Hb. cxxxiv. 2. 

3. The ball of the eye, with pi. masc. 
On ^sej- ppenlsean eajum beo'S "Sa 
jepplaj- hale. Ac ^a bpsepa)' j^peacigea'S, 
P. A. 15, a. hi the eyes of the bleareyed 
the balls are healthy, but the lids .swollen. 
Se o'Scp SDppel j)ae)- SeeraciSoh, M.H. 
98 b, the ball of one eye u-as emptied 
of its crystalline, aqueous, and vitreous 
humours. Applied less exactly as a 
translation of pup ilia, Boet. p. 132, 1. 25. 

^pse, gen. -an, fem.? the aspen, populus 
tremula. Lb. I. xxxvi. SH. 25. The 
last syllable in the modern name repre- 
sents the case endings. JE\>r. occurs in 

^pse — cont. 
the glossaries, and Lb. III. xxxix ; it is 
regarded by JElfric in Gr. as Abies. 

JEsc, gen. -es, masc. C.D. 461, the ash, 
fraxi?ius excelsior. Se cojihta sesc. C.E. 

Ceaster a;sc, Helleborvs niger, black 
hellebore, which has leaves like those of 
the ash. " Eliforus (read Helleborus), 
" j)ebe bejige (jnad berry') vel ceafcc]i 
" fe)-c." Gl. Cleop. fol. 36 b. Lacn. 39. 

JEsce, gen. -an, fem., ash, cinis. Lb. I. 
xxxviii. 4. Quad. iii. 4. Axe \>\x ea]ic 
T on axan leoya. Cinis es et in cinere 
uiue. Sell, a. iE.G. 11,47. C.E. 213, 
line 27. Cf. Aska, fem., old Dansk. 

.^scl'jiotu, gen. -an, fem. 1. Verbena 
officinalis, Hb. iv., with the drawing. 
Verbenaca, in MS. Bodley 130, is drawn 
and glossed Verbena, vervain. Also 
Veruyn in ]\IS. T. Verbenaca in 
Dodoens is Vervain. " Verveyne, 
" Veruena vocatur grece ierobotanum 
" vel peristerion et dicitur verbena 
" quia virtutibus plena," MS. Douce, 
290. MS. G. has a gl. " Taubencropf," 
which, as I learn from Adeluug, is 
Verbena. " Hiera quam Latini Ber- 
" benam uocant ideo a grecis hoc 
" nomen accepit quod sacerdotes earn 
" purificationibus adhibere consueve- 
" runt." MS. Harl. 5264, fol. 56, b. 
'' Verbena, sescwert," Gl. Mone, p. 442 a. 
" Berbenaces, eascvyrt," Gl. Dun. Lb. 
IIL 72. 

2. Annuosa, which is found in a few 
glossaries, is a mere blunder for anchusa, 
translated in Hb. ci. 3, by ashthroat. 

3. Goutweed, eegopodium podagraria. 
Ashweed is this in Mylnes Indigenous 
Botany. This plant I take to be meant 
by the Ferula of Gl. M.M., Gl. Dun., 
Somner Lex., Gl. Brux. The Ferula 
communis, or fennel giant, is not a 
native of England, and under t.U cir- 
cumstances, would cither not have an 
English name or one extended to plants 
of a similar aspect, even if smaller. 
This segopodium is often called Angelica, 



JEscl'iiorii — cont. 

even down to Kay, and the angelicas 
are also large and hollow. Throat seems 
to imply hollowness, and Ash either size 
or similar leaves. 

The fennel giant is, however, men- 
tioned in the life of St. Godric as 
affording walking staves for pilgrims, 
(A.D. lir)9), p. 163. 

-Ssmaelum, dat. pi., a disease of the eye, 
contraction of the pupil, oculorum immi- 
nutio. " Evenit etiam ut oculi, vel ambo 
" vel singuli, minores fiant quam esse 
" naturaliter debeant." Celsus, VI. vi. 
14. " Pupillaj malum est, quum an- 
" gustior ac obscurior rugosiorque effi- 
" citur," Actuarius, 184, c. Lb. I. 2, 
and contents. A comp. of M, for iEf, 
implying mischief, and Smsel. 

JEJ^elj-eji^rngjiypt, fern., gen. -e, stichwort, 
stellaria holostea, with s. graminea. 
iEt'elj-ep'^Smcjiypt in Hb. Ixiii. 7, trans- 
lates " agrimoniam," and Ixxviii. 1, 
" argeraonitis." See Plinius, xxvi. 59. 
" Agrimonia alpha, eathelferthing vyrt 
" vel glofvyrt," Gl. Dun. " Alfa, ffi'Sel- 
" jepbmgjiypc," Gl. Somn., p. 64 b, 7. 
Some supposed agrimonia to be stich- 
wort, though as the translator of the Her- 
barium had called it japchfe, a very 
appropriate name, we should not have 
expected this uncertainty from him. 
" Agrimonia, jticpypc," Gl. Somn. p. 
64 a, 65. In Lacn. 29, sel'dyep'Sms- 
pypc is glossed " auis lingua." " Lingua 
" avis . i . pigle, stichwort," Gl. M. " Lin- 
" gua auis . i . pigle," Gl. Rawl. C. 607. 
*' Lingua auis, stichewort," Gl. Sloane, 5. 
The name describes the leaves. 

Afreo'San, to froth. Lb. I. xlvii. 2. 

Ahwsenan, preet. ede, p.p. ed, to trouble, 
contristare. lib. xx. 7, where Lat. con- 
tristatus. "Ilerof J>e lauedies to me 
menej>. An wel sore me ahweneK Wei 
neh min heorte wule tochine, Hwon ich 
beholde hire pine. Owl and Nightingale, 
1562. Of this the ladies tome rrioan, and 
pretty sorely distress me; well niyh my 

Ahwfcnan — cont. 

heart will break (tocman), when I behold 
their pain. Vtan ypej-pian ahpajnebe T 
hyptan opmobe, MS. C.C.C. 419, p. 246. 
Let us comfort the distressed and encou- 
rage the despairing. Cf DD. 139, xlvii. 

AleJ'jian, to lather. Lb. I. liv. See Lea'Sor. 
It is for Gelet>]ian. 

Alor, Air, gen. -es, masc, the alder, alnus 
glutinosa. Lb. I. ii. 14 ; aires. Lb. II. li. 
3 ; masc. CD. 376. 

Ananbeam, gen. — es, masc, the spindle 
tree, euonymus Europceus. Lb. I. xxxii. 
4. Germ, anisbaum. " |7anabeam, fusa- 
" num, spindle tree, prichtimber." Som- 
ner Lex. " Fusarius, uuananbeam," Gl. 

Anapypm, Ons worm, masc. Lb I. xlvi. 1. 
In the Ynglinga Saga, Anasott is said to 
have taken its name from On, a king of 
Sweden, who prolonged his own life by 
sacrificing from time to time one of his 
sons to Woden. Si'San andaj'Sist en 
konungr, ok er hann heyg'Sr at Uppse- 
lum. pat er si'San kellut Anasott er 
ma'Sr deyr verklaus af elli. Heims- 
kringla, Ynglinga S. xxix. Then ex- 
pired king On, and icas buried at Upsal. 
It was afterwards called On-sickness, 
when a man dies from old age, without 
agony. That the former element in 
Anajiypm, Anasott, is the same cannot 
be doubtful. 

Anj'pilbe, unique (^unicus, singularis'). 
Lb. I. ii. 9. Cf. Zwispild, geminus, 
biformis. (Graff.) 

Autre. See Ontre. Lb. II. U. 

Arendan. Lb. II. Hi. 

Argesweorf, gen. -es, brass filings. Lb. I. 
xxxiv. 1. See Gesweorf. 

Arod, an herb, probably arum, "Apov, Lb. 
III. xlii. Lacn. 2. Thus Cymed for 

A]\ 6m, copperas. The reading of the 
MS. in Lb. II. xv. is sap 6m, translating 
/xfTO xaAKdi'0011 \eiov (koI yUf'AiTi oKijca 
avaXafiMv). XaAKavOos is green vitriol. 
But it is also brass rust, cerugo, and the 
A A 


Ap 6m — conf. 

true reading may be ap 6m. The -word 
copperas is commonly used for either the 
green rust of copper, or the green vitriol 
•with which the kitchenmaid cleans brass 
pans; from its ambiguity it was con- 
Yenient. Aei'ou points to the levigated 

Asaru, asarabacca, asarum Europceum. 
Lb. II. xiv. Foles foot is Tussilago far- 

Asiftan, to sift. Lb. I. ii. 20. 

Aslawen, stnick, stricken, from a)-lean, for 
f aj-lagan, a collateral form. Contents, 
Lb. I. Ivi. =a)-lasen in text. So cnucan 
becomes cnujmn, cnuan. 

Asprindlad, ripped tip and spanned open 
with tenter hooks. Lb. II. xxiv. From 
sprindel, tenticum, Gl. C, a tenter hook. 
Cf. Spreisseln, Schmeller, Bayerisches 
Worterbuch, IV. p. 593. 

Atpum, a Latin word, Smyrnium olusa- 
trum. Lb. I. ii. 20, etc. 

Atcopla>e, gen. -an ; " venom-loather," 
panicum cms galli. In Hb. xlv. arcop- 
lajpe is galli crus, and were there doubt, 
it seems removed by MSS. G. T. A., 
which draw the p. sanyuinale, Linn., now 
called digitaria sanguinalis. These two 
grasses are included together in the 
" cocksleg," hahnenbein of the Germans. 
The corresponding article in MS. Bod- 
ley, 130, gives the name sanguinaria, and 
the old gloss is Blobwrt, with a later of 
the 14th century, "Blodwerte." San- 
guinaria is often glossed as shepherds 
purse, thlaspi or capsella bursa pastoris, 
or as tormeutilla, these being esteemed 
stanchers of blood, or as polygonum ; 
but in this instance it must be as above, 
d. sanguinalis. With these testimonies 
it is vain to consider how such virtue 
was attributed to a grass. Did they 
confuse panicum with panacea ? The 
glossaries give no real help. "Atrilla, 
" attorlathe," Gl. Dun., where atrilla 
seems to be afctoplaj^e with a Latin ter- 
mination. "Astrilla," Gl. Sloane, 146. 

Arcoplat>e — con t. 

" Cyclaminos, attorlathe," id., but cycla- 
men is in Herbarium " slite." " Galli 
" crus, attorlathe," id., a quotation from 
our book. "Fenifiiga, attorlathe," id., un- 
derstand venenifuga, a translation of the 
Saxon word. "Venenifuga, arcepla^e," 
Gl. Somner, p. 66 [63] b. 27. " Morella, 
" atterloh-e,'' Gl. Harl. 978, but morella 
is atropa belladonna, and poisonous itself. 
Atejila^e, betonica, Lye, from a Gl. ; 
but betony and attorlothe are separately 
named in Lb. I. i. 15. The claims of 
asclepias vincetoxicum are set aside by 
its being a foreign plant. The heal all 
of the old Dansk, Laukr, has no support 
from our authorities. Lye prints, by 
some error, sattorla^e also. The small 
attorlothe occurs in Lb. I. xlv. 6. 

Aurugo is interpreted by Du Cange la 
jaunisse, the jaundice. This rendering is 
supported by the etymon aurum, goJd, 
and by authority ; aurugo, color in auro, 
sicut in pedibus accipitris, i . gelesouch, 
Gl. E. vol. ii. p. 992 a, the colour one 
sees in gold, as in a hawks feet, the 
yellow sickness. Gelisuhtiger, ictericus, 
auruginosus, Graff, vol. vi. col. 142. 
Our text, however, interprets aurugo, as 
a tugging or drawing of the sinews, Hb. 
Perhaps this may be explained by ob- 
serving that auriglnosus is glossed ar- 
cuatus, Du Cange ; auruginosus, ar- 
cuatus, Gl. Isid. Not very differently 
from our text ; " Artuatus, j-ybmyole 
" abl," Gl. K. p. 11, ult., read arcuatus 
and it may be, geole, or muscle ; 
whence it might well be supposed 
that o-KLirddTovos was meant, a term ap- 
plied to bows, bent back the opposite 
way to their natural curvature, especially 
true of horn bows, Gortynia cornua, and 
to persons suffering under that extreme 
form of tetanus, in which the feet and 
head are drawn back till they touch. 
Aurigo is also, in Apul. Ixxxvii., morbus 
regius, which was another mediajval 
name for the jaundice ; Graff, vol. vi.. 



Aurugo — cont. 

141. Graffs mark of interrogation at 
the -word Gelbsucht, would be removed 
by the publication of our texts. 

Aj'fepan, f -)>jieap, -^ujien, turn, coagu- 
late. See ppepan. Lb. I. xlv. 5. 

Ahyn, press. Lb. I. viii. 2. His eyes aep 
jiaepon uta'Sybe oy >am eahbpinsum, 
MH. 98 b, were before thrust out of their 
sockets. See pyn. 


Ban — 1. A bone. 

2. A leg, neut., pi. ban. Lb. Li. 15 ; 
L xxvi. ; IL li., -where it is leg, so 
Csedm. ? Daniel, MS. p. 195, 5. f seudo 
Caedm. H.H. MS. p. 223, 20, their legs 
failed them. " Tibialis, banjiyjr," Gl. 

Banpypc, fem., gen. in -e. 1. banewort, 
viola, not blue voilet, but viola lactea, 
while violet, and v. lutea, Heartsease. 
In Hb. clii. 1, bone-wort is in the 
Latin version of Dioskoridcs, (not ex- 
isting in the Hellenic) " viola alba : " in 
Hb. clxv. it is also distinguished from 
viola purpurea in art. clxvi. Lb. I. i. 15. 

2. Bellis perennis, daisy, bsegef eage ; 
but at a period later than our text ; and 

' perhaps by error. " Consolida minor, 
" daysey, ven-wort, idem bone-wort," GI. 
Harl. 3388. " Consolida minor . i . bon- 
" -wert," GI. M. " Consolida minor, days- 
" y^e," Gl. Bodley, 178. "Consolida 
" minor. Daysei is an herbe hat sum 
" men callet hembris-worte oK'r bone- 
" wort," Gl. Douce, 290. " Consolida 
" minor . i . petit comferi . anglice dayis- 
" hege . habet florem album," Gl. Raw- 
linson, c. 607. Benwort, daisy, (Dick- 
insons Cumberland Gl. in add.) 

3. Eryttircea centaureum, if we trust 
" centaurea minor, banpy^ic," Gl. Somn,, 
p. 64 b, 18. The wort is said to have 
cpoppan, bunches, either racemes or 

Banj'vpt — cont. 

umbels or cimes, which applies better 
to this lesser centaury than to heartsease 
or to daisy. Lb. IF. li. 2. 

4. " Filia aurea, banpyjir." Gl. Cleop. 
Fila aurea, Solidago virgaurea, Bat., 
sometimes called consolida Saracenica. 
Ba'Sian, to bathe, is to be distinguished 
from Be^ian, to beathe or warm. In the 
Lb. MS. fol. 92 a, the penman first had 
written e, but this he erased to put a. But 
as the old idea of a bath did not include 
cold water, the words are nearly allied. 
Belene, beolene, gen. -an, fem. ? henbane, 
hyoscyamus niger. Hb. v. Lb. I. ii. 22 ; 
I. iii. 3. Another name is henne belle, 
from its bell shaped capsules, which are 
dra-wn in MS. V., and from them the 
name belene, seems derived ; belle, a 
bell; hellen, furnished with bells ; and the 
final e is the usual final distinctive form 
of names of worts. The modern name 
henbane is independent, and derived from 
its poisonous qualities; another is henne- 
pol, with the same sense. 
Beopc, bark, latratus. Hb. Ixvii. 2. Ge- 

beopc, Sc. 55 b. JE.G. 2, 44. 
Beor^or, byr'Sor, gen. -res. 1. the embryo, 
fa-tus. Quad. iv. 4; Bed. 493, 40. 
" FcEtu, rubpe vel mib beopj^jie," Gl. 
Cleop. 40 b. N. 50. 

2. Childbirth, partus. Quad. iv. 6. 
Beop'Sopcpelmaj-, abortivi, Lye. Lb. HI. 
xxxvii. Cf. Mone, p. 411 a. 
Beopj^pt, fem., beewort, sweet flag, acorus 
calamus. Hb. vii. " Marubium, hune 
" vel beopypc," Gl. Cleop. fol. 61 a, 
wrong. In Hb. vii. a synonym in the 
Latin is Veneria, and the mediaeval mar- 
ginal annotations on Dioskorides give 
on "AKopov (not Acorns), ol 5e, x'^P'^^y 
'A(ppoSi(rlas, 'Pwfia'oi /Sej/f'peo, ol Se, vavriKO. 
paSi|, TdWoi TTfirepaKiovn; that is, Aco- 
rum is called in Latin Veneria, and by 
the Gauls peper apium (for apum), bees 
pepper : (for the Celtic use of kappa in- 
stead of pi, see SSpp. art. 20). What 
our text says about bees, is to be under- 
A A 2 



Beoj'vpt — cont. 

stood, as that the -wort will induce an 
unsettled swarm of bees to i-econcile 
themselves to an offered hive ; hence it 
•was reasonably called beewort : and so 
Dioskorides, of Acorum says, that the 
roots are not in smell unpleasant ; rfj 
6a/xfj ovK a-nSels. In MS. V. the root 
chiefly is drawn, and the figure corre- 
sponds minutely with the description in 
Dioskorides, that they,for he uses a plural, 
are not straight grown, but oblique and 
superficial, divided by knots ; ovk els eieh 
iretpvKvias aAAa irKaytas Kol e'l tVnroArjs, 
ySvacri SieiArj^.ueVas. That he adds 
viroXevKov^, whitish, while the English 
drawing has a strong red, may be set 
down to the artistic tastes of the painter. 
The di-awing in MS. A. is very similar. 
Somners Gl. p. 63 a, line 59, translates 
apiago by beowyrt. In MS. Bodley, 
130, veneria is drawn as acorum, with a 
large creeping root, and glossed "lemre" 
for the English name. Dorsten calls the 
roots of acorus " rubicundas," as co- 
loured in MS. v., and on this ground 
several glossaries make acorus = madder. 
The x^po^ of the mai'gin of Dioskorides 
is another form of acoros, and'AcppoSicrlas 
has the same sense as veneria. MS. G. 
figures a crow foot, with gl. "honefus." 
2. Acanthe. Hb. cliv. figured as sld- 
laria hulostea. 

Besengian, to singe. Lb. I. li. See Sengian. 

Besoreadan, to empurple. Lb. I. xlvii. 1 ; 
from baso, jjurple, and read, red. 

Byben, gen. -e, fern., a bucket: used in 
Lb. I. xxxii. 2, with a perforated stool, 
and thus evidently the modern bidet. 

Binj-pypc, fem., gen. in -e, a rush, a iuncus 
or carex or butomus umbellatus, as in 

Bypisbepge, fem., gen. -an, -ean, a mul- 
berry. Lb. II. XXX. 2. Moros, mulberry 
trees, Ps. Ixxvii. 52, is translated by 
typ'S and by mapbeamaf. Spelm. 
Bepij;bpenc, diamoron, Gl. in Lye, a 
drink made from mulberries with honey. 

Bypla, masc, gen. -an, the barrel, in the 
horse keepers sense ; Lb. I. Ixxxviii. 3, 
from the context and the modern word. 
As, however, there is but this known 
example, it may be perineum, like bcere, 
in Molbech. Cf. " Burlings, the tails 
" and other parts, which are taken from 
" lambs when sheared. Burl, to take such 
" wool from lambs as is dirtied, or liable 
" to additional deterioration from their 
" laxity of body." Salopia antiqua Gl. 

Bi)"ceoppy]ir, fem. gen. in -e, bishopswort, 
ammi mains. (Skinner, Nemnich,Florio, 
Cotgrave, Lovell, Culpeper.) This is 
medicinal, but foreign, and must be 
taken as cultivated by our " herborists," 
as Lyte says of it. Bishops weed=ammi. 
Skinner. So we read " the southern " 
bishopwort. Lb. II, liv. 

2. Verbena officinalis? if we trust Gl. 
Somn. p. 64 a, 1, with p. 66 [63] b, 32. 

3. "Hibiscus?" //-eernaZ/ow. Gl. Cleop. 
Gl. M.M. Vitex '^ Agnus castus," Gl. 
Arund. 42, fol. 92. " Puleium mon- 
" tanum," Gl. Arund. 42. 

Bij-ceopjiypC yeo Iscj-j-e, the lesser 
bishopswort, betonica officinalis. "Beto- 
" nica,"Gl. Somn.p. 64a,49 ; Gl. Arund. 
42; Gl. Dun. ; Gl. Mone, p. 320 b ; Gl. 
Faust ; Hb. i. ; but Skinner says " be- 
" tonica aquatica," which is scrophularia 
aquatica. Bat. ; and Culpeper says, 
" water betony, in Yorkshire bishops 
" leaves." 

Bite, gen. -ej-, masc. 1. a bite. 2. a 
cancer. 1. pi. hitay, Quadr. xiii. 7; Isl. 
bit, a bite, is neuter (B.H.). Biz, ohg., 
hiss in Germ., are masc. The word is 
followed by heo, Quadr. xi. 7, but that 
will be an error. Slire also and others 
have final e. Lb. I. xliv. 1. 

Blffic, gen. -ey? a blotch. Lb. Contents, 
I. xxxii., with article pam. "Vitiligo, 
" blec," Gl. M.M. p. 154 b, 39, where 
is added J^jiuj^'el, leprosy, the same as 
Goth. J^rutsfill, Xfwpa. Similarly id. p. 
164 b, 3, but blectb. 

2. Ink, encaustum, DD. 395. 


Blopan, prset. f bleo)', pp. blojien, to Uow, 
bloom, blossom, Jlorere. Tjieopa he be)' 
jse)ilice bloj'an, M.Sp. p. 16, Trees 
lie shall cause suddenly to bloom. Mid 
blowendum wyrtum, Horn. II. 352, 
with blooming worts. OS ^ hi becomou 
to j-umuni pcinenbura jelba jffiSjie 
Sebloiien, M.II. 99 b, Till they came 
to a shining plain, fair and blooming 
(" fairly blown "). C.E. 199, 200, etc. 

Bogen. See Bo'Sen, convertible, Lb. p. 
310, note. Lb. III. iv. xxvi. xxx. Ixii. 1. 

Box, neut, ? Lb. II. lix. 14. tobjiocenuin 
pealyboxe, Mark xiv. 3. Buxus, box 
tjieop. Buxum, j-opcajiuen box, ^G. 
5, Tilt. It is therefore direct from the 
late Latin, and seems to follow its gender. 

Bo'Sen, gen. -ej- ; probably wild thyme, thy- 
mus serpyllum. Bot)enej*, Lb. III. iv. In 
Hb. Ixxxi. boSen is rosemary, which is 
a native of the south of Europe. In 
Hb. cxlix. it is employed to translate 
thyme, and this is native to England. 
" Lolium, bo^en," Gl. Somn., p. 77 a, 
but darnel is not to the unskilled eye 
at all like thyme and rosemary ; it 
seems however to be considered only 
as a mean herb by the glossator. 
The drawing in MS. V., fol. 39 d, 
has not simple leaves as for either rose- 
mary or thyme it should have (H.), but 
it may be the artists view of either. 
" Rosmarinus, sundeav vel bothen vel 
" feld medere," Gl. Dun. "Rosmarinus, 
" sundeaw," Gl. Mone, p. 322 b. ; this 
is a failure to translate ros marinus as 
sea dew ; our sundew or drosera is wholly 
different. In MS. Bodley, 130, there is 
no drawing of rosmariuus, but a hand of 
the 14th century has glossed the article 
" feld modere;" this seems to come of 
very careless observation. "Rosmari- 
" num, feld maidere," Gl. Mone, p. 322 a. 
White bothen is great daisie, says 

Bpea'5, brittle. Hb. cxl. 1. evOpavaros. 

Bpecan, verb reflexive, bjiecan hme, 
make an effort to spew. Lb. II. Hi. 1. 

Bjiecan — ro7it. 

"Brakyn or castyn or spewe, vomo 
" evomo," Prompt. Parv. " Brakynge or 
" parbrakynge, vomitus, cvomitus," id. 

Bjiebe? a particolour ed cloth; nub bpebe. 
Lb. IIL ii. 1. Cf. Bjiaebelf, stragulum, 
Gl. in Lye. Cf. Bp/jb, C.E. 218, line 9. 
Brcgben, C.E. 219, line 13. 

Bjiegban, prcet. bpseb, p. part, bjiogben, to 
do anything with a sudden jerk or start. 
Lb. IL li. 3. etc. 

Bjiyj-ejjyjic, fern., gen. -e, pimpernel, ana- 
gallis. " Anagallis, brisewort," Gl. Raw- 
linson, c. 506. Gl. Harl. 3388. Leech- 
doms, vol. I. p. 374. 

2. Bellis peren7iis,MSi.Ija\id. 553, fol. 9. 
Plainly for Hembriswyrt. See Ban- 
pypc, 2. 

Bjnjian, to brcic, pra;t. bpeop, p. part, 
bpopen. Lb. I. xlvii. 3, make a brewit, 
a lomentum, dress. Lb. I. xxxvi. Bpip 
his mere ]n> ele. Lb. ILli. 1,3. O.T. 
254, 9. Horn. L 352. 

B]iyJ)en, neut., what has been brewed. Lb. 
I. Ixvii. 2. C.E. p. 1G1,4 = MS. fol. 47 a, 
8, where the use of barm is mentioned. 
He jeann ... an bjiy^en mealces ; one 
brewing of malt; malt for one brewing. 
Wulfgeats Will, unpublished. 

Bjiocmince, -an, fem., mentha hirsuta, 
Bot. Hb. cvi. '' Sisymbrium, an herbe, 
" wherof bee two kyndes, the one is 
" called Sisymbrium alone, whiche is also 
" called Thymbrea, in englishe water 
" mynte." Elyots Diet, by T. Cooper. 
See the synonyms from mediaeval sources 
in the Flora Britannica, with the words 
" In aquosis vulgaris." 

Bjiom, gen. -ef, masc. ? broom, cytisus 
scoparius, (Hooker). Lb. I. ii. 14. 

BpoJ^ejipyjir, fem., gen. -e, penny royal, 
rneutha pulegium, Gl. Brux. 

Bjiune^an, a dative : Lb. I. iv. 6, a dis- 
ease, brunella ; as I conclude from the 
following ; " oris vitium cum linguaj 
" tumore, exasperatione, siccitate et 
" nigredine ; unde et nomen teutonice 
" habet, vulgo brunella." Kilian in 



IJjiuneK'vn — cont. 

brujne. Album Grtecum, prescribed in 
Lb. for this disease, is said by Salmon 
(Engl. Ph)'s. p. 753) to cure "Diseases 
" of the Throat and Quinsies : for a sore 
" throat called Pruna, you may use it." 

Bpunjiypr, fem., gen. in -e, broivn wort, 
scrqfalaria aquatica, water betony. 
(Skinner, Lyte, Nemnich, Culpeper.) So 
braun^vurtz in Dodoens. I suppose " the 
" broad leaved brownwort which waxeth 
" in woods," Lb. I. xxxviii. 4, to be 
scrofula ria nodosa. 

2. Hb. art. Ivii. makes bjiunpyjic the 
fern called splenium or asplenium, and 
Gl. Dun. copies that. Ceterach officina- 
rum is meant. It has a brown under 
surface, but the drawing in MS. V. is 
not a fern at all. Spimon vel reverion, 
Gl. Erux., where spimon is a misreading 
of splenion. 

3. Also the vaccinium or bilberry 
shrub, Gl. Somn. p. 66 [63] b, 12, where 
bpanjiypc is printed. Gl. Dun. 

4. Prunella vulgaris, where prun is 
brown. So the MECstricht Gl. in Mone, 
p. 285 a. Nemnich. See also Bruyne 
in Kilian. 

Bulentr]-e, a wort. Lb. I. xlvii. 2. There 

must have been more than one of the 
- name, as the passage mentions the small 

Bulot, Lb. I. Iviii. 2 ; Bulut, Lb. IIL 

xlviii. ; the root of lychnis flos cuculi? 

^ee Pliniusxxi. 97=26. Ballota, BaA- 

AcuTrj, nigra ? Boletus ? 


Csepen, neut. ? a Latin word, carenum, 
wine boiled down one third and sweetened. 
" Cypen, i.e. ajnlleb pm . dulcisapa," Gl. 
in Lye. Mib )>am cejienum J^ajpe gob- 
j-pellican )-j't'tnyj-)-e, St.Gn'Slac, cap. xvii. 
= p. 72, 1. 7. Gen. -ey. Lb. L i. 17. 

Caepfe, gen. -an, fem. ? cress, water cress, 
nasturtium officinale. The drawings in 
V. A. have opposite leaves and a stout 
tripartite terminal fruit or inflorescence, 
so that they are " most like caper spurge, 
" euphorbia lathyris," (H.) But the op- 
posite leaves with a racemose arrange- 
ment of the flowers, which latter may be 
seen in MS. T., is sufficient for us, with 
the synonym in Hb. xxi. " Nasturtium." 
In MS. G. is a gloss, " Cart chresse," 
where the former word may stand for 
KdpSafxoy, cress. Thu drawing in MS. G. 
is a good deal like the herb, and that in 
MS. T. is meant for it. " Cardamon, 
" cearse," Gi. Dun. Tun caepj-e, garden 
cress, lepidium sativum; Dutch, Tuinkers. 

Camecon, cammock ? which see. Lb. I. 
xlvii. 3. Cf. Hleomoc, Hleomocan. 

Cammoc, Commuc, gen. -ej-. 1. Sulfur 
wort, harestrang, peucedanum officinale, 
Hb. art. xcvi., and so drawn MS. V. fol. 
45 a. Peucedanum, gl. dogge fenell, 
MS. Bodley, 130, adding " or balde- y 
" monie," which is gentian. "Peuce- 
" danum, cammok," Gl. M. ; Gl. Dun., 
dog fenell (Grete Herbal). The fine 
linear leaves are meant in a bad drawing 
in MS. Harl. 5294, where is gl. hand 
fenell. Peucedanum is harstrang in 
Hollands Plinius (index, vol. ii.), and 
in Dutch and German, and in Cotgrave. 
Harestrong is peucedanum officinale in 
Mylnes Indigenous Botany, 1793. Peu- 
kedanum was also rightly read as hogs 
fennel, in a Welsh Gl. of the 13th cen- 
tury (Meddygon Myddfai, p. 291). The 
name fennel is derived fi'om its linear 
leaves. The genitive. Lb. III. xxx. 

2. Anonis, rest harrow, Gl. Harl. 3388. 
Gl. Arundel, 42. Gerarde. Gl. Sloane, 
405. Gl. Dorsetshire, Culpeper. ^ee 
Cammoc whin, which is the correct word. 

3. Hypericum, also pulica7-ia dysenterica, 
also senecio [acobaa ; Gl. New Porest. 

Cammoc whin, rest harrow, anonis, MS. 
Laud. 553, fol. 18. The leaves are ter- 
nate like those of the true cammock. 



Cayyac, gen. in -ey, masc, hassock, aira 
caspitosa. Lb. III. Ixii., Ixiii., Ixiv. 
Hassuc, masc, CD. 655. Cf. Nemnich. 
A confirmation in Lacn. 79. 

Caulic, gen. -ny, a medicine of which two 
or three drops are prescribed, Lb. II. 
Hi. 3, perhaps kco\ik6v, koKikov. 

Cajiel, masc, coleivort, brassica oleracca, 
Lb. III. xii., xliv. 

Ceac, gen. -es, masc, a jug, urna: pi. cea- 
cai-. Bed. p. 520, L 6, with Smiths note, 
p. 97. Lb. L ii. 11. liom. L 428. 

2. Laver of the temple of Solomon ; 
Inter, XovTi]p, P. A. 21b. 

Cealpe, ceolpe, ceolbpe, ace. -e, nom. pi. 
—as, masc, pressed curds, curds crumbled 
and pressed into a cake. " Calmaria, 
" cealjie ; Caluiale, cealepbjiip," Gl. 
Cleop. " Muluctra, ceolbpe," Gl. C. The 
dat. occurs, Lb. I. xxxix., ace I. xliv. 1. 
Lacn. 57, pi. Ai5o|. 51. Compare Germ. 
Gallerte, fem.,jelli/. 

Ceaj-tep sej-c. See JEyc. 

CeajTep pypc, fem., gen. -e, black helle- 
bore, helleborus niger. Lb. I. xxxix. 2. 

Cebelc, Mercurialis perennis. Hb. Ixxxiv. 
from the text and drawings. " Mercuri- 
" alis, cedelc vel merce," Gl. Dun., where 
the insertion of marche or celery arose 
from its similarity to the first syllable 
in mercurialis. "Mercurialis, cebelc. 
" cyphc," Gl. Mone, p. 320 b ; but the 
tradition of our people forbids us to be- 
lieve that mercury is charlock. 

Celenbpe, fem., gen. -an, coi'iander,corian- 
drum salivum. Lb. I. iii. 9. Also celen- 
beji. Lb. I. iv. 2, probably after the Latin 
and neuter ; dat. -bpe, Lb. I. xxxv. 

Celet>enie, celejjonie, cylel^enie, fem., gen. 
-an, celandine, chelidonium mains, by 
English tradition. But Glaucium luteum 
is the x*^'^'^''""' A^e7« of Dioskorides, 
according to Sprengel. The drawing 
in MS. V. fol. 38 a, is meant perhaps for 
chelidonium maius (II.) Hb. Ixxv. Lb. 
I. ii. 2, and often. 
CejiyiUe, cypplle, fem., gen. -an ; garden 
chervil, antltriscus cereJvUum,Bot. 

Cejijille — cunt. 

I'ubucejijille, wild chervil, anthriscus 
silvestris, Lb. II. Ii. 4. Lacn. 62. 

8eo peabe pubu pile, Lacn. G8. J^ubu 
ceppUe, Hb. Ixxxvi., is in both places 
sparagia agrestis, wild asparagus, or as- 
paragus acutifolius, Linn. Asparagus 
agrestis, becomes eoji^najrola, Hb. cxxvi. 
2, by neglecting agrestis. Sparagia gres- 
tis, vude cearfille. Sparago, nefle, Gl. 

Cicel, masc, a cake. Germ. Kuchen, masc, 
a cake. Quadr. ix. 17. Lb. I. xlvi. 2. 
" Buccella," Gl. in Lye ; masc. Lacn. 
44. A(5a|. 63, 21. A word still in use ; 
Moores Suffolk words, Bakers Northants 
Gl. Kersey. " A flat triangular cake." 

Cicena mete, masc. gen. -ey, chickenmeat, 
chickweed, stellaria media, formerly called 
alsine media, Linn. Hippia minor, etc. 
" Ispia minor, [read Hippia'], chyken- 
" mete," Gl. Kawl. c 607. " Ipia minor, 
" chykynmete album florem [habet]." 
Gl. Harl. 3388. Similarly, Gl. M., Gl. 
SI., 1571. " Modera," Gl. Dun. Muronis, 
Gl. Brux. 

Cymeb for Cymen ? n and r> being kindred 
dentals. Lb. I. xxxix. 2. Lye con- 
jectured for chamadrys, germander. 

Cymen, neut. (as Lb. II, xliv.), cummin, 
KvfjLivov, cuminum cyndnum, a foreign 

Kmcean, Lb. I. xvi. 1. I find " Kinnock, 
" the artichoke, cynara scolymos," 
(Nemnich). " Cariscus, kinhbeam," Gl. 
Sloane, 146. "Cariscus, cjucbeam," Gl. 
Somner, p. 64 b, 54, all agree that the 
quickbeam is the (sorbus or) pirus au- 
cuparia. The reader wiU suspect I 
should have read kuihbeam, but the MS. 
marks the i. " Virecta, cincae," GL 
M.M. In these times virecta are green 
shoots, as in Vita Godrici, p. 43, line 1, 
applying well to the paits of the arti- 
choke that are eaten. Kinphen, grem- 
sich, Gl. Mone, p. 289 a, and Grensing, 



Kmcean — cont. 

nymphcEct, Graff. Gl. ^lone, p. 290 b, 6, 

The spelling qmce in Lacn. 4, makes 
us suspect quince. 
Cypnel, masc, gen. -ef, heniel of a nut. 
" Nucli, cypnlar," Gl. Cleop. fol. CG a, 
read nuclei. 
Cypnel, neut., pi. cyjinelu, kernel, liai'd 
glandular swelling, churnel, grumus. 
Hb. iv. 2, 3 ; xiv. 2 ; Ixxv. 5. 
Cyplybb, neuter ? rennet, Quad. iv. 1 4. 
See Lib. Rennet is the substance which 
turns milk to cui'd, for which purpose 
is often used a calfs stomach ; hapan 
cyj-lyb implies that the stomach of a 
hare or leveret would have the same 
effect. Otherwise cyj^epunn, Collo- 
quium, p. 28 ; not caseus, nor yet a 
cheese, but rennet. Unlibban is other- 
wise declined, Horn. IL 504 ; lyb is in 
Gl. C.C.C. Cf. Lacn. 18. 
Claenie, gen. -an, fern. ? clover, trifolium 
pratense. Lb. I. xxi. Amid a wilderness 
of confusion, the ternate leaves of the 
figure in MS. Bodley, 130, at Hb. Ixx. ; 
the close relationship between hares foot 
and clover in the old herbals, as Lytcs, 
the similarity of the drawings in MS. V. 
at art. Ixx. and art. Ixii. ; a comparison 
of the drawings of clover, art. Ixx., and 
hart clover, art. xxv., have convinced me 
that I have rightly determined the worts 
meant byl>apan hije and Claeyjie. Kipcnov 
to which claejpe is equivalent, Hb. Ixx., 
was in Dioskorides a pappose plant, 
carduus parvijlorus (Sprengel). Lindley 
makes cirsium a cynaraceous genus. 
The trifolium pratense or purple clover is 
in Gennan Kleber, Klever, Kleve, and 
-klee, Rothe-, Gemeiner- and Brauner- 
Wiesen-klee ; in Dutch Roode klaver, 
etc. ; in Dansk Rod-klever, etc. ; in 
Swedish Klof^er, etc. The drawing in 
MS. V. Hb. Ixx. by itself "' won t do for 
" Trifolium ; corresponds as far as it 
" goes with Thymus serpyllum," (H.) 
J. Grimm makes claenie clover. 

Clare, fem,, gen. -an ; 1. The greater, the 
burdock, arctium lappa. " Blitum vel 
" lappa, clace," Gl. Somn. p. 6G [63] b, 
30. " Bardane la grande, the burrdock, 
" slote \_rcad clote] burr, great burr," 
Cotgrave. " Bardona .i . cletes . vel burres 
" secundum aliquos," Gl. Rawl. c. 607. 
" Elixis . i . lappa bardana . i . clote," GL 
Harl. 3388. " Lappa maior . i . bardana, 
clote," Gl. Harl. 3388. 

2. The lesser ; clivers, goosegrass, 
catchweed, little bur, galium aparine. 
"Amorfolia, clace," Gl. Somn. p. 66 [63] 
b, 44, that is, love leaves, from cleaving 
to passengers ; so Gl. Dun. Hb. clxxiv. 
MS. O. The drawing, MS. V. fol. 64, 
is " a very neat representation of aspe- 
" rula odorata," (H.), but the aspernla 
is not a burr plant, and the nearly akin 
G. Aparine must have been in the 
draughtsmans intention. It is called ^lA.- 
dvdpwnos, as sticking to men and women. 
" Philantropium, lappa, clace," GL R. 41. 
Lappa, the catcher, from Aafii(xQat, lay 
hold of, is applied like clote to both 
these herbs, in other particulars unlike. 
Clote itself must have the same sense, 
and with exceptional vocalisation is a de- 
rivative of cleopan, and for f cleojte, as 
slice for f flihce, is from slean, f )-lej;an. 

Cliye, fem., gen. -an ; clivers. The greater 
is burdock, arctium lappa. The lesser is 
galium aparine. Lb. I. 1. '2. The same as 
chjiiyjic. " Apparine, cliuc." Gl. Dun. 

Clij-pyjir, fem., gen. in -e, burdock, arc- 
tium lappa. Assuming the syllable cli): 
to signify cleaving, the Xanthium struma- 
rium and the Asperugo procumbcns are 
too rare ; the Galiums or the Arctium 
lappa are common ; the equivalent yoxej* 
cliye (Lacn. 112), seems to suit better 
the burdock, which will grow in the wet 
shore of a river, and so be eapyjic. 
" Blitum vel lappa, clace vel cliypypc," 
Gl. Somn. p. 66 [63] b, 30. Lb. L xv, 3. 
2. Galium aparine, written cli'Sjjypc, 
Lacn. 69, where occurs a gloss, Rubea 



Clujre ? fern., pi. in -e, a clove, the bulb or 
tuber of a plant. Lb. IIL xli., etc. 

Cluplir, cluyehc, cloved, having a clove, 
bulbed, tuberous. Lb. IIL xli., etc. 

CluyJ^ung, cluil'uuse, fern., gen. in -e, also 
—an, doffing, ranunculus sceleratus, 
Hb. ix. In MS. G. the true herb is 
drawn ; in MS. A. the flowers are at 
least yellow, with five petals ; but in 
MS. V. fol. 21 a, all likeness is lost, 
punj is poison, cluy- is clove, the tuberous 

■ root ; as of some of this tribe. Clup 
J'ungan, Hb. ex. 3, where the Latin 
again makes the wort a ranunculus. 
" Mortali yeneno, mid cEttrigere cluf- 
" >unse," Gl. Mone, p. 349 b, an erro- 

. neous version ; but an example of the 
feminine. " Scelerata herba vel apium 
" risus, anglice cloftong," Gl. Sloane, 
405. " Scelerata, gl. cloftunge," MS. 
Bodley, 130. "As yellow as a claut," that 
is, marsh ranunculus (Wilts.). " Batra- 
" chium," Gl. Erux. 

" Cicuta, cloftunke," Gl. Ilarl. 3388, 
an error, cicuta is hemlock ; the poi- 
sonous quality misled the writer. 
" Cloffing, the plant hellebore." Halli- 
well and the English Macer, MS. in 
Prompt. Parv., vol. i. p. 198 ; a similar 
error occurs, Lb. I. i. 7. 

Clu}"]'y]ir, clovewort, fem., gen. -e, ranun- 
culus acris. In MS. G. the figure is that 
of ranunculus as in " scelerata," but here 
the root is tuberous, so MS. T., but less 
well ; MS. A. preserves a resemblance, 
which is almost lost in MS. V. Hb. x. 
" Batrocum," Gl. Dun., that is ^arpa-xi-ov. 

Cneopholen, masc, knee holly, knee holm, 
-holn, -hulver, butchers broom, Ruscus 
aculeatus, Hb. lix. The gender is de- 
termined by C.E. p. 437, 19, where the 
translation " alder," is an im fortunate 
blot. Two kinds are mentioned, Lb. I. 
xlvii., but one only is native to England. 
. The second may be presumed to be R. 
Alexandrina of the middle ages, which 
included li. hi/poglossum, E. Injpofyllum, 
H. racemosus, of the Eot. 

Cop;, gen. -es, costmary, alecost, tanacetuni 

balsamita. Lb. II. Iv. 1, etc. 
Crawleac. See Leac. 
Cpimman, prait. cpam, p. part, cpumen, to 
reduce to crumbs, to crumble. Cjiim. Lb. 
L Ixi. 1. 
Cropleac. See Leac 
Cjiuc, masc, a cross. Lb. II. Ivi. 4. 
Cu, gen. cue, fem., cow, vacca. The de- 
clension is often contracted ; gen. Lb. 
I. xxxviii. 11, by conti-. cu ; Saec an 
beoyol on l^repe cu hpycje, M.H. 194 a, 
There sat a devil on the cows back. Dat. 
cy. Fepbe oj: ^BSjie cy, ibid., the devil 
went off from the cow ; gen. pi. cuna ; 
]:eo}ie]i-is cuna. Gen. xxxii. 15 ; dat. pi. 
cum ; unbep yolcimi, Par. Ps. Ixvii. 27, 
for yolc cum, as Grein suggests ; ace. 
pi. cy ; ic hsebbe . . . gecelye cy, Gen, 
xxxiii. 13, where ge is con ; SSpp. 261, 
cows with their calves. 
Culmillan, for cujimellan ? Lb. I. xvi. 1, 
Cumb, masc, gen. -ej-, a vessel, '•' dolium," 
MS.St.Joh.Oxon. 154 ; SSpp. art. 1026. 
Lacn. 37. Cf.plbcumb. Lb.III.liii. 
Cumulu, pL, glandular swellings, translates^ 

ffKippiifxaTa. Hb. clvii. 
Cunelle, fem., gen. -an, a Latin word, 
cunila, a thymiaceous plant, say Thymus 
vulgaris, a garden herb, but it is not 
rue, as the glossator of the Liudisfarne 
Gospels, Luke xi. 42, says, nor chervil, 
as another Gl. says. 

I^ubu cunelle, thymus serpyllum, wild 
thyme. Lb, III. xxii. 
Cupmelle ]-eo mape, Chlora perfoliata, 
Bot. ; Cujimelle j-eo IcSfj-e, Erytltraa cen- 
taureum, Bot. Hb. xxxv. xxxvi. All 
the MSS., v.. A., G., T. figure in both 
these articles, the same wort, and in all 
they are the Erythraea centaureum. The 
mediffival glossaries make no difficulty of 
the lesser, but they had lost the clue to 
the greater. The tradition is from 
Plinius, XXV. 30, 31. Though some of 
the continental botanists make no hesi- 
tation in identifying the greater centau- 
rion of Plinius, with centaiirea, yet his 

«>/ o 


Cujimelle — con t. 

expression, " caules geniculati," seems 
iiTeconcileable with the genus. The in- 
terpreter of our MS., however, and the 
draughtsman did not know what plant to 
name for the greater, nor did Fuchsius, 
the botanic reformer. Of the less, Plini- 
us says, " Hoc (minus) centaurion nostri 
*' fel terrse vocant propter amaritudinem 
^' summam." " The whole plant is ex- 
" tremely bitter, and when dried is used 
" in country places as a substitute for 
" gentian root," (Lindley). Lyte (p. 375) 
describes Ery th. c, and mentions (p. 436) 
its bitterness, calling it " the small cen- 
" torie." " Centaurea minor, horse galle," 
Gl. Sloane, 5, where " horse " means 
luild. " C. maior, cristes ladder," Gl. 
•Sloane, 5, but minor, Gl. Sloane, 13.5; 
Christs ladder cannot be polemonium 
cseruleum, which is nowise to the pur- 
pose. " C. J^e more is not well knowen," 
Gl. Sloane, 5, fol. 18 b. " Centaurea 
*' maior, anglice more centori or yrthe 
*' galle, it hathe leuys like lasse centori 
" whytt, with on \_one\ stalk and yolow 
*' flowrys and he flowryth nott in )pe 
" topp," Gl. Sloane, 135; and so Harl. 
3840, this is chlora perfoliata. Centaurea 
maior coniungit folia iuxta stipitem, 
florem habet croceum, MS. T., fol. 63 a. 
" Centaurea minor, anglice lasse centori, 
" with lasse leuys and grener J^en J>e more 
*' centori, and hath mony branches com- 
" yng out of on, with flowre some dele 
" redde," Gl. Sloane, 135, plainly eryth- 
rcea c. The [H]ortus Sanitatis figures 
for centaurea, the erythraum c. Sibthorp 
in the Flora Graca sustains the assertion. 
Centaurea, erthegalle, is drawn in Grete 
Herbal as C cyanus. Dorsten says the 
greater centaury is unknown, yet draws 
it as C. cyanus. 

Cuj-lyppan, obi. case, cowslip, primula veris ; 
fem. ? is a compound of cu, perhaps in 
the genitive, and slyppan. See Oxanj-lyp- 
pan. Lb. IH. xxx. Slyppan is probably 
the sloppy dropping of a cow. 

Cpseb, neut., du)ig. Lb. T. 1. 2 ; II. xlviii. 
jjynne is also neuter. 

Cpelbehc, full of evil matter, of pestilence. 
Lb. I. liv. The termination as in cseji- 
phc, cressy ; cluphc, cloved ; cneoehc, 
kneed; hEejiihc, hairy; hBclJiht, heathy; 
hpeodiht, reedy ; helmihc, leafy ; staen- 
ihc, stony ; Ijopniht, thorny. For cpylb, 
see Lye. 

Cwicbeam, gen. -es, masc. 1. By tradition 
the roivan tree, Pirus aucuparia. 

2. luniperus communis, many glos- 

3. Furze, or gorse, Vlex Europxtis, 
Lb. I. xxxi. 3. Prompt. Parvul. See 
Hb. cxlil. 

4. The aspen, Populus tremida, Pref. 
vol. I. p. Ixxxvi. 

Cpi^, gen. in -ey, masc, the matrix, uterus, 
vulva. Lb. III. xxxvii. xxxviii. 

Cpi'S, Lb. I. xlvii. 3, Matricaria ? Read 
cpice ? 


Dsel, gen. -es, neut. a dale, vallis, "barath- 
" rum. " C.E. p. 93, 1. 26, p. 94, 1. 18. 
Cffidm. if Caedm., p. 16, line 11, p. 22, 
1. 10. 

Dael, gen. -es, mostly masc, sometimes 
neut., like Germ. Th.ei\, part, pars. The 
masc. occ. everywhere. Exx. of neut. 
AiSa|. 52, unless nominatival apposition 
is there used ; as is perhaps the case in 
Lb. II. xxx. Heo nsenig bsel leohcej* 
j-ciman jej-eon mihce. Bed. 578, 20. 
Sum bsel o'Spef peo]iCef co pypcanne, 
D.G. 23 b. 

Deaye, gen. -e, fem. .' deafness, surditas, Lb. 
L iii. 2, 5. Cf. Isl. Deyfa, fem. id. (B.H.) 

Dile, gen. -es, masc, dill, anethum graveo- 
lens. Lib. I. i. 8 ; II. xxxiii. Leechd. 
vol. I. p. 374, where haepene is for 
hsepenne by suppression of consonant; 
Pref. vol. I. p. c. ci. 


Dile — cont. 

Haej'en dile ; perhaps Achillea tomen- 
tosa ; for Cotgrave explains Anet as 
secondly, " little or yellow harrow," for 
which I read yaiTow, the finely divided 
leaves of which might obtain it this 

Dylsta ? mucus ; pi. dylscan. Lb. I. 
xxxi. 5. Cf. II. xxix. 

Dylstihc, mucous, slimij. Lb. I. xxix. 1. 

Dynige, it seems, an herb. Lb. III. viii. 
\/^ Eead pynige ? 

DyJ'homaji, papyrus. GI. Somn. p. 64 a, 
39. Lb, L xli. 

Docce, gen. -an, fern., dock, rumex ; 
commonly H. obtusi/oHus, but often in 
medicine for Supbocce. Lb. I. xxxviii. 9, 
probably also R. pulcer, which is drawn 
in MS. T. ; fern, in Gl. Cleop. fol. 71 c. 

Fallow dock. Lb. I. xhx. ; perhaps 
Zi. maritimus, and H. palustris. 

Red dock. Lb. I. xlix. JR. sanguineus, 
and perhaps for Sujibocce. 

The dock that will swun frequently 
occurs. Lb. II. Ixv. 1 ; I. xxxvi ; also 
the Ompre that will swim, which is the 
same plant. Lb. III. xxvi. Gerarde 
calls " swimming hei'be," duckesmeat = 
D uckweed= Lemna, which is doubtful. 

Supbocce, sorrel, Rumex Acetosa is the 
gl. in MS. T. Hb. art. xxxiv., and a bad 
sorrel is drawn. 

The Saxons did not botanize on modern 
principles, and it easily follows that 
their genus Dock is not of the same reach 
as the modem Rumex. Thus Ci'ousope, 
which is Saponaria officinalis, is glossed 
fomedok, Gl. Harl. 3388. The word 

\ " foam " shows that the writer knew his 
plant, which he calls a dock. As in 
this instance, and in Cammock whin, and 
many others, similarity of leaves seems 
to have been the chief guide to Saxon 
nomenclature. I cannot therefore believe 
that eabocce (spelt bocca) is Nymphsea, 
GI. Somn. p. 64 a, 61. The word Nym- 
phffia, like many others, must have been 
misunderstood ; I therefore believe that. 

Docce — cont. 

Cabocce is the great water dock, rumex 
aquaticus of Smith, and R. hydrolapa- 
thum of Hudson. 

Dockenkraut in German is Arctium 
lappa, and dockcresses are Lapsana 

Dolh, gen. -cs, mostly neuter, rarely masc, 
wound, scar, vulnus, cicatrix. Hb. x. 3. 
Lb. I. xxxi. 7, xxxviii. 9, 10; UI. xxxiii. 
xxxiv. C.E. p. 68, 24, p. 89, 10. SyS- 
'5an |-e dolh psej- geopenod. M.H. 93 b. 

Dolhjiune, gen. -an, fern.? pellitory, parie- 
tartu officinalis. Hb. Ixxxiii., as perdi- 
calis, which is the same herb ; Lb. often. 

Dopa, masc, gen. -an, the humble bee, bum- 
ble bee, dumble dore, bombus generically. 
The mediaeval glosses Burdo, Pucus, 
Attacus, mean this insect or some nearly 
allied. The commonest is Bombus ter- 
restris, which stores honey. "Bourdon, 
" a drone or dorr bee," Cotgrave. Lb. 

Djiacentj-e, gen. -an, fem. ? Dragons, arum 
dracunculus, Hb. xv. Dragons was a 
name applied by English herbalists, 1. 
to Polygo7ium bistorta, which is, I think, 
the herb figured in the Latin Apuleius, 
MS. Bodley, 130, as dracontea ; 2. to 
ojioglossum vulgatum, Hb. art. vi. ; and 
3. to arum maculatum. All these three 
have a resemblance to a snakes erected 
head and neck. The figure in MS. V., 
art. XV. is intended for arum dracunculus, 
and, this being so, it is impossible not to 
concede the name. That plant is not of 
English birth, but neither is the name. 

Djiacontjan, gum dragon; Lb. II. Ixiv. 

Dpige, bpyje, dry, siccus, aridus, Bed. 478, 
14. Andreas, 1581. Lb. IL xlvi. (In 
C.E. 426, 22, yorum bpije is y. bpigum). 

Dpmce, gen. -an, fem., a drink, potus. Lb. 
I. li, 1. ; L xlii. Horn. IL 180. 

Dpopa, -an, masc, palsy of a limb. Lacn. 
9. The Saxon interpreter was wide of 
hi$ original in Hb. lix. 1, where "Ad 
" hecmata intercidenda," in cxxiv. "tussi 



Djiopa — cont. 

" medcndo " (so). Drop, droppe, para- 
lysis (Kilian); Troppf, gout (Wachter). 
The original sense remains in the "drop- 
" ped hands," " wrist drop " of painters, 
paralysis of the extensor muscles of the 
■wrist. Root Drapan, to strike, p. part. 
Dropen, Bw. 5955, MS. 

2. A drop, gjiita. Lb. L ii. 21. Hence 
" colera " meaning lymph, in Sc. 30 b. 

Dujr, neut, dust, pulvis, powder. Neuter 
everywhere ; Mark vi. 11, Luke x. 11, 
Psalm 1. 5, Matth. x, 14. 

Dpeopge bpo)-tle, bpeojiije bpojie, penny 
royal, vientha pulegium. Hb, xciv. clvi. 2, 
as pulegiiun. So Gl. Dun. So Ai5ct|. 
.30, 51. " Pulegium regale, puliole 
" reale," Gl. Harl. 3388. " Pulegio, 
" peniroyall," Florio ; so Cotgrave. 
" The smallest of its genus," Sir J. E. 
Smith, and therefore well called "dwarf." 
" Much used in medicine," (All). Penny 
royal is only puliole royale. Plea bane 
is not this plant, nor is the reading 

Mentha pulegium is called, Hb. xciv. a 
male and female plant, but this has no 
reference to the sexual system of Linno, 
■which make it didynamous not dioecous. 
Some notion of strength influenced Theo- 
frastos and Dioskorides in giving these 
names. The drawing in MS. V. is like 
the herb intended. The flowers are some- 
times white. 

D])oj-le seems in the German glos- 
saries to be Origanum. 


CaSpypc, fem., gen. -c, eyehright, cvfrasia 
officinalis. Lb. IH, xxx. Germ., au- 
gentrost ; Dutch, oogentrost ; Dansk, 
"oientrost;" Swed., "ogontrost." 

Cala^, ealo^, ealo, ealu, eala, neut. un de- 
clined in sing., ale, cerevisia; gen. eala'S, 

CalaS — cont. 
DD. G3;0.T. 256, 5 ; Lb. T. xiv. and often ; 
dat. eala'S, DD. 357 d; Lb. often; gen. 
pi. eale'Sa, DD. 487, where it is used of 
fermented liquor generally. Gen. Al'Ses, 
D.R. 116, but the forms of D.R. are ab- 
normal, or late. 

Some interesting information on ale 
and beer is collected by that learned and 
accurate antiquary, Mr. Albert Way, in 
the Prompt. Parv. p. 245. The frequent 
mention of Wort (asLxxxvi), that is,the 
warm malt infusion in the mash tub, 
prepared for fermentation, shows plainly 
enough that the Saxons brewed for them- 
selves. The Alevat (I. Ixvii.) is the vessel 
in which the ale was left to ferment. 
Double brewed ale (I. xlvii. 3.) was 
brewed on ale, instead of on water, and 
gave them then a very Strong ale (III. 
xii. p. 314, twice). Even without hops 
such ale would keep till it became Old 
ale (n. Ixv. 1, p. 292, line 12). Keeping 
and careful treatment would secure its 
being Clear (L Ixiii,; H. Ixv. 2, etc.). 
Sweet ale is opposed to the clear (II. 
Ixv. 2), and so was thick. j7ilipc ealu, 
foreign ale, is often mentioned (I. Ixx., 
etc.). Ale is much more frequently 
named than beer ; strong beer is opposed 
to strong ale (IH. xii.). Hopping diinks 
is mentioned, Hb. Ixviii. ; further, see 

eahpep, eileher, alliaria, sauce alone 
(Gerarde). Erysimum alliaria. Lb. IT. 
xxiv., etc. But Callitrichum, Gl. Dun. 

Galla, gall, fel. Of. Gealla. So Euang. 
Nicod., xxvi. 

€a)iban, pi. tares, ervum and orohus. Well 
made out by Somner. " Rolon," in Gl. 
Mone, is doubtless a corruption of orobus, 
opofios, which, though divided by Bot., 
is every way the same as ervum. Lb. I. 

Cajijucga, -an, masc, earwig, forjicula au- 
ricularis. Lb. I. iii. j2, followed by he. 

Cpelapce, fem., gen. in -an, Gnaphalium. 
Somner found some authority for *' Mer- 



Gyelaf-e — ccwt. 

*' curialis, the herb mercury, D.," nnd so 
Gl. Harl. 978, yet all the gnaphaliums 
have very lasting blooms, retaining their 
colour when dry ; the G. margaritaceum 
is specially our modern Everlasting, and 
found " near Bocking, on the banks of 
" the Rhymney, in Wire forest, and near 
" Lichfield." Skinner also, Gnaphalium 
Americanum, which is a misnomer by 
Ray. The genus is in Dausk, Evigheds- 

Cjopyeapn, neut., gen. -ey, polypody, poli/- 
poditim vuJgare. Hb. Ixxxvi., where it 
= Radiolus ; " Alii filicinam dicunt, 
" similis est filici, qum fere in lapidetis 
" nascitur vel in parietinis, habens in 
" foliis singulis binos ordines puncto- 
" rum aureormn," Lat. In MS. Bodley, 
130, a fern, as polypodium is drawn and 
a Gloss, in a hand of the 12th century 
gives "wilde brake." "Felix (read 
" Filix) queirciua poUipodium . i . ewer- 
" wan," Gl. M. ">e iii.d is ouerfern, 
" and t-at groys on walles," MS. Bodley, 
536. " Polypodyn . i . ouerferne 't it 
" grewitj on okys \>is is lest," id. " Poly- 
" podium murale, euerfern," MS. Raw- 
linson, c. 506. To the entry, " Polypo- 
" dium arborale, pollipodie ; PoUipodium 
" murale, euerferne," MS. Harl. 3388, has 
been added a cross, so as to invert the in- 
terpretations. " Polypodium rubeas ma- 
" culas habet et uocatur filix quercina . 
" i . euerferne," id. " ffilex quercina pol- 
*' lopodium, euerferne idem (sunt)," id. 
" Filix a[r]boratica, ejojijreapn," Gl. 
Somn. p. 64 a, 14. Culpeper, under 
polypody of the oak, describes at length 
and cleverly, pol. vulg. (H.), and his 
mention is one link in a long medicinal 
tradition. "And why, I pray, must 
" polypodium of the oak only be used, 
" gentle college of physicians ? Can 
" you give me but a glimpse of reason 
*' for it ? It is only because it is 
" dearest." Culpeper. Polypodium vul- 
gare is "very frequent on the tops of 

ej-op]-ea]in— cont. 

" walls, old thatched roofs, shady banks 
" and the mossy trunks of rotten trees." 
(Sir J. E. Smith.) Its fructification 
forms a double row of golden spots on 
each frondlet. See also his allusion to 
tradition in English Botany, 1 149. The 
older names were, "polypodium quer- 
" cinum ; filix arborum ; filicula ; herba 
" radioli." (Nemnich.) Italian, felce- 
quercina. The figure in MS. V. " would 
" do very well for plantago lanceolata, 
" (H.), it is not a fern at all." The 
gender neuter, Boet. p. 48, 1. 31 ; Lb. 
L Ivi. 

ehheolo>e, heahheolo)'e, gen. -an, fem. ? 
elecampane, inula heleninm; from eh, 
horse, equus, = heah, horse, "ttttos. "Ele- 
" campana ys an erbe \>at som men 
" callej> horshele, he beryth grene levis 
" and longe stalkys and berith yelowe 
" fioures." Gl. Sloane, 5, fol. 22 c ; so 
Gl. Bodley, 178. Lb. I. xxxii. 2 ; L i. 
5, etc. 

eicpa, latter, comp. adj. Lb. II. i. 1, re- 
lated to elcian, be late ; Clcung, late- 
7iess ; elcop, later, adverb. 

elehrpe, gen. -an, lupin, the cultivated 
sort of course, lupinut) albus; so trans- 
lated, Hb. cii. 3. Given for dian-hoea, 
Lb. III. xxii. " Electrum multos habet 
" stipites folia virid[i]a et fiores cro- 
" ceos," Gl. Harl. 3388. " Syluestres 
'• lupini Candida habent folia. Sativi 
" foliis non adeo albicant," Dorsten. 
" Lypinus . i . lyponys, ]>m erbe has 
" leuys lyke to t^e v. levyd grass, bote 
" }>e erbe fore the more party has v. 
" leues and a whyt floure, etc.," MS. 
Bodley, 536. " Clehtpe, maura," MS. 
in Somner. "Walupia, electre," GL 

elhygb, strange thought, distraction. Lb. 
n. xlvi. ?>ysb is found fem. neut. 

elm, masc, gen -ef, elm, ulmus campestris; 
perhaps also u. sativa. Gen. elmef, Lbv 
I. vi. 8, therefore like old Dansk, Almr, 
elm, masc. 



Coyophpocu, also -e, fem., gen. in -an ; 
carlina acaulis, Eberwurtz, carlina acau- 
lis (Adelung). "The Carline thistle, 
" formerly used in medicine, is not this 
" (carlina vulgaris), but carlina acaulis 
" of Linnseus. It was reported to have 
" been pointed out by an angel to Charle- 
" magne, to cure his army of the plague. 
" His name is the origin of the generic 
" one." (SirJ.E.Smith,English Botany, 
plate 1144). Everwortel, chameleon, 
Kilian ; that is xa,"«'^f '>"' (A.«vk:us), -which 
■was identified, rightly or not, by Spren- 
gel, as carlina acaulis. " Eberwurz, 
" cardo [read carduus'] rotunda. Euer- 
" -wurz, cardo pana, al. chamEeleon," Gl. 
Hoffm. " Scissa," a gl. in Lye, perhaps 
a genuine name. " Scasa, ebop)=poC8e," 
Gl. M.M. p. 162 b. " Colucus," Gl. Erux. 
" Colicus," Gl. Cleop. " Colitus vel Colo- 
" cus," Gl. Dun. ; -which I take to be mis- 
readings of Co, for Cardo, and that for 
Carduus, \evK6s. "Scasa vel scafa vel 
" sisca," further, Gl. Dun. ; these are 
attempts to read a crabbed MS. Also 
" Anta," also " Borotium," Gl. Dun., 
the last being the English -word eoj:op, 
boar, -with a Latin termination. Lb. 
Li. 6; xxxviii. 10. 

The x"M"'^^'^''> "which, by its name 
must have hugged the ground, is wrongly 
interpreted in Hb. xxvi., cliii., as a teazle, 
•which has a strong long stem. 

Colone, elene, gen. -an ; fem., elecampane, 
inula helenium. Lb. I. xxxiv. 2, and 

Colone Isefpe, flea hane, pulicaria dysen- 
<er«ca, doubtless. Lb. ILlii. 1. 

Copnlice, earnestly, " diligenter." Hb. 
Ixxxvii. 2. 

Gop'Ssealla, masc, gen. -an, Erythraa 
centaureum, Bot. This is made the 
same as Centaurea maior, Hb. xxxv., 
and the drawings in MSS. V. G. T. A. 
represent ErythrcBa centaureum, which 
is " intensely bitter." It is, however, 
C. minor, not maior. In the pictorial 
Apuleius, MS. Bodley, 130, Se mape 

Cop'Sgealla — cont. 

curmelle, is intended for feverfue, 
Pyrethrum Parthenium, which is " herba 
" amara, aromatica," Elor. Brit. " Cen- 
" taurya maior . i . }>e more centore or 
" erthe galle, his flowrs ben ^olow in be 
" tope, etc." MS. Bodley, 536. Dorsten 
agrees with us. He figures Eryth. cent., 
and says the greater centaury has leaves 
like the walnut, green as the cabbage, 
and serrated. " Eel terrse . centaurea . 
" idem, muliebria educit .. habet in sum- 
" mitate plures flores rubros," MS. 
Rawlinson, c. 607, which describes 
Erythrssa. " Centauria, cop's gealle [a], 
Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 5. Lb. II. viii., etc. 

Cop'Snafola, masc, gen. -an, earth navel, 
asparagus officinalis. Hb. xcvii. 1, 
"asparagi." So cxxvi. 2, masc. Oros. 
iv. l=p. 380, 30. 

Cop^pima, gen. -an ? masc. Lb. III. xli. 
conjecturallypoteniiV/areptows, since pima 
stands for peoma masc, as in co'Spima, 
gl. for ro^peoma, cf Germ. Riem, masc, 
a thong, a strap. The signification is 
therefore '^ Earth cord;" this is not ap- 
plicable to the dodder, which does not 
touch the earth, and has its own Saxon 
name bobbep, Mone, 287 a ; the straw- 
berry, which is almost a potentilla, has 
also its old English name ; the com- 
mon jjofen^i'Z/a re/j tons is therefore most 

Gop'S yps,neut.,gen. -ej*, ground ivy, glecho- 
ma hederacea, the equivalent is Hedera 
nigra, Hb. c, according to our botanists, 
our common climbing Ivy is Hedera 
helix, which name, however, in Plinius, 
lib. xvi. 62, is given to a sort which has 
no berries, " fructum non gignit." The 
plant coil's yps would not be ground 
ivy, for its cpoppaf or corjniibi are 
mentioned, Hb. c. 3, but there is no 
getting over the common voice of 
England, which calls by the name 
ground ivy, what is not ivy at all. 
Hedera is of constant occurrence as ipj;, 
and to be correct, the interpreter should 



Cop's yps — cont. 

have added nothing. Glechoma is Ger- 
man Erd epheu ; French, le lierre ter- 
restre ; Italian, ellera ten'estre ; Spanish, 
hiedra terrestre ; Portuguese, hera ter- 
restre. The errors lie perhaps in our 
misunderstanding of the words Kiffads, 
Hedera, -when used for that which is not 

Cop, Ip, masc, gen. -ef, the yew, taxus 
baccata. Masc, C.E. p. 437, line 18. 
" Ornus eoji," Gl. Somner, p. 65 a, 40, 
only proves that the glossator did not 
understand the word ornus as we do ; 
whether current notions are correct 
appears questionable ; but at any rate 
the old folk of England know the yew 
out of which they made their victory 
giving bows. Cf. ohg. Iwa ; mod. g. 
Eibe, fern., the yew ; Fr. If, masc. ; Ip is 
masc, CD. 652. 

Coji bejige, yew berry. Lb. III. Ixiii. 

Copohumele. Lb. III. Ix., the female hop 
plant. See )>ymele. 


Esep, Eep, gen. -es, masc, fever, febris, 

Lb. I. contents, Ixii., a contraction of 

Fsetelpian, — obe, -ob, put into a vessel, 

bottle off. Quad. i. 3. 
Eeapn, neut., fern, Boet. p. 48, line 31. 
paefc micle peapn, the mickle fern, 

bracken, aspidiumftlix. Lb. I. Ivi. 
Eeaj>, Lb. I. xxxv., as opposed to micel, is 

paucus,pauculus, paidlus, little,Vike Goth. 

Eaws, 1 Timoth. iv. 8. Hence, perhaps, 

its construction with a genitive, Feapa 

pxa, Matth. xv. 34, a few of fishes, like a 

Few of us. 
Feban, Lb. I. Ixiii., see Pref. vol. 1. p. xl. 

Matter for conjecture. 8e beopa pea^ 
, bpeopse pebe'S, C.E. 94, 25, the deep pit 
feedeth or keepeth them dreary. 

Fepe]ipuse, gen. -ean ; fem. ? erythrcra 
centaureum. Hb. xxxvi. Gl. Harl. 585. 
Any wholesome bitter might be called 
feverfue, serving the purpose now sers-ed 
by quinine. 

Felbmopu, " fieldmore," carrot or parsnep, 
daucus cariota, or pastinaca sativa. 
Though pastinaca, lib. Ixxxii., is now 
decided to be a parsnep, yet the weight 
of nearly cotemporary authority stands 
for carot. In MS. Bodley, 130, the 
glosses are "a carott," "flFeldmore." 
" Daucus, wildmoren," Hortus Sanitatis, 
and figures a carot. The Gl. Somn. 
p. 64 a, 32, distinguishes "pastinaca, 
" pelbmopa," (read -pu, as Gl. Dun.), 
" Daucus, pealmopa [-pu] cariota palb- 
" mopa ; " but the distinction between 
a field root and a weald root is over 
fine. " Pastinaca, imallimojiae," Gl. 
M.M. The words should include both. 
" Pastinaca domestica . i . parsnep." Gl. 
Bodl. 536. The p. silvatica has been 
improved by cultivation into p. sativa. 

Felbpypc, gen. -e, fem., gentian, gentiana, 
Hb. xvii., where the marginal note, 
erythraea pulcella, describes the drawing 
in MS. V. The reading pelpyjic of 
Skinner and others, from Fel, gall, gives 
us a hibrid word. Probably, as in 
Esthonian, the earliest name was pelb- 
hymele, field hop, the plant being em- 
ployed as a substitute for hops in embit- 
tering ale. Then as the appearance and 
leaves negatived this name, it was ex- 
changed for pelbpypc. 

Fellepaepc, pyllepsepc, masc, epileptic con- 
vulsions. Lb. II. i. 1. The word must 
be interpreted in harmony with jylle- 
seoc, pylleseocnyp. I had written so 
much before I detected the equivalent 
dpxojJ-^vas iiTi\n)y\/ias in Alex. Trallianus. 

Felrjjypc, fem., gen. in -e, feltwort, verbas- 
cum thapsus. Hb. Ixxiii. The reading 
pelbpypc is a mistake, the felty leaves 
give it the name, whence it is also 
called in German Wollkraut ; mullein 
also is supposed to be woollen. Felc 



Felrpypr — cont. 

■was Latinised (Gl. Somn. p. 59 a, 58) 
as feltrum, filtrum (John de Garlond, 
p. 124); Dansk, filt, felt; Swedish, filt, 
mase. feU; Germ., filz, masc. felt. The 
drawing in MS. V. fol. 37 d, represents 
the plant. " Filtrum terre, anglice lelt- 
" wort vel molayn idem." Gl. Rawl. 
c. 607. " Thapsus barbastus [read bar- 
" hatus], G. moleyn, A. felwort." Gl. 
Sloane, 5 ; so Gl. Sloane, 405. In Gl. 
Somn. 63 b, 38, read Anadonia, yelr- 
pypt. Teltwort yel hegetaper, Gl. 
Arund. 42. 

Fepbjiypt, fem., gen. in -e. Lb. I. 

Fep>e, masc, sound part? Lb. L i. 15. 
" Probus ferth," Gl. M.M. p. 160 b, 20. 
Leasyep'Snes, false probity, P.A. 59 b. 
Sec yepe, Chron. 1016, and Layamon, 
1052, 1075, 1055. But there is also a 
syllable yep'Sin " j-eoluj-eja-S, tor ax." Gl. 
C, that is, Oupa^, from perhaps Lorica, 
p. Ixxii. Cf Gl. Cleop. fol. 85 b, and 
yelufejiiS, ceniumpellio, Gl. Cleop. fol. 
26 b, which appears to be an altered 
form of centipedem. In these two words 
it is possible that yeji-Se may signify 
ring, which would suit Lb. well. So, 
Fleoreubpa yep'S, C.E. 289, line 26, a 
ring of floating ones. ? = ferci firci,^/,^^.^ 

Fic, Geps, masc, a disease known as ficus, 
IvKri, '2,vKov, 'S.vKoiixa, 'S.vkuktis. In the 
Lb. I. ii. 22, the disease " fig " is said to 
be x^h'-^'^'-^^ ^ moisture in the skin en- 
closing the eyes (Florio), but without 
exactly negativing that statement we 
must bend to an overwhelming weight 
of testimony, and accept it as an excre- 
scence like a fig with an ulcer, so called 
from a fig bursting with fatness, " ficus 
" hians prte pinguedine." It affects all 
parts of the body which have hair, espe- 
cially the eyebrows, beard, head, and 
anus ; and it was sometimes called 
marisca. Dioskor. i. 100 ; Pollux from 
Apsyrtus, iv. 203 ; Celsus, vi. 3 ; Paulus 
^gineta, iii. 3 ; Psellus in Ideleri Phys., 

Fic — cont. 

vol. i. p. 223, 704 ; Pollux, iv. 200 ; 
Aetius; Martialls; Hippokrates, p. 1085 
H. ; Oribasius ap. Phot, p. 176, 3 ; 
Schol. Aristoph. Pan., 1247. These 
references I have taken from the Paris 
ed. of Etienne. The name was in con- 
stant technical use among mediaeval 
medical writers. '• Contra ficum arden- 
" tem," "Contra ficum sanguinolen- 
" tum," " Contra ficum corrodentem," 
" Contra ficum nomere facientem." MS. 
Sloane, 146, fol. 28. Haemorrhoids are 
ficblattern in the [H]ortus Sanitatis. In 
Florios time (1611) fico in Italian had 
been reduced to " a disease in a horses 
"foot." Cotgrave (1673) has "fie, a 
" certain scab, or hard, round, and red 
" sore, in the fundament." " Fijck, 
" tuberculum acutum cum dolore et 
" inflammatione," (Kilian). It was a 
running sore, Lb. I. xxxix. ; it was 
equivalent to J^eopabl, Lb. I. ii. 22. 
Written Uic, and masc, Lacn. 6 ; 44, 
following the Latin usage. 

" Dicemus ficus quas scimus in arbore 
" nasci, 
" Dicemus ficos, Cseciliane, tuos." 
Martialis, I. 66. 
Hie fygus, the fyge. Wrights Gl. p. 224. 
Filb, Lb. I. Ixvii., with Filbcimib, Lb. III. 
liii., may be taken to mean the milk 
drawn at one milking from how many cows 
soever; commonly called the mornings 
milk, the evenings milk. In a dairy every 
several milking is kept separate. ^ 
FiUe, an apocopate form of cepplle, chervil, 
anthriscus cerefolium, as clearly appears 
from a comparison of the poetical names, 
Lacn. 46, with the same in prose. " Cer- 
" folium . i . cerfoil . i . villen," Gl. Harl. 
978 (A.D. 1240). 
FleaJ'e, )leo)?e, fem., gen. -an, tvater lily, 
Nymphcea alba, N. lutea. Lb. II. Ii. i. 3. 
" Nimfea, 1 , fleaperr," MS. Ashmole, 
1431, fol. 19. *' Nympha, fleathorvyrt," 
Gl. Dun. But " flatter dock, pondweed, 
" potamogeiton," Gl. Chesh. 



Fleosan,j^ow, not " fly." Lb. III. xxii. 

Fleocpypc, fern., gen. -e, " floatwort," Lb. 

IL lii. 1. " Algea, flotvyrt," GL Dun, 

" Alga," Gl. M. I fear the description 

, is too vague, Potamogeitun Jluitans '/ 

Sparganiiwi nutans? Lemna? 

Flecan, yliecan. 1. Found only in T^\.,fleet- 
ings, Jiasty curds, skimmed, but yet not 
cream, Lb. IIL x. ; I. ii. 23. " After the 
" curd for making new milk cheese is 
" separated from the whey, it is set over 
" tiie fire, aud when it almost boils, a 
" quantity of sour butter milk is poured 
" into the pan, and the mixture is gently 
" stirred. In a few minutes the curd 
" rises to the surface, and is carefully 
" skimmed off with a fleeting dish into 
" a seive, to drain." (Carrs Craven Gl.) 
" Sarrasson, fleetings or hasty curds, 
" scumd from the whey of a new milk 
" cheese," (Cotgrave.) Of. Wilbraham 
and Mr. Ways Promptorium. 

2. In singular, cream, as Lye ; used 
in this sense, Lb. I. xliv. 2. The com- 
mon notion of these two senses, is 

Fnccj-tia'S, Lib. II. xxxvi. If the passage 
be without en-oi', which is hardly to be 
supposed, ynsej-cia'S must be a plural. 
Fnajsc is masc, and makes ace. I'one 
ynaesr, Ai5a|. 28,51 ; therefore we should 
perhaps read ynsesras. 

Fojibejian, prast. bseji, p. part, bojien, re- 
strain, cohihere, continere. Hb. iv. 9. 
Lib. I. xlv. 6, in a special sense, conti- 
nere, render continent, tie with a knot of 
poison. See preface, on knots. To this 
binding down the instincts by herbs, 
allude the glosses, " obligamentum, lyb- 
" lyjefn ;" " Obligamentum, lyb," Gl. 
Cleop. fol. 69 a, fol. 71 b; Gl. M.M. 
p. IGO a, 22, where lib is (papjxaKov and 
liyesn, (pvKaKTrjpiov, an amulet; galbo]! 
oSiSe hyej-ne, Beda, p. 604, 9. In the 
Njal saga, Una, virgin wife of Ilrut, 
thus tells her tale, attributing the mis- 
fortune to something that had poisoned 
him : 


Fopbejian — ront. 

Vist hefir hringa hristir 

Hrutr likama I'rutinn 

eitrs ]>a. en linbe'Ss leitar 

lundygr munu'5 dryia. 

Known has Hrut, 

the ring bestower, 

his body bloat 

with venom vile, 

when he would, with all goodwill, 

in linen white, 

in bleached bed, 

the bliss enjoy 

of loves delights 

with me the lass 

he wooed and wed. 
Cf. pypcyopbojie. Lb. III. i. Fo])beiian 
is restrain, Bw. 3748. 
Fopcuuolfcan, to swallow. Lb. I. iv. 6. 

Cf. Qvolk, gullet, ^iroat (Molbech). 

Fojinesey yolm, " Fornjots palm," sonic 

herb ; Lb. I. Ixx. Ixxi. Gl. Cleop. fol. 

65 b, which gl. only translates ]olni, 

riiamis. Cf. Gorfaers na;gler, pihrmsciie)- 

]iy]it, SigniDsrts cruyt = Signiunds kraut. 

Fopjieaxen ; that this word has been 

rightly read overgrown, appears by lib. 

ii. 4, and by 'Sy Iedj- hie ~o 'Sfcm j'op- 

peoxen ^sec hie yopyeapoben -j "Sy 

un])ce)-'5mb8e]J]iau jjsejien, P.A. .54 b. 

Lest they overgrew to that degree that 

they withered and were thus less fertile. 

Fopt>ylmian. See pelma. 

Foe, masc, foot, pi. j:er, as Mark ix. 45 ; 

but yocas, G'S. 114. Lb. 
Foxej- clace, fem., gen. -an, " fox clote," 
Arctium lappa. Lb. I. Ixix. iSee Clate. 
Foxey j:oc, bur reed, Sparganinm simplex. 
In Hb. xlvii. is ^i(j>iov. By the drawing 
in MS. G. this seems to have been 
understood as the German Schwertel- 
riei = Sparga7iiu7n simplex, the burs on 
which may account for the name foxes 
foot. Hares foot is a name similarly 
given. The drawing in MS. V. is much 
eaten out. " Xifion, foxes fot," Gl. Dun., 
copied from Hb. So Gl. Laud. 507. 
B B 



Fo^ojin, masc, gen. -ty, tenaculum, in a 

surgeons case of instruments. Lb. I. 

vi. 7. Taken as a compound of yon, to 

catch, and )>opn. 
Fpampeapbej-, in a direction away from, 

Lb. I. Ixviii. 1. 
Fulbeam, fulanbeam, masc, gen. -ej-, the 

black alder, rhamnus franyula. Lb. I. 

xxxii. 4. 


Gasel, Lb. I. xxxvi. ; Gazelle, Gagille, 
fern. ? gen. -an. Lb. II. li. 1 ; 11. liii. ; 
III. xiv., sweet gale, Myrica Gale. 
But sageles, Lacn. 4. 

Galluc, masc, comfrey, Symphytum offi- 
cinale. "Simphitone, the hearbe Alo, 
" Confrey or wallwort of the rocke," 
(Florio). So Hb. Ix., Gl. Dun. copy- 
ing Hb. "Cumfiria," Gl. Harl. 978 
(A.D. 1240). " Adriatica vel malum 
" teiTS!, salluc," Gl. Somn.p. 66 [63], 
1. 9. If tbis means that the earth apple, 
-whether Cyclamen or Bunium, is galluc, 
the statements above must be preferred. 
Copied into Gl. Dun, Occ. Lb. 1. 
xxvii. 1, masc. 

Gapclij-e, agrimony, agrimonia eupatoria. 
Hb. xxxii. Gapcliye is also the gloss of 
Agrimonia in Gl. Dun. and Lb. II. viii. 
Gl. Sloane, 146. MS. G. draws a rude 
likeness of agrimony, and MS. T. at- 
tempts apyefjiwvT], papaver argemone. 
The word Agrimonia is said to be a 
corruption of Argemone, Plinius, 
xxvi. .59, but those who choose to enter 
into the subject of the Latin names had 
better compare Dioskor. ii. 108, who 
speaks of a poppy. Gap, a spear, is 
evidently the first element in the name 
of the plant, the spike of which rises 
like a narrow dagger above the grass : 
clije is, perhaps, connected with our 
ClifiF, and with Hhjrian, to tower. 

Gacerjieo]>, neut., gen. -ev, the nettle tree, 
the tree lotus, celtis australis. Lb. I. 
xxxvi. Somners conjectiire is wholly 
an error, his tree is the Gattridge tree. 
" Geizpoum, lothon ; [AwrtJs, genus 
" arboris, latine mella]," Gl. Hoffin. 

Geacej" yxxyie, gen. -an, cuckoo sorrel, wood 
sorrel, oxalis Acetosella. Proofs abound. 
Lb. I. ii. 13, 22.; III. xlviii. 

Geagl, neut. and masc, gen. -ej-, the jowl, 
the fleshy parts attached below the lower 
jaw. Lb. I. i. 16, 17.; iv. 3. 

Gealla, masc, gen. -an. 1. Gall, bile. 2. A 
gall, a fretted place on the skin, intertrigo. 
Lb. 1. Ixxxviii. 

Gea]iu]'e, gaapujie, gajijie, fem., gen. -an, 
yarrow, Achillea millefolium. 

Seo jieabe gappe, red yarrow, Achillea 
tomentosa. Lb. III. Ixv. 

Gebjiaeceo, cough, tiissis, Hb. cxxiv., cxxvi. 
Gl. in MS. H. Hose, cough, SH. p. 26. 

Gebjiocum, with fragments, Lb. II. Ivi. 3. 
Cf. Scipsebpoc, Lye. 

Gecypnab, granulated, Lb. I. Ixxv. Cf. 
ohg. Kirnjan, nucleare ; Isl. at Kyrna, to 

Gec]ij-pau, prset. -pee, p.p. -pc, contract = 
Old Dansk Kreppa, contrahere. Lb. II. 
Ivi. Hence Cripple. 

Geps, Geyeh, neut. 1. a joining, a joint, 
coynmissura, compago, (Lye, etc., JEG. 

2. glue. Lb, I. ii. 2. Cf Umbifangida, 
glutinum, in GraflF., and Kauahsa ( = 
gefahsa), purgamenta, the parings of 
hides and hoofs from which glue is 
made, id. HI. 421 . Cf also many entries 
in 422. 

Genii)jeb, dense with boughs, from ITU'S, 
forest, opacus, Hb. i. 1, where the 
Saxon made no error, pa jiaef an pm- ^ 
rpeop PI'S t cempl sejin'Seb, M.H. 183 
b. There loas then a pine tree opposite 
the temple thick icith foliage. 

Gesyman, prset. -«*e, p. part. -eb. to over- 
look. Lb. IIL Ixv. A man is overlooked 
when one having the power of witch- 



Gej;yman — cuiif. 

craft has set designs against him. An ap- 
proach to this sense of the Saxon -word 
is found in )>e eobe on j-umey Fajiipea 
ealbiie)" huy on p8efteb8ej;e "p he hla)' 
ajce . T his besymbon hyne. Luke xiv. 
1 . Warlock hatred has a blasting effect. 
This faith is strong in Devonshire ; they 
say that the witch has no power over the 

Geheinan, to extol, laudibus ampliarc. lib. 
Ivii. 2. Simple vb. in diett. 

Gehlenceb, linked. Lb. III. Iv. Sec the 
- passage. )>lencan, links, found as yet in 
pi. only; Elene, 47, Csedm. ? MS., p. 
154, line 9, but probably masc, as old 
Dansk, Hlekkr, a c/iaiH, masc. ; Dansk, 
Lasnke, not neuter ; Swed., La;nk, masc. 
Translate in Ccedm.? have their linked 
mail coats. 

Gehnaican, praet. -ce, p. part. -j;b, to twitch. 
lib. cxlviii. 1., clxiii. 6. Paris Ps. ci. 
8, allidere. Of. Hnykkja in Egilsson, 
prose sense, vellere. 

Gehjieo]!]', gen. -es, a turning, also a ver- 
tebra. Lb. II. xxxvi., so Laws of 
iEJpelstan, 10, var. lect. Cf. Hpiop):ban, 
Lorica, Ixxi. 

Gelejeh, corrupted. Lb. 11. xxxvi. p. 244. 
Hoot Ley, mischief. 

Gehclic, proper, consentaneus. Lb. II. 
xvi. 1. 

Gelobj'ypc, fem., gen. -e, silver weed, jwten- 
tiUa anserina. Its leaves resemble the 
human spine, gelobjie, with the ribs. 
" Ileptaphyllon," Gl. in Lye. Gl. Dun. 
Lb I. xxxii. 3 ; xxxviii. 11. 

Genifebla, masc, gen. -an, talk. Lb. III. 
Ivii., from mseblan, to talk, C.E. 82, 
14, MS. reading, 

GenaeSa, pi. ephippia, a packsaddle. 
clerice, p. Ix. Visibly related to ohg. 
Ginait, consutus. That Ge signifies and 
is identical with Con, together, see SSpp. 
art. 261, a large induction. The Gemian 
Niihen, to sew, exhibits the remainder of 
the root. But, as Wachter truly says, 
it is sufficiently manifest, that the word 

Genae'Sa — cont. 

has suffered sincopation, and that in its 
original form it had a D or T, as Neten, 
or Neden. So that it is related to Nfcbel, 
needle. " Ouh sih tharzua ni nahit ] 
" uuiht thes ist ginait." Et se ad hoc 
non approximat quicquam eius, quod est 
netum. Otfrid Euangel. IV. xxix. 17, 
ed. Schilter ; " ioh| unginaten redinou ; 
et inconsutili arte. Ibid. 64. 

Geo]iman leay, all the gll. interpret ma/hur, 
but gl. C. writes geajipan leay, yarrow- 
leaf, or leaves ; explaining the word 
j^eojiman, but rendering the tradition 
doubtful, for no mallow has leaves like 
yarrow. Ld. vol. I. p. 380. Lb. I. 
xxvii. I. ; xxxiii. 1., etc. 

Geycabpypc, fem., gen. -e, an herb un- 
certain. "Berbescum [^readVcrhascum'], 
" gescadvyrt," Gl. Dun., Gl. Sloane, 140. 
" Ilerbescum," id. " Talumbus, gej-calb- 
" j'ypt)" Gl. Cleop. ; j;ej-cabjiy]ic, Gl. 
M.M., p. 164 a, 4., read fio\i<pOaKfxoi', 
^eycabjiyjic, that is to say, Oxeyc, 
whether Anthemis tinctoria, as in Hb. 
clxi., or Chrysanthemum leucanthcmum, 
not distinguished from the other by our 
folk. Lb. II. liii. 

Gej-ceopy, neut., abrasion. Lb. II. i. xxxv. 

Geyeap, juicy. Lb. II. xliii., as ^ebea]', 

Gespset, see Spaec, Lb. I. i. 15. 

Gesjiac, sweaty. Lb. I. xxvi. Cf. Gej-ea]). 

Gej-jieopy, gej-]'y]i):, gen. -ey, filings, lima- 
tura, Hb. ci. 3. See Sjiypyan, also Aji-. 

Gej-j)0]'un5, fem., gen. -e, swooning, Lb. II. 
i. 1, in Trallianus crvyKOTrr], the syncope 
of modern medical phraseology. Lb. II. 
xvi. 1. Geswogen betwux Sam of- 
slegenum, Horn. II. 356, m a swoon 
among the slain. From this form comes 


Getajia, pi. only (as yet), tools, instruments, 
DD. p. 470, 2. Lb. I. xxix., where it is 
instrumenta virilia. 

Geceab, prepared, paratus. Lb. II. xxix. 
See Teagan. 

B B 2 



Gecenge, incident, contingent, which is 
of the same component parts ; so also 
Ti/7xdj'6ij', where the ng sound is radical. 

Getpi)ulan, to ruh down, triturare, Lb. I. 
i. 9, etc. C£ TpiHiiv. 

Gejiealb, nent., the natura, inyuen, lib. civ. 
2, pi., Hb. V. 5 ; GL Priid. p. 140 b. 
The devil got a horn of an ox, -] mib 
l>am hojine hme Ji}'be on 'p jepealb fjn'Se, 
MH. 190 a, a7id with it struck a monk of 
St. Martins in the private part severely. 

Gepune, as a pi. adj., customai-y. lib. Ixviii. 

Gejjpepan, praBt. se>]'eo)i,p.part. sejjjmjien, 
Sejnijien, to turn, as cream to butter, milk 
to curd, to alter, converter e, Lb. I. xliv. 2. 
Bu-e]i5el)j>eo]i translates " butyrura " in 
the Colloquium M., p. 28, but not quite 
correctly. liamejie gej'ujien, Beowulf, 
2.5G4, poetically consolidated by the ham- 
mer. C.E. 497, 16. 

GicJ'a, masc. ? hicket, hiccup, Lb. contents, 

I. xviii., answering to geocsa, geohsa, in 
the text ; coxing for hicketing is fre- 
quent in English, in a later stage. Hick, 
hickse, singultus, convulsio vcntriculi 

2. Masc, itch, prurigo. Lb. II. xli. ult. ; 

II. Ixv, 5 ; Hom. I. 86, where the true 
translation is ascertainable from tiie 
original passage of Josephus, Kvr\an6s. 
Translates prwr/^o. P. A. 15 b. 

Gillijreji, 5eolh)-co]i, neut., ratten, pus, 
matter, sanies. Lb. Li. 17 ; Beda, p. .'589, 
line 3, var. lect. Virus, geolrep (so), Gl. 
Mone, p. 430 a. Dansk, Qualster, thich 
moist slime, pa gilscjie. Lacn. 1. 

Gillijtpe, fem., gen. -an, ratten, etc. Lb. I. 
i. 3. Virus, ^eolrtpc, Gl. Mone, p. 432 b. 
" Pituita," Gl. M.M. 

G^yc,va^%(i., yeast, fermentum ex cerevisia. 
Lb. II. li. 1. lib. xxi. 6. 

Girpije, syShjioye, fem., gen. -an, cockle, 
Agiustemma githago. The syllable jnje, 
as in Iledgeriffe, refers to the roughness 
of the plant. " The whole is rough, 
" with hoary upright bristles," (Sir 
J. E. Smith), "Gith, cokkell," Gl. 

GirjMj'e, l^ycihjioje — cont. 

Ilarl. 3388. But in Gl. Cleop. Lassar 
vel jEsdre ; where Laser is Fenda assa- 
fcetida. Lb. I. i. 5 ; xxxviii. 4, 5, etc. 

Git-e, an herb, probably Gi'S. Lb. II. 

(ii'Scopn, the seeds of daphne laureola, the 
spurge laurel. Hb. cxiii. ; Plinius, xiii. 
35. They are taken medicinally, and are 
like poppy seeds (Theofrastos, ix. 24). 
They are so hot they were wrapped in 
fat or crumb. Ibid. More exactly the 
seeds of D. Gnidium ; see the Latin of 
Apuleius ; but that is not English, and 
I have not supposed it imported. The 
name kSkkoi KvlSwi refers to their em- 
ployment as purgatives by the early 
Knidian school of medicine. 

2. Agrostemma githago, drawn to Hb. 
cxiii. in MS. V, fol. 49 a, and in MS. 
A. A plant is mentioned. Lb. II. Ixv., 
not a grain. MS. Bodley, 130, glosses 
" Lathyris, febecorn," sieve corn. 

Glrebene, gen. -an, gladden. Iris pseuda- 
corus. As a Latinism I would have 
passed by this word ; but Sir J. E. 
Smith in Flora Britannica has made 
" Gladwyn " Iris fatidissima : hence 
I quote. " Gladiolus . i . . . . habet cro- 
" ceum florem . yris . purpureum florem 
" gerit . alia alba. Gladiolus croceum 
" sed spatula ftetida nullum," MS. Eaw- 
linson, c. 607. " Gladiolus florem habet 
" croceum spatula fcetida nvillum," MS. 
Harl. 3388. " Gladiolus Acorns . gla- 
" dene," id. I observe, however, that 
if we take Sir J. E. Smiths words, 
" stinking iris or gladwyn," as the same 
words were understood in the old her- 
bals, they mean stinking iris or stinking 

Glappan, perhaps from glappe, as herbs 
commonly are feminine in the an declen- 
sion: perhaps buckbean, mcnyanlhes tri- 
foliata, Germ. Klappen, vol. I., p. 399, 
where the construction may be plural. 
Cf. slasppan, CD. 057. Thorpe compared 
Lappa, but that is elate, everywhere. n; 



Glojpypr, fern., gen, -e ; 1. convallnria 
maialis, It/i/ of the raUe]/ : drawn, hut 
without the hlooms, at Hb. art. xxiii., in 
MSS. A., G., T. glossed " clofwort" in 
a hand of the 14th century, MS. Ilarl. 
1585, a copy of Apuleius. The blooms 
are drawn MS. Bodley, 130, and glossed 
" foxes glove," but it is convallaria, not 
digitalis, that is drawn. " Apollinaris, 
" goldwort," Gl. Rawl. c. 500. " Apol- 
" linaris, golewort," Gl. Ilarl. 3388. 
" Apollinaris, glofwert," Gl. M. 

2. Biighssa, Hb. xlii. 1, the same as 
" houndstongue," cijnoghssum officinale, 
or perhaps h/copsis arve?isis. 

Gonian, pi. 1. the fauces, the bach of the 
mouth : it translates (pdpvyya, Hb. clxxxi. 
2. Paris Ps. Ixviii. 3, cxviii. 103. C.E. p, 
303, 31 ; p. 364, 26. Luporum faucihus, 
j'ulja jomum, Reg. Concord. Fauces, 
?;oman, Gl. Cleop. 

2. the (junis ; see Lye. The gums are 
mostly to'5)ieoman, tooth straps. 

Gonj;e]'ac}iie, gen. -an, o. gavgicay veavcr, 
a spider, aranea viatica. Lb. III. xxxv. 

Giieacepyjic, fern., gen. -e, meadoio saffron, 
culchicum autumnale. In Hb. xxii. Hieri- 
bulbus, which according to Zedler is 
colchicum ; and this plant is drawn in 
MS. G. ; with broader leaves in MSS. 
V. T. : the artist in MS. A, has taken 
the liberty of turning the bulb into a 
costly flower pot. " Hieribulbura, greate 
" vyrt. Hierebulbum, cusloppe," that is, 
cowslipl Gl. Dun. " Hierobulbus, col- 
" chicum,''' Humelberg, an editor of Apu- 
leius. If the Saxon translator put the 
name on the sight of the drawing only, 
he may have meant by grcatwort, man- 
gold wiirzel. Some make Hieribulbus, 
allium Ascalonicum, eschallot, hut that 
will not pass for greatwort. See 

In Lb. II. Hi. 1, greatwort has a rind 
to be scraped off: it is to be dug up too. 

Gjiunberj'yliSe, fem., gen. -an, groundsel, 
seriecio vulgaris, Lb. I. ii. 13 ; I. xxii. 
lib. Ixxvii. etc. 

Gput, fem. neut., Boeth., p. 94, 3, indecl., 
(jrout, the vet residuarj/ materials of malt 
liquor, condimentum cerenisifc. Dutch, 
grauwt (Kilian). Lb. HI. lix. The term 
is now applied also to the settlings in a 
tea or coffee cup. " Wort of the last 
" running," Carr. 

Gunb, masc, ratten, virus, viridcvt waller. 
Lb. I. iv. 2, 3, 


)>ae)e]in, l^aebejin, masc, gen. -ej-, a crab 
(cancer), masc. Lb. I. iv. 2. 

Ilseyte, neut., a haft, manubrium. Lb. II. 
Ixv. Somner cited it right. 

]>8e)i)-cea]ab, neut., hairlip. Lb. I. xiii. 

Ilaesel, gen. -es, -les, masc, the hazic, 
cort/lus, C.D. 624. Lb. I. xxxviii. 8 ; 
IL lii.=p. 270. 

Ilseslen, ofhazle, colurnus; Lb. I. xxxix. 3. 

Hfepen hybele ; Hb. xxx. The various 
reading is instructive ; Ilnybele, which 
is close akin, apparently, to Netele, and 
Kavvajiis : and the Brittanica of the 
A^ienna drawings (See pref. Vol. I., p. 
Ixxxi.) is so\\\<i.Q Lamium purpu- 
rcum, the red dead nettle, that there arises 
11 fair presumption this is the true identi- 
fication. Lacn. 2. The gU. support 
Cochlearia Anglica. (Lyte, index) 
Plora Britannica, by Sir J. E. Smith, 
riorio. Fig. in MS. V. There were 
other Brittanicas. Sprengcl holds that 
the BperovviKT] of Dioskorides is Rumcx 

l^se^bejisean pi)-e, gen. -an, fem., heath 
berry plant, bilberry plant, vacciniam. 
Lb. III. Ixi. 

Ijajocpyjic, fem., gen. -e ; perhaps hawh- 
iveed, Hieracium. Lb. I. xiv. In all 
Teutonic languages, 

Jialan, " secundaj," secundina;, the after- 
birth. Quad. vi. 25. The analogies 
require )>amlan. " Inluvies secundarum, 
" hama," Gl. C. " Hamme, sectmda:," 
(Kilian). " Ileara, secundince," Nemnich. 
Germ. Ham en : etc., etc 



J>alrj'yjic must have been Campanula 
trachelium, which in Danslc is Halsurt; 
iu German, Ilalswurz, Halskraut ; in 
Dutch, Ilalskruid. It is said to have 
obtained these names from being used 
for inflammations in the throat. In 
English it is Throatwort. 

2. Bupleiirwn tenuissimum, Haresear, 
" auris leporis, haiyvyV^" Gri. Somn. 
p. 63 b, line 48. " Auricula leporina, 
" halswort," Gl. Harl. 3388. " Auri- 
" cula leporina, halswort," MS. M. So 
Gl. Dun. 

3. Scilla autumnalis, MS. G. figure, 
fol. 1 8 b. = Narcissus, Herb. Ivi. = Bulbus, 
text of lib. cix. Narcissus, Gl. Dun., 
probably from Hb. 

4. Symphytum album, Hb. cxxviii., 
seems unsupported. Epicosium, GL 

The figure in MS. V. Ivi. to my sense 
is C. Trachelium, with the bell flowers 
spoiled ; to Dr. H. " a boraginaceous 
" plant." 
))amoji)iyi)t;, fem., gen. -e, parietaria 
officinalis ? as appears by a gl. in MS. 
II. on Herb, art Ixxxiii. So Gl. Brux., 
and Gerarde. Grimm Mythol. speculates 
(12G), thinking that perhaps Thors ham- 
mer is alluded to in the name. Lb. I. 
xxxi. 9. Since hamojipyjic and bol- 
j;)iune are mentioned together in Lb. I. 
xxv. 1, there is much doubt in the 
interpretation. Leechdoms, Vol. I. p. 
374. Lacn. 1, 2, 6. 

Is not hamo)i)'ypc the same as Hem- 
briswort, hellis perennis, and derived 
from Ilamoji, a bird, such as the Yellow- 
hammer, Emberiza? See Secg. 
)>anbpypm, masc, gen. -er, an insect sup- 
posed to produce disease in the hand ; 
\_cirio'], curio, cirus. Wrights vocab. p. 
177, p. 190., from x«'V- " Surio velbrien- 
" sis vel sirineus, hanbpyjmi," Gl. Somn. 
p. GO a, 25, which is to read by the 
preceding, the hissing sound being given 
to the letter C. So Gl. Harl. 1002. 
Prompt. Parv., vol. I. p. 225. 

liapan hyge, "■ haresfoot" (trefoil), Tri- 
foliiim arvense. In Hb. Ixii., Leporis 
pes, haresfoot; the connexion of hy?;e 
with the verb " to hie " is plain. Gl. 
Dun. copies. The artist in V. has 
omitted, as was the manner, the third 
leaflet of the trefoil, and the heads are 
eaten up. MS. A. has clover heads. 
MS. G. draws Geum urbanum, another 
harefoot, and glosses it, " Hasin uuohh " 
" Benedicta," herb bennet. The later 
hand in B. also glosses Avens. But 
Fuchsius, the link between us and the 
middle ages, is clear as to the trefoil 
both by name and figure. 

)>apanj"pecel, -j-ppecel, vipers bvgloss, 
Echium vulgare. Speckle in our usage, 
the verb frequentative, in this case the 
frequentative adjective of speck, j-pecca, 
masc, (as MS.) is very applicable to this 
herb : hare only means that where hares 
live, it lives. Lb. I. xxxii. 2, 4 ; Ixxxvii. 
Spreckle is now a Scotch and Suffitlk 
form for Speckle. " Eicios, hai'au- 
" speccel," Gl. Mone, p. 321 a. "Echius, 
" Echiimi," Gl. in Lye. " Ecios, haran- 
" sveccel," Gl. Dun. Eicios, hajiau 
)-peccel, Gl. Brux. 

l^ajianjiyjic, JJapepypc, fem., gen. -e. The 
little harewort oftenest groweth in gar- 
dens, and hath a white flower. Lb. 
I. Ixi. 1 ; I. Ixxxviii. ; IH. Ix. ; II. 
Ixv. 5. 

)>a]>bbeam, masc., gen. -ef, sycomore, 
acer pseudoplatanus. The translation of 
sycomore in the Lindisfarne Gospels, 
Luke xix. 4. The true sycomore is not 
English. Vol. I., p. 398, where the 
saparation of the elements makes no 

Hares lettuce, Prenanthes muralis. lib. 
cxiv. Lactuca or Lactuca siluatica, 
MS. T. The prenanthes m. is drawn in 
MS. T., and it is equivalent in German 
to Hasenlattich, in Dansk to Vild latuk. 
It is also drawn in MS. Bodley, 130, and 
glossed " slepwert." "Lactuca leporina 
" i . wyld Ictys, and he has leues like 



Hares lettuce — cont. 

" sowthestyU," MS. Bodley, 53G. Tlie 
figures in MSS. V., G., A. are of no 

Ilatian, translates graoari. Lb. II. xxv. 

]>a)>oh))e ? fem. ? declined in -an ; pro- 
bably elbow joint. The word is com- 
pounded of the syllable ha}>, which is 
found in )>ea'5ejiian, cohihere (Boet. 
xxxix. 5 ; Beda, iv. 27 ; C.E.p. 401, 17, 
where the fac simile of the MS. reads 
mec not me, p. 482, 5, and in Umbe- 
hathlichiu, nexilis, in Graflf. iv. 805,) 
and ofJA\>,ajoint; it signifies, therefore, 
the nex'ile joint, or the fast tied joint. 
The patient was to be bled on it. The 
fastest tied joint on which a patient can 
well be bled is the elbow. Somner 
conjectured, probably from knowledge of 
the Latin, vena axillaris; that is the same 
vein, t)\v iv ayKccvi, r^v virh /xaffX^^^Wj 
says Trallianus (p. 127, ed. 1548). 

)>eahheale}>e, )ieahhiolo)>e, itiula helenium ; 
See eh. Lb. I. xxxix. 2, etc. " Hiunula 
" campana, ho'?^fellen," Gl. Laud, 567, 
i.e., Horse Helenium. 

iJealebe, belly bursted, hertiiosus, Gl. Somn. 
p. 71 b, 60. Hb. Ixxviii. 2, where ad 
ramicem pneri, Lat. ; " Ponderosus," in 
Lye, which means not " weighty," but 
bursted; " Ponderosus, hernia laborans " 
(verba improbata in Bailey) ; Haull, 
masc, hernia (Islandic) ; i> cilb bilS 
hoppobe T healebe (MS. Cott. Tiber. 
A. iii. fol. 41), the child shall be hump- 
backed and bursted. SH. 23. 

)>eal}:, neut., the half, dimidium, pars 
dimidia. Lb. II. ii. 2. )>eal}:, side, 
quarter is fem. 

Healy heapb, half head; JE.G. 14, line 24, 
distinctly defines as the sinciput, the for- 
ward half; (hoc sinciput), heal}: lieayob ; 
hoc occiput, ]-e fcjxpa bsel i'sej' heaybej-. 

)>eal): pubu, masc, gen. -bej-, field balm, 
calamintha nepeta, Lb. I. xlvii. 2. 

" jZidebalme . i . halue pude," Gl. 
Harl. 978. This plant was placed by 
Linnaeus as Melissa ; it is perennial. 

Dealm, neut., halm, calamus. Gabjiion 
himj-ylfe -p healm. Exod. v. 7. Lb. 1. 

Heap, Lb. I. ii. 21, austere. Cf Ileojio, 
sword, C.E. 346, and its senses as a 

HebcIaS, a coarse upper garment. Quad. iv. 
1 7. " Heben, casla," gl. C, that is, a 
chasuble. " Heben gunna," gl. C. gunny 
cloth. Ne haibbe he on heben ne caeppan, 
DD. 348, ix. Let him have oji neither 
chasuble nor cope ; the English rite. Cf. 
IleSinn, a kirtle or cape of skiii, in 
Islandic. (Jonsson.) 

Deseclije, fem., gen. -an, hedge clivers, 
cleavers, clivers, Galium wparme, Lb. I. ix. 

liej^epiye, gen. -an, fem. ? " hedgeruff," 
'' hayreve," Galium aparine. " Rubia 
" minor, HayreflF oJ>er aron \i-ead Ilay- 
" renn ?] is like to wodruff, and \>q sed 
" tuchid will honge in oneis cloj'is," 
MS. Sloane, 5, fol. 29 a. " Rubia minor 
" cleuer heyreue," Gl. Harl. 3388. Lb. 
I, xxxii. 4; I. Ixiv. 

)>elbe, tansy, tanacetum vidgare, " Tana- 
" ceta," Gl. Somn. p. 66 [63] b, 22. So 
Gl. Jul., Gl. Dun., Gl. Harl. 978 (A.D. 
1240); Tenedisse,Gl. Brux., also " Arti- 
" mesia hilde," Gl. Dun., but the tansy 
is generically akin to the mugwort. 
Lb. L xxvi. Ai5a|. 58. 

l>emlic, gen. -e, also -an ; hemlock, co- 
nium maculatum. Other plants may be 
sometimes called hemlock, for the um- 
bellate herbs require educated eyes, but 
this is the starting point for English 
notions. Cicuta virosa is water hem- 
lock (Sir J. E. Smith) ; " Cicuta," 
Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 47, classically right, 
though botanically wrong ; for it fol- 
lows from Plinius, xxv. 95, that Kwveiuv 
= cicuta. Ace. Hymlican. Lb. I. i. 6. 
Has a masc. adj. Lacn. 71; dat. hym- 
lice. Lb. I.lviii. 1. 

)>eopocbpembel, masc, gen. -ey, the buck- 
thorn, rkamnus. " Ranno, Christs thorne, 
" Harts thorne. Way thorne, Bucke 
" thorne, or Rainberry thorne," Florio 



)>eo)iocb]jembel — cont. 
Lb. III. xxix. 1. The berries are exceed- 
ingly loved by stags, Cotgrave, v. Eour- 
daine. Gerarde. 

lieojiofc cjiop, Lb. I. vi. 3, probably a 
bunch of the flowers of hart wort, or 
seseli. (Nemnich, Cotgrave.) 

]>eo)iC cl3C):]ie, hcn't clover or medic, medi- 
cago maculata. In lib. xxv. Hart clover 
is made germander, tcucrium chama'drijs, 
and there is no doubt about the identity 
of germander with the chamscdrys 
of the Latin ; the name germander is a 
gradual alteration fi-om the Hellenic 
■word, and in MS. G. the plant is drawn. 
In MSS. "V. and A. we see something 
more like anagallis arvensis, but we must 
make concessions to these old artists. 
There is, however, no doubt but that 
clffijjie is clover, " trifillon [_trefoil'], clfc- 
" )iie," Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 3. " Trifo- 
" Hum rubrum, reade cleaure," Gl. Dun. 
" Calesta vel calcesta, hvit cleaure," Gl. 
Dun. That we find " trifolium, s^ace- 
" rupe," Gl- Somn. p. 66 [63] b, line 11, 
may be satisfactorily explained by look- 
ing at the Oxalis Acetosella, -which 
is a trefoil sorrel, abounding in groves 
and thickets in the spring. The same 
wort is meant by " Calcitulium, geaces 
" swre," Gl. Dun. ; for calta is clover 
with the Saxons ; " Calta siluatica, vude 
" cleaure," Gl. Dun. ; " wood sorrel " 
is a frequent name of it at this day ; it 
was panis cuculi, Fr. pain de cocu (Lyte). 
The tradition of the word " hart " is 
sufficient for us ; probably, however, 
in. falcata and m. sativa were embraced 
under the name. These were once known 
as "horned clauer," or clover (Lyte); 
and since the melilot m. officinalis, was 
called hart clauer in Yorkshire (Gerarde), 
that also may have been set down for a 
vaiiety. Culpepor calls melilot, kings 
claver. " Cenocephaleon [AeaJCyno-], 
" heort cleaure," Gl. Dun., may be a 
misreading of a drawing, since toadflax 
and melilot hang their heads in the same 

)>eopt clseyjie — cont, 
manner. " Camedus," Gl. Brux., that 
is, chanicedrys, germander. 

^^yy ? gG°' ~C' fem., hive. Hb. vii. 2. Lye. 
Leechd. Vol. I. p. 397. 

)>ill])y]it, fem., gen. in -e, " hillwort, 
cahnnintha riepeta. Hillwort is pulegiuni 
montanum in the glossaries, to be dis- 
tinguished by name and habitat from 
I)ulegium regale or penny royal. Now 
the Bergpoly of the Germans, Teucrium 
polium, is not a native of England, 
we must then select, as above, a plant 
which grows on " dry banks and way 
" sides on a chalky soil," with " odour 
" strong resembling mentha pulegium," 
(Hooker). But if the words be of the 
savour of a version from the Latin, then 
hillwort will be teucrium polium. See 
lib. Iviii. ; Promp. Parv. p. 399. 

]>ymele, gen. -an, the hop plant, humnlns 
hi pidus = hvim]Q (Dansk)=humall, masc. 
(Islandic). Hb. Ixviii. The female plant 
is evidently meant by the ewehymcle, 
coj'ohumelan. Lb. III. Ix. 

The statement that men mix hymele 
with their ordinary drinks, shows what 
plant the writer of Hb. had in his mind. 
That he identifies it with bryony is an 
error in his Greek. Lovells Herball 
(16.59) thus, "Hops, lupulus. In fat 
" and fruitful! ground, the wild among 
" thornes. The flowers are gathered in 
" August and September. Bpvov kcu 
" Ppvonvia, lupus salictarius et reptitius." 
Most of the early glossaries translate 
however, bryonia by Wilde nep, and 
Dioskorides(iv. 184, 185) describes what 
is certainly not the hop plant. Columella 
is charged with having confused the 
bryony with the hop. Lib. x. p. 350. 
" Qurcque tuas audax imitatur Nysie 

" uites, 
" Ncc metuit sentes, nam uepribus 

" improba surgens 
" Achradas indomitasque Bryonias 
" alligat alnos." 
The lines hardly support the charge. 



]>ymele — cont. 
According to the present nsage of those 
who speak rural Englisli, tlie hop is the 
fructification of the female plant, and 
the plant itself has no name but hop 
plant. It is quite incorrect according 
to the country folk to speak of the plant 
as the hop. No such name as Humble 
seems to be known. 

The contrasted )>esehymele, hedge- 
liumble, affords presumption that there 
was a cultivated kind, and other proofs 
exist that the Saxons grew this plant. 

)>ynu'lo, liop trefoil, trifolium procumhevs. 
In Hb. Hi. we had a problem to solve ; 
polytrichura was hair moss, and hymele 
v/as hop, and yet the two plants must be 
the same. The trefoil leaves of poly- 
trichum in MS. G. suggested a solution ; 
it is hoped the right one. The text in 
Hb. lii. speaks plainly of hair moss ; 
but the drawing in the MS. has nothing 
of the sort ; in this difficulty the in- 
terpreter solved not the Hellenic word, 
but the drawing, and named it hymele ; 
as it has no resemblance to the hop, nor 
to geum rivale. Jordhumle in Swedish 
is trifolium agrarium (Nemnich). The 
name Humble was not confined to the 
hop, see yelbpypc ; and in Islandic Val- 
humall is achillea millefolium. (Olaf 
Olafsens Urtagards Bok, p. 88.) 

)>mbhajlehe,-heolot>e, -an, water agrimony, 
Uvericort, Eiipatoriun cannabinum. 
" Ambrosia." Hb. Ixiii. 7 ; so Lacn. 
G9. Gl. Sloane, 146. Our gU. make 
this ambrosia maior to be widely dis- 
tinguished from chenopodium botrys, 
which is also ambrosia, but not an 
English plant. Hindheal is Hirsch- 
wundkraut in Germ. " stag-wound-wort." 
" Eupatorium lilifagus \_understand 
" eK(\ia<paKos'\, ambrosia maior, wyldo 
" sauge, hyndhale," Gl, Harl. 3388. 
" Ambrosia, hindhelethe," Gl. Dun, 
" Ambrose . salgia agrestis [read salvia'], 
" lilifagus . eupatorium . idem," Gl. 
Rawl. c. 607. So Gl. M. " Hintloipha, 

l^mbhaelejje — cont. 
" ambrosia," Gl. Hoff. " Euperatorium, 
" ambrose, is an erbe that som men 
" calliJ5 wilde sauge oher wode nierche 
" oher hyndale," Gl. Sloane, .'), fol. 15 a. 
Similarly Gl. M. 

2. Sanicle, Sanicuki. Europcca, as 
above ; the plants have very similar 

'Nypbejjyjifc, fem., gen. -e, herd- (shep- 
herd) wort, Ert/thrcEU centaureiun, Lb, 
II, viii., etc. 

ill)', gen. -es, neut., hue, complexion, color. 
lib. cxli. 2. Horn. II. 390. Ilj'y ly 'Sir 
Isclb abeojicab . "j ^sec ae'Selefre hieji h]iy 
]'ea]V5 hic onhpojijen, P.A. 26 a, WIty is 
this gold darkened, and why is its noble 
colour changed ? Lamentations iv. \. 
See N. p. 7L Ai5a|. 58. 

IMt'omoce, )>leomoc, fem. gen., -an ; brooh- 
lime (where lime is the Saxon name in 
decay), Veronica beccabnnga, with V. 
anagallis. Lb. I. ii. 22. " It waxeth in 
" brooks," Lb. I. xxxviii. 4. Both sorts 
Lcmmike, Dansk. They were the greater 
and the less " brokelemke," Gl. Bodley, 
536, " Fabaria domestica . i . lemeke. 
" Fabaria agrestis similis est nasturtio 
" aquatico et habet florem indum \_hluc'] . 
" i . fauerole et crescit iuxta aquas," Gl. 
liawl. c. 607. In those words the v. 
anagallis is described. The following 
agree more or less, Gl. in Lye ; Gl. 
Dun. ; Gl. Cleop. ; Gl. Harl. 978 ; 
Gl. Harl. 3388 ; Gl. Mone, p. 288 a, 27: 
read lemicke ; Islandic, Lemiki. 

IMyjT, masc, gen. -c)-, hearing ; masc. 
DD, 41, xlvi. Lb. L iii. 7 ; Horn, IL 
374 ; also fem., gen. -e, Lb. I. iii., con- 
tents ; and in old Dansk, 

IMurro]! bpenc, masc, gen. -es, " clear 
" drink," claret, made of wine, honey, 
aromatic herbs, and spices. " Accipe 
" ergo hirtzunge [^harlstongue] et eam 
" in vino fortiter coque, et tunc purum 
" mel adde, et ita iterum; tuncfac semel 
" fervere, deinde longum piper et bis 
" tantum cynamomi pulverisa, et ita 



T>lucco]i b]yenc—co7it. 
" cum praedicto vino fac iterum sernel 
" fervere, et per pannum cola et sic fac 
" LUTER DEANCK." St. Hildcgard. Phys. 
XXX., and similarly ciii. 
))ni}el, masc, forehead, Lb. III. i. 
Hoc, gen. hocces, 07ie of the mallows, malcd. 

Lb. III. xxxvii., xli. Many gll. 
)>0]:e, gen. -an, fem., alehoof, hove, ground 
ivy, ylechoma hederacea. Lb. I. ii. 19. 
Seo jieabe hoje, the same. 
2. Me]i)-c lioje, stachjs pahislris^ 
Lb. I. xxxviii. 5. 
IIoj]»ec, hoy]i8ec, neut., hoof nick, hoof trac/i . 
Vol. I. p. 392. A parallel charm has 
)>olcKi>)-e, fem., gen. -an, feld gentimi, 
gcntiana campestris. Lb. 1. ii. 17. The 
same as the Ilolgraess of OEder, Icoues 
Plantarum, vol. 3, where he gives the 
local Norwegian names. 
)>omo]i)-ec5, masc. Lb. I. Ixxvi. 2. Sec 

)>oph, )5o)i, gen. -ej-, also J>0]iepes, masc. ; 
foulness, filth, foul humour, fleyma, pituita, 
is masc. Lb. II. xvi. 2 ; xxviii. and in 
hojiaj-, pituita, Gl. in Lye. Gl. Somn. 
p. 72 a, 55. Written Opaj-, Quadr. viii. 
6. See corrections, Vol. I. Neuter, Lb. 
II. xvi. 1. 

Flegmata, liojih, Gl. M.M., p. 156 b, 
5. Gl. Cleop. fol. 39 d. Horewes, Gl. 
Mone, p. 404 b. 
IIojiiS, mucous, pundenf. Gl. Prud. p. 

146 b. 
)>0]in abl, a disease of foul humours in the 
stomach. Lb. II. xxvii. From hoph, 
Iljiacu, gen. -an, fem., throat, yuttur. paeji 
j;ynube on 'Sa]ie hpacan )"]'ylce Jjaeji 
hpylc fea^ paepe. G.D. 226 b. There 
yawned in the throat as if there had bee?} 
a sort of pit. Lb. I. i. 17. K. prints a 
masc. SS. p. 148, line 32. 
Iljiajffcan, ace, hreaking, exscreatio, Lb. I. 

i. 16. 
J^pseccunge, the uvula, Lorica, Ixx. Lb. 
I. . 4. Hjiacan, fauces, Gl. in Lye. 

)>p8ect;un5e — cont. 

-r cunse, tongue. Hpaececuns is different, 
Lb. II. viii. Hjisecan, to clear the throat, 
screare, + ec frequentative, + ung, parti- 
cipial termination. 
)>ji2epie]- yot, masc, " ravens foot,'" pilewort, 
ranunculus ficaria, Bat. In Hb. xxviii. 
made Chamajdafne, which, literally 
translated, is " ground laurel or bay," 
and determined by Sprengel to be rus- 
cus racemosus.^' That it is indeed a 
ruscus is qvxite evident by the words of 
Dioskorides ; Kapirhv 5e -nepKpepi} ipvOpvv, 
Tols (pvWois 4iniTe(pvK6Ta,Vior can we doubt 
from the rest of the description but that 
the species is correctly determined. 
Plinius, however, having more know- 
ledge of words than things, while citing 
the description ; " semen rubens an- 
" neximi foliis" (xxiv. 81), which makes 
the chamsedafiie a ruscus, yet has misled 
many of the later inquirers by declaring 
it to be periwinkle ; " vinca pervinca 
" sive chamfcdafoe," (xxi. 99.) In this 
error he is followed by many, as a "Welsh 
gl. of plants in Meddygon Myddfai, 
(p. 283 a.), and Coopers Thesaurus. 
The Latin Apuleius, MS. G. draws, I 
think, a periwinkle. The species II. 
racemosus, is a native not of England, 
but of the Archipelago. Our concern, 
however, being with Eavens foot, it will 
soon appear that it is neither Ruscus nor 
Vinca. Ravens foot, like crowfoot, was 
a name probably given fi'om the shape of 
the leaves ; whence it will follow at 
once that ravens foot is neither chamas- 
daftie nor vinca maior. The old inter- 
preter had before him a wholly different 
drawing, having a resemblance in its 
folded leaves to Alchemilla vulgaris. 
The unfolded leaves are deeply cut, and 
so " Pentaphilon, refnes fot," Gl. Dun. 
Quinquefila. Gl. Brux. So Gl. M.M. 
p. 161 b, 34, showing that the leaves were 
like those of cinqfoil. MS. T. has a gl. 
" Raucn fote, crowfote," to the same effect, 
with a drawing which I take to intend 



J^jieejnej- }0C — co7it. 
periwinkle, " quinquefolium, hpaej:nae)- 
" )ooc," Gl. Moyen Moutier, p. 164 b; 
so p. 161 b. " Pes corui apium moroi- 
" darum, ravenys feete," MS. Bodley, 
178. "Apium emoroidarum vel pes 
" corui idem ravnys fete," MS. Ilarl, 
3388. " Apium emoroidarum, pes corui 
" idem," MS. Rawlinson, c. 607. Tlie 
tubers at tlie root of ttiis plant were 
compared to piles, hemorrhoids, fici, 
whence the names Pilewort, Apium 
hacmorrhoidarum, Eicaria. " Pes pulli, 
" Gallice pepol, Anglice remnies fote," 
Gl. Sloane, 146. "Pied poul, the 
" round rooted or onion rooted crow- 
" foot." Cotgrave. Similarly Gl. Harl. 
3388. Thus authority and early tradition 
run strongly for ranunculus ficaria ; at 
the same time we cannot but feel a 
difficulty in observing that the leaves of 
this species are not crowfoot in shapes 
and the plant is so unlike most of the 
crowfoots, that on ancient principles it 
should hardly be called by a similar name. 

lijiean, ace, Lb. n. xli., I suppose to be 
= Isl, Hrai, masc, cruditas, as perhaps 
not rawness, but indigestion. Somner, 
however, may have had authority for 

Djieoyol, fem., gen. -le, roughness of t/ic 
body, leprosy. Lb. I. Ixxxviii. 

)>]ucj-ca, gen, pl., Lb. I. xxxi. 5, from 
some nom. s. signifying it seems a crick, 
which is a small wrench, a twist, accom- 
panied usually with a small sound ; a 
little crack, a crick, produced by the 
overstraining of some articulation. See 
Lye in )>jiij-cian. 

J^jnj:, neut., the abdomen. Lb. II. xxviii. ; 
II. xxxii. 

)>]iipns, fem., gen. -e, scab, crust of a 
healing umund. Lb. I. xxxv. at end, 
the context requires this sense. Cf. 
)>jue]}>0, scabies. 

)>jii)Tuns, fem., gen. -e, spasmodic action. 
Isl. at Ilrista quaiere, in the reflexive, 
contremiscere. Lb. II. xlvi. 

]'i\\yt,,febricitat. Lb. II. xxv. 

)>))y5ejien, bovinus. Lb. II. viii. 

Djioc, neut., moisture, mucus, thick fluid. 
Lb. II. xxviii. ; ohg. lloz, mucus, in- 

)>)Uit>. Lb. II. xxiv. 

)>unbe)-hea}ob, "hounds head," snapdragon, 
anlirrhimim oronlium, Hot. In lib. 
Ixxxviii., Canis caput. The German 
Hun dskopf is A. orontium, and according 
to Kilian in kalfs-snuyte, canis caput is 
antirrhinum. The drawings in j\ISS. 
V. and T. represent, I hold, this plant. 
" Cynocephaleon, heoptclsefpe," Gl. 
Somn, p. 63 b, 56, hart clover, melilot, 
which might be made in a di'awing to 
cluster its flowers as snapdragon. 

IMmbej- tun^e, fem., gen. -an, hounds- 
tongue, eynoglossum officinale. In lib. 
xlii. this is made = bugloss ; in MS. V., 
allowing for conventional and incorrect 
drawing, the figure (fol. 30 c.) seems 
intended for lycopsis arvensis. Sot., or 
small bugloss ; similarly MS. A., fol. 
24 b. MS. G. draws echium vulgare, or 
vipers bugloss. MS. T. has given us, 
instead of bugloss, a picture of house- 
leek. The houndstongue family of plauts 
is akin to the bugloss race, and om- 
Saxon interpreter was, perhaps, unable 
to discriminate. "Buglossan, glosvyrt 
" vel hundes tunga. Canis lingua, huu- 
" des tunga," Gl. Dun. "Lingua bobule 
'' (bubula) oxan tunge," id., "buglossa 
" hertestunge, ossentunge/' Gl. in Mone, 
p. 283 a. " Bugilla, hundestunge," id. 
p. 285 b. {bugle, aiuga reptans, JJot.), 
" lingua cervina, huntzenge," id. p. 289, 
(a mistake, road hertszunge). " Buglosse, 
" foxes glofa," id. p. 320 a ; " canis 
" lingua, hundestunge," id. ibid. That 
eynoglossum officinale is houndstongue in 
Gemian, Dutch, Dansk, Swedish, may 
have arisen from translation and instruc- 
tion ; but why not so also with the 
Saxons ? The drawing in V. is more like 
borage (II., from a pen and ink sketch), 
but the blooms }iave no blue colour. 



)>une, gen. -an, horehnund, marnihiiiiii 
miJfjare. Lb. I. iii. 11., etc. 

)^uni;i;tea]i, gen. -es, masc, destillatkm 
from the comb, -without squeezing, virgin 
honey, mel purissimum, e favo sponte 
quod effluxit. " Mell stillativum," Lb. I. 
ii. 1. " Nectareum, hunij;-eapenne," Gl. 
Prud. p. 140 b. " Nectaris, hunisreajiej-," 
Gl. Mone, p. 384 b, 4. '* Favuni nectaris, 
" huni5 camb teajic)-," Regularis Con- 

)>]ieo]i]a, masc, a udiorl, verficillus. Lb. 
IIL vi. 

)>]icppe, fern.? gen. -an? Lb. Iii. 1, is a 
" great wort;" the radical syllable implies 
roundness, as in )>pe]i, a kettle, )>j'e)i- 
j'crte (a gourd, a calabash, and then) 
a cucumber. See Hb. xxii. Is it then 
tlie bulb, colchicum autumiiale? 

]>]no]i)ban, ncut.,/inee cap, patella. In the 
Lorica, Vol. I. Ixxi., the gloss of poples, 
■which is an error. See peoh hpeojiya. 

IJj'iccubu, -cjieobu, gen. hjucej* eyibuey, 
inaatich, the gum of the pistacia lentiscus. 
So the GU. Lb. II. iii., Gl. Dun., etc. 
\/ )>]'icin5, whitintj, chalk and size. Lb. III. 

Ijit;, ueut., gen. -c)-, ivy; hcdcra helix is 
the only species native to England; ncut., 
I>b. III. XXX. Graff also marks the ohg. 
Ebah, iuy, neuter. Ipef, gen. Lb. I. 
ii. 10 ; I. iii. 7, etc. 

Ipj^rapo, masc, gen. -an, ivy tar. Lb. III. 
xxvi. ; masc, Cf. Lb. III. xxxi. " It is 
" produced from the Body of the larger 
" Ivy, being cut or wounded, and some- 
" times dropping forth of it self." Sal- 
mons English Physician, 1693, p. 991. 
" Oleum cyfmum (i-ead Kiffaivov) idem 
" de bagis (read baccis) hederac confi- 
" citur sic. Sumis in ianuario mense 
" cum ceperunt hedcrtC grana cresccre, 
" etc." MS. Harl. 4890, fol. 70 a. 

Innojapan, pi. viscera. Lb. II. xxxvi. 
Iu]'i|-an, pi., Jlavouring, condinientum, Lb. 
II. vi., from jni^an, herbs. 


LcCCC'pyiit, 1. generally a herb of healing, 
herba mcdicinalis, M.II. 137 a. 

2. Campions, or ragged rohin, or 
one of that kindred, lib. cxxxiii. ; but, 
I fear, only from the syllables Ljcc- and 

3. Plantago lanceolata, " iBCcejiyjir, 
" qiiinqucnervia," Gl. Cleop. fol. 83 a. 
Gl. M.M. Liikeblad, plantago maior, in 
West Gothland (Nemnich). The plain- 
tain was famed for healing power. 
Lb. I. xxxii. 3. 

Legs, a letting, missio. Lb. III. cont. xlvii. 
fern. ? Cf. H bloblffise, Lb. IL xxiii. ; 
bloblccspu, Beda, 616, 12, on 'Sa;pe blob- 
Itcsjie, 016, 5. 

Lambe)- ca!)i)-e, gen. -an, is said, Lb. Li. 17. 
to be the same as Cress. 

Lai'eji, labep, laver, Hb. cxxxvi., is called 
Slum by Lyte also ; the botanists now 
call sium water parsnep, and the eaten 
laver, porphyra laciniata. Laver is a 
Latin word. 

Leac, gen. -es, neut. 1. Originally a wort, 
herba, olus, whence are derived leaccei!|-e, 
leacrun, " hortus olitorius," leacpcjib, a 
gardener. Houseleek and holleac are 
not alliaceous. Aarons leek is arum 
maculatum, Gl. Sloane, 5. 

2. A leek, allium porrum. Lb. II. xxxii. 
vol. I. p. 376, where I cannot now find 
a verification for the masculine gender, 
iinlcss by resorting to the old Dansk, 
Laukr, masc. pej-, in jE.G. is a mis- 

Ejiabcleac, probably leek, Allium por- 
rum, from the breadth of its leaves. Lb. 
II. Ii. 1. Lacn. 12. 



Lcac — cont. 

Cjiapleac, crow garlic, allium ursinum, 
or viaeale, vol. I. p. 37 G. " Centum ca- 
" pita, asfodillus, ramese, crowe garlek," 
Gl. IJawl. c. 506. 

Cjiopleac, allium sativum. A gl. gives 
" serpyllum," but that is an inadmis- 
sible tale, for cjiop means hunch, as of 
berries, and leac means leek ; we must 
therefore make our choice among asfo- 
delaceous plants ; and as those -which 
ansv.'er the description best are open to 
objection, for allium ampeloprasum is 
by far too rare, and allium vineale is 
crowleek, we fix on a common foreign 
but cultivated species. Lb. I. ii. 13, 1.5; 
L iii. 11; L xxxix. 2; IIL Ixviii. The 
German Knoblauch has the same sense, 
and is this plant. 

Gajileac, aUiuia oleruceuiii ? Sec Lb. I. 
ii. 10 ; IIL Ix. Ixi. 

Ilolleac, •' hollow wort," fumuria hnl- 
/w.w, the" radix cava" of the herborists; 
Runde Hohlwurzel, Germ. ; lluulroed, 
Dansk ; Ilolwortel (Kilian) ; Iliillrot, 

Swed. Lacn. 23, 61. Lb. . It 

is not corydalis, the root of which is not 
hollow. iSce English Botany, 1471. 

Secjleac, Lb. I. Iviii. I, Lacn. 37, i.s 
of coui'se chive garlic, allium achtvnopra- 
sum, the English and Hellenic names 
having the same sense. 

Lcac cepse, fem., gen. -an. Lb. III. xv. 
Erysimum alliaria is both leek and cress. 

Leah, gen. leage, fem., ley, lixivium. Quad, 
ix. 14. Leechd.vol. I. p. 378. Lb. III. 
xlvii. Lees, Gl- C 

Leaj>0)i, neut.? lather, spuma saponacea ; 
see Lyt'jian, not fem. Lacn. 1. Islandic 
Lii'Sr, neut. lather. Cf Lyhjian, Alyh- 
]ian. St. Marharete. 

Leajjojijiyjic, fem., gen. -e, lather wort, soap- 
ivort, saponaria officinalis. " Borith 
" herba fuUonum, lea'Sojii'yjir," Gl. 
Cleop. The plant yields lather freely. 
Lb. L iii. 11. 

Leonyot, masc, gen. -e)% lion foot, alche- 
milla vulgaris, Hb. viii. This name is 

Leonyor — cont. 

foreign, and a translation of Aeoi'TOTniSio;' 
in Dioskorides. Leontopodion is alche- 
milla vulgaris in Dorsten, in Lyte, in 
Dansk; " Alchemilla vulgo appellatur et 
" pes leonis," Csesalpinus xiv. 249. Sib- 
thorp says, alchemilla alpina is to this 
day called Asovtoit6^lov. Sprengel says, 
that the Leontopodium of Dioscorides 
is " Gnafalium leontopodium," and the 
figures in V. G. T. Bodley, 130 (Ixii.) 

Lib, lyb, neut.? something medicinal and 
potent, a harmful or powerful drug, 
(pdpfj.aKov. Cf. lib-lac, sorcery; oxna- 
hb, " medicine of oxen," black liclleborc ; 
hbcopn, cathartic g7-a ins. "Luppi, neut. 
" venenum, succus lethiferus, etc.," Graff. 
Ougluppi, eye lib, collyrium, eye salve, id. 
Goluppeten pfil, veneyiata sagitta, Gl. 
Schilter. " Coagulum, lap," a gl. in 
Mone, p. 287 a. Congula, cji'libbu, Gl. 
Prud. 141 a, as {? Tvpo(papjxaKov ; it is tlic 
runnet to turn milk to curd. 

Libcojm, neut, gen. -ay, n grain of 
purgative effect, especially the seeds of 
various euforhias, probably also the seeds 
of some of the gourds, as momordica elatc- 
rixim, cucumis colocynthis. Lb. I. ii. 22; 
IL Iii. 1, 2, 3. 

Carthamo, also citocasia, also lacte- 
rida, also catharticum, Gl. Dun. ; lacy- 
ride, Gl. Brux. ; these are the milky 

Lmi, mostly neut., but also fem., a limb, 

artus ; fem.. Lb. II. Ixiv. p. 288 ; fem. 

also in Islandic. Cf. Lb. I. xxv. 2, xxvii. 

1, xxxi. 7, Ixxiii.; III. xxxvii. 
Lmiunj, fem., gen. -e, an attachment, car- 

tilago. Lb. II. xxxvi. 
Lie), neuter and masc.,yo//(^, articulus. Lb. 

I. Ixi. 1 ; II. xxxvi. In old Dansk, 

Li^V, masc. 
Li'5, drink, gen. -es, neut. Lb. I. xix. 

Boet. 110, 33. eye "Sa him ^'a;r liiS 

Jefcipeb paj)-, P.A. 5.5 a, 2r//e/? the drink 

was gone from him. 



Li^" rypt, fem., gen. -e, lithewort, dwarf 
elder, sambucus ebulus. Hb. xxix. This 
is made Ostriago. See Pref. vol. I. 
p. Ixxxv. : from the drawings, nothing 
can be learnt. " Ostriago, lith vyrt. 
" Chamedafne, leoth vyrt," Gl. Dun., 
read x"'M«'"f''''7> that is, ground elder. 
" Ebulus, wall wort," in later hand" lyj^e 
" wort," MS. Harl. 3388. In Hb. cxxvii. 
lihpyjir is erifia, which is unknown, and 
from the drawing probably nothing but 
dwarf elder was understood. Viburnum 
lantana was never known by this 

IJyt'pan ? to lather, spumam e sapone con- 
ficere, aut ex quovis eiusmodi. Lyjjpe, 
imperat, Lb. I. 1. 2. AlyJ^pe, Lb. I. 
xxii. 2. AleJ^jie, Lb. I. liv. 

Lit>ule, Lb , I. Ixi. 2. Somner said fistula, 
which is a disease ; Lye, fistula, enema; 
it has been translated in connexion with 
the foregoing leechdoms, as if li'S-ele, 
joijit oil, synovia. 

Lonb abl, fem., gen. -e, nostalgia, Lb. II. 
Ixv. 5. 

Lunsenjiypc, fem., gen. -e, lungwort, 
pulmonaria officinalis. Germ., Lungen- 
wm'z; Dansk, Lungurt; Swed. Lungort. 
2. A sort mentioned, Lb. I. xxxviii. 4, 
" yellow upwards," hieracium murorum 
and pulmonarium, golden lung wort. 

Liiscmoce, fem., gen. -an, not in the gll ., 
possibly by corruption of syllables, 
Ladys smock, cardamine pratensis. Lb. 
I. xxxviii. 3. 10. A kind with a cropp 
or bunchy head. Lb. I. xxxix. 2 ; I. 
xxxviii. 3. 


CDiel, gen. -ej*, neut., measure. Orienfis 
Mir. ix. Chron. p. 3.'54, line 31, anno 
1085. Lb. L ii. 1 ; XL vii. " Circinum, 
" maelranj;e," Gl. Somn. p. 65 b, 4, a pair 
of compasses, measure tongs. Where 
bajsmaslar is printed, the MS. has 
dajsmael uf. 

CDaj;e))e, CDagoJie, fem., gen. -an, maytlie, 
Anthemis nohilis. 2. ]nlbe mase)>e, 
maythe, Matricaria chamomilla. 3. 
maytke, maythen, Anthemis cotula. 

1. Chamasmelon is translated majehe, 
lib. xxiv. " Camemelon, magethe," 
Gl. Dun. " Beneolentem," Gl. Brux. 
p. 41 a, the distinctive mark of true 
chamomille. " Chomomilla, megede 
" blomen," a Gl. in Mone, 286 b. 

2. ^ilbe mashe. Lb. II. xxii., xvild 
maythe, must be Avild chamomille, for I 
do not find that No. 3 was ever supposed 
to possess medicinal properties; it is 
therefore matricaria chamomilla. 

3. The anthemis cotula is now called 
maythen, the final being, to speak after 
our grammars, derived from the termi- 
nation of the oblique cases ; country 
folk say it may be always distinguished 
from the true camomille by its bad 
smell. The glossaries agree, " Camomilla 
" i . camamille similis est amarusce \_read 
" -ae] sed camomilla herba breuis est et 
" redolens et amarusea i . maythe fetit " 
[foetet], MS. Rawlinson,c. 707. " Herba 
" putida, mseS'Sa," Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 
line 11. "Mathers, May weed, Dogs 
" cammomill. Stinking cammomill, and 
" Dogfenel." Lyte (A.D. 1595). 

Perhaps the Saxons included pyrcth- 
rmn parthenium. These plants are so 
much alike that it requires much tech- 
nicality to distinguish them ; the artist 
in MS. V. took the liberty of making 
the flowers blue. Calmia, mayl^e, MS. 
Sloane, 146, with i marked. " Culmia, 
" magethe," Gl. Dun., whence correct 
Somner. Gl. p. 66 [63] b, line 6. Calmia 
is calamine, ore of zinc, and these 
glosses are blunders. 

Reabe ma5e]>e, anthemis tinctoria. Lb. 
I. Ixiv. 

White maythe, pyrethrum inodorum. 
" Bucstalmum \_read $ov(pda\/xoy'], hvit 
" mcgethe," Gl. Dun. ; jirintcd bucstal- 
inum, Gl. Brux. p. 41 a. 



CDape, Lb. I. xxxi. 7, perhaps potentiUa as 
Mara, in Iceland now (Olaf Olafsens 
Urtagards Bok) ; the cottony potentilla 
will be silverweed, p. ariserina, with a/- 
y en tea. 

CDaj*c]'y)i!:, max-, fem., mashwort, the ivort 
in the mash tub, Lacn. Ill, Lb. IL xxiv. 
On the malt boiling water is poured, 
and allowed to stand three quarters of 
an hour ; the liquid is wort, or mash- 
wort. Braxivium atque bulita cum 
braseonondum ccrevisia, vert ; a Belgic 
Gl. in Mone, p. 304 a. 

COeaiih, meajxj, masc. and neut., marrow ; 
masc, old Dansk Margr, Lb. III. Ixx. ; 
neut., Germ. Mark, Lb. I. ii. 22. 

CDeajifC mea]i gealla, masc, gen. -an, be- 
longs, fi'om its bitterness implied in 
" gall," to gentian aceous plants, and 
from its habitat in marshes may be, 
gentiana pneumonanthe. Lb. I. xxxix. 2 ; 
L 1. 2. 

CDebo, gen, mebepej-, neut., inead. Lb. II. 
Hi. 1 ; II. liii. In old German, Mete, 
and in old Danish, Mio'Sr, are masc. 
Gen. Gl. Mone, p, 395 b. 

CDcbojjypc, fem.,gen. -e ; 1. Meadow stveet, 
spiraa vhnaria. " Regina prati, Germ, 
" Wiesenkonigin ; Dansk, Miiidurt " 
(Nemnich). " Melissa, medwort, regina 
" prati." Gl, Harl, 3388, So Gl. 
Bodley, 178. " Melletina," Gl. Somn. 
63 b, 53. " Regina medpnrt," Gl, Harl. 
978 (A,D. 1240), " Mellanna," Gl, Dun. 
Lb. I. xxxviii, 10, 

2. Melissa officinalis, balm. " Nas- 
" tiirtium[h] ortolan [um] medwort," Gl. 
Harl, 3388. 

COen, masc. ? a part, a proportional part — 
Swedish, Man, masc. apart. Lb, I. 1. 2. 
The construction with a numeral admits 
either a plural or a singular. 

Meox, Meohs, neuter, muck, duny, fimus, 
stercus. Dsec meox is J^sec gemynb 
his yulan baeba, Hom, II. 408, The 
dung of the parable is the memory of his 
foul deeds. 

ODepce, gen. -ej-, masc, inarclw, apium. 
lib. xcvii., cxx, ; Gl, Somn. p. 04 a, 1 1 ; 
lib. cxxix. 

Scan mepce, parsley, Apium petrosc- 
linum, Gl. Brux, 

p'ubu mepce, wood marche, sanicle, 
Sanicula Europcea, a gloss in Lacn, 4, 
also Gl. Laud. 553, fol, 18, Gl. Ilarl. 
978, which was overlooked, so that note 
9, p, 35, requires correction. It is a 
suitable name. Lb, I. i. 15 ; I. xxxix. 
2 ; I. Ixi. 2 ; III, ii. G. 

CDej* ? = mifC, a mess, dung. Lb. I. 
xxxviii, 11, Mes, stercus, fimus (Kilian), 

Micel lie, elephantiasis. Sona juijibon 
'Su]ihylesene mib J^ajie able \>xy myclan 
lice)-, G.D. 210 a. Soon were smitten 
with " elephantinus morbus." 

Mylsc ? or Mylsce ? inihl, milis. Lb, 
I. xlii. ; II. xvi., p. 194. Gemilsceb, 
Lb. II. xix. XX, 

CDilce, masc, gen. -ej-, also -an, the milt, 
the spleen. Lb, JI. xxxvi. with gen.-ej* t 
but gen, -an, Lacn. 110; Quad. ii. 8; 
lib. xxxii, 6 ; and fem., Hb, xxxii. 
6 ; Ivii. 1. 

Mynec, neut., money, moneta. Bed. 532, 1. 
Lb. II. XV, 

CDmce, fem., gen, -an, mint, mentha. 

Fenmmce, mentha silvestris. Lb, I, 
iii, 2, 

Ssemmce. Lb. I, xv. 4, 

Tunmmce, mentha sativa. Lb. I. ii. 23, 

CDij-cel, masc. ? basil. 1. Cfinopodium vnl- 
gare. In Hb. cxix., cxxxvii. eijuivalent 
to &Kifiov, basil. " Ocimum, mistel," Gl. 
Mone, p. 321 b, is a repetition not a 
support. " Ocimus, mistel," Gl. Dun., 
another echo. "Mistil, basilice," MS. 
Bodley, 130, on Ocimum : an inde- 
pendent statement. CDijtel is a deriva- 
tive of CDijT, muck, and the clinop. viilg. 
is called in German, Kleiner dost, fi'om 
Doste; old high g. Dosto, marjoram, and 
that may be compared with Dost ccenum, 
dirt. Cop^ mifcel, Lb. xxxvi., seems 
to distinguish this from the mistletoe ; 
a few lines lower is Acmifeel, 



CCipcel — cont. 

2. Misieltoe, viscuni album. Germ. 
Swed. ]\[istel, masc ; Dansk, Mistel (en). 
" Viscarago, mij-cilran," Gl. Soraner, 
p. 64 a, line 56. " Mij-celca, chamEeleon, 
" viscus, Cot. 175, 210." Lye. Cha- 
meleon is tJijTel, not mij-cel. " Mistil, 
" viscus," Graff, ohg. Lb. I. xxxvi. 

The mistle or mistletoe is propagated 
by being carried in the dung of birds. 

CDyxenplanre, fern. ? gen. -an ? Lb. I. 
Iviii. 4. " Morella," Gl. Sloane, 14G ; 
so MS. T., fol. 62 b, that is, atrupa 

CTojioh, CDojia'5, a decoction^ the C^jxo. of the 
medical writers ; glossed careiium, Gl. 
Sonin. p. 62 a, 11, which is must boiled 
down to one third part of its htdk and 
sweetened. But this gloss is not quite 
appropriate in the first example in Lb. I. 
XXXV., which requires ra e'/c (efxaTos, like 
IxOvs anh ^efiuTos in Trallianus. Occ. 
Lb. I. xlviii. 2. Moraz in the Nibelunge 
Not., 1750, is interpreted by the Germans 
mulberry wine, Do schancte man den 
gesten .... mete moraz unte win ; 
tlien ivas poured out for the guests mead, 
moraz and wine. 

CDojiu, fern., gen. -an; 1, a root. 2, the 
root, the edible root, namely, carrot, 
^avKov. Lb. I. xviii. ; L ii. 2.3, Cf. 
Felhmojiu, Germ. Mohre, fem. " J>is erbe 
" [squill] haj? a rounde more lyk to an 
" onyon." MS. Bodley, 536. 
" Ne beo}> heo nowt alie forlore, 
" That stumpe}> at he flesches more.'' 

Owl and Nightingale, 1389. 
(■n;c;lij-c mojui, parsnep, pastinaca 
sativa, Lb. I. ii. 23 ; III. viii. 

^ylipc mo]iu,j'ealmopu, carrof, daiicin 
rariota, Lb. III. viii. Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 

CCojijjyjit, fem., gen. -e, " moor wort ; " 
the small moor wort occurs Lb. I. 
Iviii. 1. Somner says. Moor grasse is 
ros solis, that is, sundew, drosera, which 
grows on moist heaths. " Silver weed, 

CDojij'yjJt — cont. 
" or cotton grass " (Nemnich), that is, 
potentilla anserina or erioforum. 

The German interpreters of St. Ililde- 
gard make it the Parnassia palustris. 

Muc^j'yjic, Hb. art. xiii., artemisia Pontica. 
See Aazeiger fiir Kunde teutscher Vor- 
zeit, 1835. 

CDujijia, fem., gen. -an.? cicely, myrrhis 
odorata. Lb. I. i. Mvppis, ol Si- (.vlippav 
KaKovffiv, Dioskor. lib. iv. c. 116, which 
is " scandix odorata " (Sprengel), now 
named as above. 


Xatbjie pypc, fem., gen. in -e, addcrwort, 
/tuh/gonum bistorla. In Hb. vi. ntebjie- 
]iy]ic = viperina. Our adderworls are 
those plants which resemble an irritated 
snake raising its head, the ofioglosmm 
vulgatum, the arum macidatum, the poly- 
ijonum bistorta. In MS. G., the German 
gloss is " Naterwurc," and the German 
Natterwurz may be polygonum bistorla, 
or provincially sedum, or again provin- 
cially cchium vulgare. (Adelung). We 
are therefore to conclude that the two 
glossators, agreeing, made the herb 
p. bistorta. The figures in MSS. V., 
A., G., T. have much the appearance of 
alisma plantago. In MS. Bodley, 130, 
the figure and gloss are " Sowethistell." 
From MS. G. fol. 8 a, the Germans 
called the Satirion orchis " Natarwure," 
which must be applied to enlarge 

NfEfC, a fawn skin ; a piece of fawn shin. 
Lb. I. ii. 20 ; I. xxxix. 3. " Ne])ris," 
Gl. Cleop., that is, vejSpis, and support 
is had from Gl. Somn., p. 61 a, line 27. 
So Gl. Jul. If we take nebris for a 
piece of soft leather, as a " tripskin," 
a "," it comes to the same at 
last. Naii'c in the Lib. Med. corresponds 
to " I'ha'uicium " in Marcellus. 



Napa, 7iever, Lb. II. xli. Ne, not + Apa, 

Neahc nef-ij;, fanting for a night, tvilh fast 

unbroken ; see Lb. II. Ixv. 5, and II. vii. 

at beginning. 
Necle, fem., geu. -an, nettle, nrtica. fio 

micle j'0]i)ji5 nerle, ?/. dioica. Lb. I. 

Neupij-ne, ace, a disease. Lb. I. lix. and 

Nepe)-eo)>a, Nu-, masc, gen. -an, that part 

of the belli/ which lies between the navel 

and the sliare or pubes, the pit of the 

belly. Lb. II. xxxvi., xxxi., xvii. and 

contents, xlvi. " Hium," Gl. M.M., 

p. 137 b, 15. 


Oyepjryllo, neut., overflow, overfilling, 
spuma vas coronans. Lb. I. li. 

Ojejij'sepij-c, from over sea, transmarinus. 
Lb. I. vi. 6. M.H.lOOa. Tlie reading 
Opepfsepii'c is not in the MS. nor agree- 
able to analogy. 

Opiec, (gen. prob. -e)-), a close vessel. In 
Lb. I. ii. 11, oynece translates " vas- 
" culo clause vel operto." The word 
may be connected with 0}en, overt ; the 
K\iPavos -was a close vessel covered up 
in the hot embers, and an oven at the 
same time. 

0)')-cot;en, properly badly wounded by a 
shot, but specially used, Lb. I. Ixxxviii. 
2., II. Ixv. i., for elf shot, the Scottish 
term, that is, dangerously distended by 
greedy devouring of green food. It is 
spoken of cattle ; sheep are very subject 
to it, if they get into a clover field at 
full freedom. " The disease consists in 
" an overdistension of the first stomach, 
" from the swelling up of clover and 
'•' grass, when eaten with the morning 
" dew on it." 

Ojjcoren — cont. 

Next you'll a warlock turn, in air 

you'll ride. 
Upon a broom, and travel on the tide ; 
Or on a black cat mid the tempests 

In stormy nights beyond the sea to 

France ; 
Drive down the barns and byars, 

prevent our sleep, 
Elfshoot our ky, and sraoor mang drift 
our sheep. Falls of Clyde, p. 12U. 
The approved cure is to chafe the parts 
affected with a blue bonnet. The bas- 
ting is performed for an hour without 
intermission, by means of blue bonnets. 
The herds of Clydesdale, I am assured, 
would not trust to any other instru- 
ment in chafing the animal." Jamie- 
son in Elfshot, and Suppl. " When 
" cattle are swollen they are said to be 
degbowed. I have fi'equently known 
" a farmer strike a sharp knife through 
the skin, between the ribs and the 
" hips, when the cow felt immediate 
" relief from the escape of air through 
" the orifice, so that the distended car- 
" case instantly collapsed, and the ex- 
crements blown with great violence 
to the roof of the cow house." Carrs 
Craven Gl. " Deggbound, mightily 
" swelled in the belly." Yorkshire 
dialogue, Gl. 1697, A.D. 
Ome ? -an ; fem. ? corrupt humour, es- 
pecially gastric, the pituita of the 
medical and classical authors ; also 
Erysipelas, the external symptom of 
such a humour. Lb. I. xxxv. Dat. 
pk Omum ; gen. pi. Omena. The 
analogy of the Islandic suggests a 
feminine form. 
Ompjie, fem., gen. -an, dock, rumex; the 
German Ampfer, masc, dock, rumex. 
" Rodinaps, ompre, docce," Gl. Mone, 
p. .322 a. " Cocilus,' Gl, Cleop. If 
KavKaXis, not likely. Of the Omppe, 
that will swim, see Docce, Lb. I. viii. 
2 ; III. xxvi. Lacn, 23. 

C C 



Onyealle, fellon. Lb. I. xxxix., xli., obi. 

cas., from the contents. 
On]ied, gen. -es, some wort ; herba quaj- 

dam. Lb. L xl. i. ; IL lii. 1. 
Onrpjiengan, to administer a clyster. Lb. 

1. iv. 6. From Spjimg, a gush of water, 
hence, a lavement, a sousing, a washing, 
a KXvffjxds. 

Onji8&p ? unripe. Lb. I. ii. 14. 
Opa)-, Quad. viii. 6, plural of Hojih. 
Oxan)-lyppe? fem. ? gen. -an, oxlip, 

primula elatior. Lb. I. ii. 15. 
Oxnalib, neut, ? oxheal, Hellehorus fatidus 

and H. viridis (Cotgrave in Ellebore). 

Oleotropius, Gl. Dun. Lb. L xxxii. 

2. ; L x. 


Pic, gen. -es, neut, pitch, pix. Lb. I. 
xxxviii. 9 ; II. xli. ; III. xv. 

Pipop, gen. -es, masc, pepper, piper; 
Lb.IL vii. 

Poc, gen. pocces, masc, a pock, pustula ut 
in variola. Lb. I. xl. 

Punb, gen. -es, neut.; 1. a pound, as Lexx. 
2. a pint. Lb. II. Ixvii. So " Norma, 
" paetep punb," Gl. Somn. p. G8 b, 11., 
that is, a pound of water is a pint of 
water, and a pint of water is a pint for 
all liquids. 

Puj-lian, to pick out the best hits, optima 
qnacpie legere. Lb. III. Ixix. " Peuse- 
" len, (among kindred senses) summis 
" digitis varia cibaria carpere," (Kilian). 


Rsesejieofe, fem., Lb. XL xxxi. ; also 
Raegepeosa, masc, Lb. I. Ixxi. ; pi. -an ; 
the two ridges of muscles on cither side of 
the spine up and down the back. " Pissli, 

Rseg e] 1 eof en — con t. 

" reosan," Gl. Mone, p. 321 b. ult. 
Pissli is a contraction of Paxilli ; simi- 
larly " Peysel, pieu, echalas" Roque- 
fort. But, as we know from Cicero, 
Paxillus was also contracted into Palus, 
and these muscles were called Pala?, 
like Pala, stipes, palus, in Du Cange. 
" Rugge — bratun, pahe, sunt dorsi dex- 
" tra Iffivaque eminentia membra," Gl. 
Hoffmann. " Palsc Ugutioni 'Dorsi 
" ' dextra Isevaque eminentia membra, 
" ' dicta sic, quia in luctando eas pre- 
" ' mimus, quia luctari vel luctam 
" ' Gra3ci dicunt Palim.' ' Palai sunt 
" ' dorsi dextra laevaque eminentia 
" ' membra ; dicta quod in luctando 
*' ' eas pi'emimus, quod Grseci traXaUiv 
" ' dicunt.' Isidorus," and so on (Du 
Cange). The sense suits the passages 
where jisegeiieoj-an occurs, Lb. I. 
Ixxi., Ixxxi. ; II. xxxi, " Pala;, 
j;e]'culb)je," Gl. Somn. p. 71 a, 44, the 
shoulder blades, and in this sense the 
dictionary to Cajlius Aurelianus, who 
often uses the word, understands it. 
•' Pala;, ricgrible," Gl. Mone, p. 317 b. 

Raej) ? row, ordo, series: dat. jiaepe, CD. 
vol. iii. p. XXV. ; ace. jisej'e. Lb. II. 
xxxiii ; also Gl. in Lye. 

Rasa, Rage, lichen, X^ixh^. Lb. I. 
xxxviii. 8 ; I. Ixviii. 

Ra^u ~i meo]-, Deuteron. xxviii. 42, 
neither word is used therewith precision. 
The Gl. give Massiclum, Mossidum, 
which are formatives of our Moss, 
lichen being considered a sort of moss. 

Ramgealla, masc, gen. -an, " ramgalV 
From the name gall, no doubt a gentia- 
naceous plant ; said Lb. I. Ii. to be par- 
ticoloured. This description answers to 
Menyanthes trifoliata, which is very 
bitter and much administered by herb 
doctors. (Sir J. E. Smith.) 

Renbpian, I presume to be the still current 
Render, applied to suet. Suet is full of 
films, thin membranes, with some other 



Renhpian— co?«<. 

not fatty substances ; to render it, is to 
make it homogeneous by melting. The 
word may be a derivative of Hrein, 
clean. Gejienbjnan is applied to elm- 
rind, Lb. I. XXV. 2. ; to the black alder, 
I. XV. 4. 

Rengpyjim, Ren-p., RsEng-p. Sec j^yjnn. 

Rib, neut., a rib. Lb. II. xlvi. S.S. 
p. 198, U. 

Ribbe, gen. -an, fern. ? ribwort, plantago 
lanceolata. lib. xxviii. Lb. 1. 11. 22. 

Ryben ; i> jieabe jiyben. Lb. III. xlviii. 

Rinb, gen. — e, fem. ; rind, cortex. Lb. I. 
xxxvili. 5, 6. ; II. Ixv. 2, and often. 
Horn. II. 8 and 114. Lyes quotation 
■was false. Lb. I. xlv. 5, and the more 
recent deduction from him. 

Ri)'oba, rheum, pivfxaTiafj.6s, a flowing. 
Lb. lix. 7. .S'ee Brem. Worth, p. 502. 4. 

Rop, masc, gen. jioppes, the colon, tvide 
inteatine. Lb. II. xxxi. often. 

Ror, neut., scum, spuma, reiecfamentum. 
Lb. II. XX. as Hpot. 

Rube, fem., gen. -an, rue, Hutu graveo- 
Icns. Foreign, but adopted. J7ilbe 
juibe, Lb. I. ii. 1, Is foreign, but a 
garden herb, Peganum harmala. 

Rubraohn, read Rubniohn, Lb. III. Iviii., 
a Norse word signifying Bed stalked, 
from jio'S, red, nioll stalk. It is said, to 
grow by running water ; and it is Poly- 
gonum hydropiper, called Redshanks or 
Water pepper in Bailey's dictionary. 

Run, gen. -e, secret, heathen mystery, 
arcanum quid,'Byr. 363. 

Leob pune, gen. -an, fem., the sanic, 
idem. Lb. I. Ixiv. 


Sse)>e]iie, Su^ejiige, fem., gen. -an, savory, 
safureia hortensis. The interpretation, 
" Satirlon," Gl. Somn., p. 64 b, 16, is 
an evident error. Savory is in England 
a garden plant, and retains its foreign 

Saej^epie — conf, 
name. All the orcliis tribe are " bal- 
" loc " worts. Lb. III. xii. 2. 

Sajj, gen. -es, neut. everywhere : See ace. 
Sapan, Lb. II. xxviii. It is also, as 
Sio sap, sometimes put for Sio sojih ; 
Bw. 49, 29. So G.D. 201 b. C.E. 134, 
line 23. 

Sajicjien, disposed to soreness. Lb. II. 1. 1. 
There is no corresponding word in 
the Hellenic text ; this Is epexegetical, 
and must be interpreted accordingly. 

Scapu, fem., gen. -e, the share, that is, 
the puhes. Lb. II. xxxi, xxxii. It is a 
word well known to those who have 
heard pure English spoken, and is neither 
" Ilium " nor " Penis " nor " Alvus," 
but something near each of those. The 
books generally make a confusion, but 
Sharebone is always, I think, Os pubis. 
See a quotation in Halliwell, but strike 
out " of a man." Compare also Peuil, 
pubes, with Penul, a schare, in Garlande 
and Biblesworth, p. 121, p. 148. 

Sceaban, prset. Sceab, p. part. Sceaben, to 
shed, let fall ; also intransitively fall ; 
i?ifundere, inspergere. Lb. I. ii. 23. ; 
L Ixi. 2.; ILiii. Hb. ii. 6. Cf. Lye, 
Sceban. iEj-ceba, migma, Gl. in Lye, 
which is doubtless to be imderstood 
as the substantive of 'ATroixvTTfaBas, 

Sceapen, adj., of sheep, ovimis. Lb. I. Iviil. 

Scea)X);lian, to scrape, radere. lib. Ixxxi. 
5. The L Is frequentative. 

f Sceajipan, prget. f Sceapp, scrape, es- 
pecially scrape herbs fine. Gej-ceapp, 
lib. Ivii. 1. The same in substance as 
Sceajipan, Hb. 1. 2. 

Sceajipe, fem., gen. -an, a scarification, 
incisura in cute. Lb. I. Ivl.; I. xxxv. 

Sceappian, to scarify, in. superficie ccedere. 
Lb. I. xxxii. 2. 

Sceopjran, to scarify, rodere, mordcre. 
Scypf'5, Scyjiyenbiun, Lb. I. xvlli. pa. 
gaepj-ci^af T J^a pyptjiuraan fceojifenbe 
paepon, O.T. 270, line 32, began gnawing 
the grass sprouts and the roots. 

c c 2 



Scmlac, gen. -es, neut., cpi apparition, 
visum ; gen. Gl. Mone, p. 402 b. ; 
jieaylaces, Matth. xxiii. 25. Boat. p. 55, 
7 ; accus. aeni5 j'cmlac, Quad. x. 1 ; 
plur. -lacu, SMD. 27 b ; constr. neuter, 
DD. 437 foot, M.Sp. 8, plur. Scmlac, 
Quad. ix. 1. But see lyblacas, DD. 344. 

Scycel, dxtny, from Scitan. Quadr. iii. 
14, xi. 13. Sec the passages, where 
Somners notion of testiculus would 
require some drying process not 

Scjimiman, to shrink, a synonym of Scjun- 
can. Lb. I. xxvi., contents. " Skrim- 
" pen, adj. som vrider eller undslaaer 
" sig for Arbeide, som er meget kiselen 
" eller emtaalig," Molbech, 07ie ivho 
flindies from work, etc. Cf Shrammed, 
chilled (pinched with cold, O.C.) Wilts. 
Scrimd ; Devon, (heard by myself). 

Scpu)-, Gej'ceojiy, neut., scurf. Lb. II. 
XXXV, lib. clxxxi. 3. 

Seaban, Sea'San, a feeling as if the cavity 
of the body were full of water swaying 
about, KKvSooves, unduJationes, Lb. I. 

Sealh, Sealh, masc, gen. -ej*, the sallow, 
salic-em, salix, of which seventy Eng- 
lish sorts are reckoned. The termination 
of the gen. shows the word is not fern., 
and few names of trees are neuter. 

Red Sallow, Lacn. 89, Salix rubra. 
See also S. repens, of Smith. 

Seaji, neut., gen. -ej-, juice. Hb. v. 2. 
Lb. I. ii. 14, and frequently. 

Sees, masc, gen. -ej*, sedge; '^ car ex, 
" gladiolus," Gl. in Lye ; masc. Lb. I. 
xxiii. ; gen. I. xxxix. 

)>omopj-ecs, " hammer sedge." Lb. 
I. Ivi. 2. Homop is probably a bird, as 
in yellow hammer. " Scorellus, omem" 
Gl. C. Emberiza. Of. clobhameji, Gl. 
Mone, 315 a; also Gl. Dief. 

Reab sees, " red sedge," Lb. I. xxxix. 

Selyaere, gen. -a.n,uvcnafatua? wild oat? 
Lb. I. xxxiii. 2 ; III. viii., and perhaps 
by emendation for yeaXy ajcan, Lb. I. 
xlvii. 2. 

f Sengian, singe ; see Bej'ensian ; ohg. 
Sengjan, Biseugjan, and Bij-eng is what 
grammarians would have end in a vowel. 

Sybe, masc, decoction, a.<pi^r]ixa, Hb. cliii. 4, 
from Seo(San. 

Sibsam, Lb. II. Ixv. 5. 

^lye, sieve, constr. as neut. Lb.|I. xxxviii. 5, 
as Germ. Sieb, neut. Yet Dutch Zeef is 

Syye'San, Siye'San, Sioye'Sau, pl. bran, fur- 
fures. Boet. p. 91, line 23. Gl. Cleop. 
In lib. civ. 1, it translates wjU'? A-i^cts, 
which is said to be flour ; but here is a 
tradition that it is bran. 

Siselh))eo]iva, gen. -an, masc. 1. Yellow 
milfoil, Achillea tomentosa, masc, as 
Lb. III. xxxii. In Hb. 1. =Heliotropion. 
All plants turn to the sun, which of them 
is meant ? In MS. V. " Achillea ser- 
" rata " (II.) seems to be drawn ; the 
other drawings do not at all resemble 
this. " Eliotropia, sigelhverpha. Elio- 
" trophus, sigel hveorfa. Nimphea, collon 
" croh vel sigelhveorua. Solsequia, si- 
" gel hveorua. Achillea, collon croch," 
Gl. Dun. Most of these are translations, 
and so equivalents : nymphea is the 
yellow water lily, and croh is crocus, yel- 
low also. The testimony of the drawing 
falls in so well with that of the old 
glossary, that we must accept Achillea ; 
and as we must also attend to the hints 
for yellowness, it must be A. tomentosa. 

2. Scorpiurus heliotropion, for Hb. 
cxxxvii. is founded on Dioskorides, 
■i]\LOTp6TnovTo fxiyo.,0 %vLoi iKaXiaar <TKop- 
iriovpov. The figure in MS. T. for art. 1. 
agrees. The drawing in MS. V. art. 
cxxxvii. is nearly destroyed, what re- 
mains looks like "Polygonum convol- 
" vulus." (H.) The "round' seed" 
forbids us to think of sunflower, Ileliau- 
thus, which is also Mexican. 

3. Cicliorium intybus? Often Turnsol 
and Heliotrope in glossaries. So Germ. 
Sonnen wendel (Adelung). 

4. Euphorbia helioscopia. 

A small Siselhpcojije, Lb. 1. xliv. 2. 



Sisj-once, a wort, herba quaidam ignota. 

Lb. I. xxxi. 7. 
Sme)>e, ever easy ; j-in-ehju', Lb. II. xlvi. 
Sinjulle, gen. -an, Iiouselcck, Scrnpcrvlvum 
tectorum. The syllabic sm like sera in 
Semper, means always; as also in Sm- 
Sjiene. Smj-ulle is Sempervivum, Hb. 
ex XV. That herb is drawn in MS. V., 
explained, as the green pigment has 
left only the external cast in the vellum, 
by MS. A., and in MS. G., where it is 
glossed " hufwurc," that is, Ilauswurz, 
and in MS. T. These all point the same 
way. Singreen seems only a more generic 
tcmi, in later times, but " The mickle 
" sinfulle," Lb. II. xxxiv., shows that 
this term also in early times would in- 
clude Sedums, as S. Telephium, Lb. I. 
iii. 11. 

Sm^jiene, fern., gen. -an, siiujreen, any 
sort of Sedum, with sempervivum tecto- 
rum, literally always green. Hb. Ixxxvi. 
" Sedo magno, Ilouseleeke or Sen- 
" greene," Florio. " Joubarbe, House- 
" leek, Sengreen, Aygreen, etc." Cot- 
grave. In Hb. xlix. = Temolus, that is, 
Moly, the Homei'ic fxUXv, a garlic, Allium 
moly. In Dansk. the evergreen periwinkle, 
Vinca. pa. j-malan pngjienan, Lb. I. 
viii. 2, shows that Singreen was a gene- 
ric name. " Colatidis," also " Temolus 
" vel titemallos," Gl. Dun. " Temolus," 
Hb. xlix., saying the root is bulbous, 
drawing it large, and with leaves and 
stem in MS. V., like Pinguicula vulgaris 
(II.), with no resemblance to Vinca. 

Smtjiaenbel, masc. ? a bolus, "■ tiirundula," 
Lat. Hb. xiv. 2. Sm, as in Smepealc, 
round; T]ienbel has a masc. termina- 

Slajiie ? gen. -an. Salvia sclareu. Lb. I. 
XV. 5. 

Slecgecan, palpitate with strong beats, Lb. 
II. xxvii ; from Slecse, a sledge hammer, 
and the fre(iucntative termination -ecan, 

Slype ? gen. -an, a viscid or sloppy sub- 
stance. Masc. Lb. I. i. 6. Fem. Lacn. 

Slype — cnnt. 

40. Cf. Slipis. Of. Cu slyppan, Oxan 

Smegapyjim, Smoega -, Smea-, masc, gen 
-ef. Lb. I. liii. ; III. xxxix., a worm or 
insect that penetrates, that eats its way, a 
Imrroiving insect; cf. Norse, Smjuga, 1. 
irrepere, 2. penetrarc, E. Smut;an, to 

• creep, Smyj;elai-, cuniculi, conies or their 

burrows. Somn. Gl. M.M. 
Smepoj'vjic, 1. Aristolochia rotunda, for- 
eign, and A. c/e;wai/i!w,English. Hb. xx., 
Lb. III. xlvii., with several glossaries 
and MSS., Gl. Dun., Gl. Harl. 3388, Gl. 
Sloane, 5. A. longa, Gl. Sloane, 405. 

2. Mercurialis, Gl. Kawl. C. 607. Gl. 
Harl. 3388 in margin. G. de Bibles- 
worth, p. 162. Gl. Sloane, T), fol. 34. 
Gl. Sloane, 135. 

3. From the qualities, Pinguicula, 

Smican, to simidgc, illincre. Lb. I. xxxi. 3 ; 
related to modern Smut ; in Lye Smitca. 

Snseb, fem. gen. -e, a bolus, a morsel, Lacn. 
81. Lb. I. XV. 6 ; L Iii. 3 ; 11. Ixiv. ; 
III. Ixii. p. 348 ; III. Ixv. Seo snaeh, 
Horn. IL 272. S.S. p. 169, line 809. 
But Sa snffibas, CD. 207. 

Soj;o'5a, gen. -an, corrupt humour, pituita 
with hiccup, hicket, sobbing, Xvyixds, sin- 
gultus, Hb. xc. 11 ; Lb. I. ii. 1 ; II. 
xxxix., where the original is fiiTo. Se 
ravra Av^ovnri. Alex. Trail, p. 480, ed. 
Basil. From Sujan. 

JElj)-oj;o'iSa, elvish hiccup, the same 
thing gone to a frightful extreme. Thus 
Trdi/ra yap c-7roirj(ra Tavra Kal tizl /xeyaAov 
\vyi.Lov -roaoiiTOV, ws vttovouv kKrhs K\iv7)s 
ii^dWeadai rhv KaixvovTa. Alex. Trail, 
p. 121, ed. Paris. = lib. vii. 15, in an 
instance of so strong a hiccup that wc 
supposed the patient ivas springing out 
of bed. Lb. III. ixii. p. 348. 

Solo)-ece, Heliotropium Europceum. lib. 
Ixxvi. Sprengel says that by Solse- 
quium, Charlemagne understood lI.E. as 



Soppigan, to sop, to dip in liquid. Lb. II. 
XXX. 1. Cf. Soppcuppe, fem., CD. 593, 
685, 721. 

SpEECan, to syringe, spout, aquam proiieere ; 
Lb. II. xxii. p. 208 ult., -where the sense 
hardly admits spuerc. " Spoyte, spriitzen, 
" sprenken, so auch Siiddiin." Outzen. 

Spejie J'yjit, 1. Ranunculus Jiavimula. 
" Flamula . i . sper wortt or launsele, this 
" erbe is schapyn as hit wer a sper all 
" so . and in the crope of Jjc stalk 
" commys aut mony smale branches •*'t 
" hit has a whyte floure, "t hit groys in 
" waters." MS. Bodl. 536. The flower 
is yellow. " Elammula, anglice spere- 
" wort," MS. Rawl. C. 607, similarly 
C. 506, Harl. 3388, and again adding 
" lanceola," id. " fflamula minor. Las 
" sper wort hauith leuis shapid like a 
" spere," Gl. Sloane, 5, fol. 32 c. GL 
Sloane, 405. 

2. Inula Helenium, Hb. xcvii. and 
Gl. Harl. 978, make spearwort Inula 
campana = Inula Helenium, Bot. Gl. 
Dun. perhaps copies Hb. Gl. Brux. 
agrees. MSS. V., G., A. draw spears 
springing from a root. 

In MS. Bodl. 130, is an explanation, 
Centaurea, and a gloss in a hand of the 
14th century, " Sperewert." The Gen- 
taurea Cyanus is so far like Inula H., 
that it may be mistaken in a di'awing. 
" Policaria minor," Gl. Harl. 3388. 

3. Carex acuta, Germ. Spiessgras, is 
probably meant in the following, " Fla- 
" mula mynor . i . sperworte thys erbe 
" has smale leuys lyke to grase, bot hit 
" {omit hit) schape as hit were a speyi' . 
" and growes in feldys," MS. Bodl. 

4. f Brassica rapa, turnep, " Nap 
" silvatica [rw/Napus silvaticus'] ypepe- 
" pypc," Gl. Somn. p. 64 a, 16. This 
must be rejected. 

Spican, spices, Latinism ? species. Lb. II. 

Ixiv., contents. 
Sppaccn, neut. ? bey'ry bearing alder, 

Bhumnus frangula. Lb. I. xv. 4., xxiii. 

Spjiacen — cont. 

Germ., Spreckenholz, Sporkenholz ; 
Dutch, Sporkenhout ; Dansk., Spregner; 
Swed. dial., Sprakved. " Apeletuni," 
Gl. Cleop. for alnetum, misunderstood as 
alnus nigra. 

Sppms pyjit, fem., gen. in -e, "spring- 
" wort," Euphorbia latliyris. " Sprincwrz, 
" lactaridia. al. lactariola vel. citocasia," 
Gl. Hoffin. Graff, vol. i. col. 1051. "Cra- 
" pucia [read cataputia'] springwort," 
a Gl. in Mone, p. 287 a. Lb. I. xxxix. 

ScaB>]»y]ic, fem, gen. -e, " staithwort ; " 
if we choose the commonest of the sea- 
shore plants it will be Statice, compre- 
hending thrift and sea lavender. Lb. I. 
xxsii. 3. " Aster atticus," Somner, but 

Scanbseh, neut., a vapour hath, contrived 
by heating " stones " that would not fly, 
and pouring on water. Lb. I. xli. 

Stebe, masc, strangury, " stranguria," Lat. 
of Quad. ii. 15., viii. 11. Radically; the 
being stationary, still standing; as in 
Sunnstebe, solstice. So Naj]»on hme 
heopba jTebige, Gen. xxxi. 38., thi?ie 
herds were not barren. 

Scemp, stamp, Leechd. vol. I. p. 378. 

Scicce, neut., sticky stuff, viscid fluid ; Lb. 
I. xxxix. 2. 

Soice, fem., gen. -e, a pricking sensation, a 
stitch, a stab ; Quad. xiii. 10. Insrice, 
Lb. n. liv. Ixiv. contents. All cited 
passages have this declension. 

Sc]iBel])y]JC, fem., gen. -e, the commonest 
club moss, Lycopodium clavatum. " Cal- 
" litrichon," MS. ap. Somn., but in this 
term were included the club mosses. 
S-]JSel as arroiv, may have given name to 
this moss, as the stems look like arrows 
with the feathers up and the heads in 
the ground. Were it not for this gl. 
we might interpret Galium verum, from 
Scjia;!, bed; our ladys bed straw. 

Scjieap, Stjieo]', straw, neuter in Lb. I. iii. 
12. Rushw. Matth. vii. 3. (streu), is 
masc. Ai5o|. 46. 



SuKau, to moisten, maccrare, madefucerc, 
KyS'S, lib. XXXV. 3 ; p. part. SoSen, as 
appears by yoj;o'5a, Foji]-oj;en; cf. Socian 
in Lexx. ; also Isl. Soggr, madulun, Lb. 11. 
XV. Da yojjjjoteban punbe j-u^e -j clsen- 
jnge, P.A. 24 b. Moisten and cleanse the 
putrijied woiind. Asogen. C.E. 373. 1. 19. 
Sunbcojm, gen. -ef, neut., Saxifraya gra- 
nulata. Sunbcojin,Hb. xcix. is saxifraga, 
and the statement is accompanied by a 
remarkable drawing, represented in the 
fac simile to Leechdoms, vol. I. ; see pref. 
Ixxix. The word co]in itself, as signify- 
ing ^r«e«, assists our detennination of the 
herb. In the Latin Apuleius, MS. Bodley, 
130, a gloss is " Sundcorn." MS. A. fol. 
45 b, has also a portion of earths surface, 
but figures the herb above ground, not 
quite correctly. '" Saxifrigia, sundcorn," 
Gl. Dun. The same gl. in the MS. 
Lacn. 18, where fifteen grains are men- 
tioned in the text. So Gl. Mone, p. 
442 a. 

2. Lithospermon ofiicinale, lib. clxxx. 
It appears by a glossary in Anzeiger fur 
Kunde der teutscher Vorzeit. 1835, col. 
247, that the false readings meant funnan 
cojm, Milium soHs, which must be taken 
as an emendation of the text. 
Sujie, fern., gen. -an, sorrel, Unme.v Ace- 
tosa, also Oxalis. 

Geace]- )'U]ie, cuckoos sorrel, Oxalis 

Monne)- j'ujie, Mtimex Acetosa. Lb. 
SupmelfC, sourish, sour sweet. Lb. II. i. 
" Malus matranus, j-ujimelyc apulbeji/' 
Gl. Somn., p. 64 b, 48 ; correct Malus 
matiana, )*U]ime])'C apulbjae ; the crab 
tree. " Maciana . i . mala siluestria," 
Gl. Harl. 3388. " Mala maciana, po- 
" mum siluestre, wode crabbis," id. 
So Dorsten, Gl. Mone, p. 290 a. Melpc 
is a separate word, " Melarium, milj-c 
" apulbii." Gl.M.M.p. 159 a, 27, pro- 
bably for mel-ij-c, formed on Mel, honey, 
which therefore appears genuine English, 
as in Melj-eocel, Melbeap, St. Marh. Gl., 

Sujimelj-c — conl. 
not hibrid words ; related to Mebu, mead, 
SSpp. art. 511. 
Spane pyjic, fem., gen. -e. Lb. I. xxxi. 7. 
Spac, gen. -es. 1. sweat. 2. blood. 3. 
hjdromel. Hid. 22 a. The gender has 
been given only from other Teutonic 
languages, as masc. ; but in Lacn. Ill, 
spa iSa spat beo'5 mij-j-enlicu, us the 
siveats are various, the form makes it 
neuter. Dutch Zweet, neut ; Isl. Sveiti ; 
Germ. Schweiss ; Swedish Svett, masc. 
Specie)- ajppel ; Lib. I. ii. 12, also 21 ; I, 
xiv., I. xxiii. The receipt Lb. I. ii, 12, 
pepper, salt, wine, and swails apple, 
corresponds with the following words of 
Alex. Trail., p. 48, line 4, ed. 1548. 
'AKhs ajx^wviaKov (our author often solves 
his difiiculties by omission) To d, <pvXKoiv 
To y , ireTre'pews To s', iroi^aas ^ripiov 
vird\ei<ps Koi iroieL irphs ^7]po(p6a\i.uas. 
^vA\a are the leaves of the malobathrum. 
Plinius, xxiii. 43, also prescribes malo- 
bathrum for the eyes, 
f Spe'Sau, to swathe, not yet found, whence 
Sj'a'Sil and Sjie'Sung, a sivathing. Lb. I. 
xxxi. 7, and Bej-pe^an, id. Li. 2 ; II. 
xlii. C.E. p. 100, 19. Weak conjuga- 
Spigan, Spesan, praet. sj^eog, spogen, to 
invade, pervade, penetrate. Kead Spi- 
Sende, Lb. II. xxiii. Sette hine 
pylj-ne ongean Jjone (so) ppegenban jyji, 
M.H. 184 b. St. Martin set himself in 
opposition to the invading fire. Ealle "Sa 
puUneppa 'Ssep "Syj-tjian oj-nep 'Se me seji - 
■Sujihppeosh on jieg apljnnebe, Beda, 
629, 21. Put to flight all the foulnesses 
of the darksome furnace, which previously 
had scorched me. p naenis bi)-ceop ohjiep 
bipceoppcipe onj-poje, Beda, 575, 32, 
that no bishop invade another bishops 
diocese. Of. InrpoSenny)-, invasion, Beda, 
Sj'yle, masc., gen. -ey, a swelling. lib. ix. 
3. On myccljie sj'yle. Bed. 616, 6, is 
some en-or ; see 616, 38. 



Sj'yjijan, przet. Sjieon)-, p. part. Si'ojijen, 
to file, to grind away, ■whether by a file or 
a grindstone ; and so to polish. " Spyjjyh 
Hmat," Gl. Prud., p. 144 b. " Aj-}'0)i]-en 
expolilus," id. p. 142 a. S].'0]ij:en C.E., p. 
410, 24 ; p. 497, 18, also notes. Cf. 
Gothic Swairbau ; ohg. Swerban, Fars- 

Apgej-peojiy, brass filings. Lb. I. 
xxxiv. 1. 

Gej-jiypy, gen. -ey, filings. Hb. ci. 3. 

Sjnpman, swarm, de apibus, examen ex 
alveari educere. Leechd. vol. I., p. 384. 
Cf. " Coaluissent, suopnabnn." Gl. C. 
read suopmabun for speojimabon ? 

Sjiopan, to swoon, see se]-po)'uns, swo'we in 
Will, and "Werwolf, p. 4. 


-cangc, -cen^e, -tinge, as a tennination 
occurs in Getenge, accidental to, quod 
accidit alicui, in Intmga, occasion, in 
Geabojitenge, adjacent, in Samtenge]-, 
continually ; the same syllable is seen in 
contingit, contigit, Tuyx^^'e'i', Ti^x??, 
Tangere, Qiy^lv, Touch. 

Teajan, to prepare, parare. '\> lanb luib to 
ceagenne :• Da )> lanb Sa geteab ]>sej'. 
Beda, 605, 33. Cu'Sbertht requested some 
husbandry tools wherewith to till the 
land; so lohen the land ivas prepared. 
prset. teobe, CE. 335, 1. 16, 336, 1, 4. 

Tajju, Teapo, neut., gen. -oy ; tar, gum, dis- 
tillation from a tree; wax in the ear; 
neut., Lb. I. xlv. 3, I. liv., I. Ixi. 1, also 
makes tapan, masc, Lb. III. sxvi., xxxi. 
Jpone teap, Lacn. 3. Geclsem ealle j>a 
seamas mid tjTwan, Horn. I. 20, calk all 
the seams Willi tar. Typj^an 
]-op peallum. Gen. xi. 3. Gej'opht oy 
rigf Ian . t o): eop'Scypepan, OT. 304, 1 2, 
wrought of tiles, thin bricks, such as the 
Komans made, and bitumen. 

Telgjia, masc, gen. -an, branch, ramus, 
Quad. i. 7. Sume }>onne sneddun tel- 
gran of treowum, Matth. xxi. 8, Rush- 
worth, ed K. 

Teon, prset . teah, p.p. togcn, draw,ducere. 
The translation of getogen. Quad. vi. 11, 
as tightened, is justified by the context 
and by the following example. A monk 
calls on the devil to untie his sandals, 
and the devil does so : then the monk is 
frightened and backs out, but '5a gepune- 
bon ^'a hpanga)" on micelum bsele onto- 
gene T onli'Sobe ; GD. 217 a., the thongs 
remained in great part untightened and 

Tetjia, Lb. II. xxx., appears to be an error 
for Teteji, masc, tetter, impetigo. Hecj'S 
tetep on his hchoman, P. A. 15 b., hath 
tetter on his body. Se teteji butan pape 
he opepSse'S ealne Sone lichoman, ibid., 
" Impetigo quippe sine dolore corpus 
" occupat." So Sc 46 a. The glL, 
Quad. ii. 10, Hb. xlvi. 6, cxxii. 

Tipe, fern? bitch; Isl. Tik, bitch, fern. 
Dansk. Ta;vc, bitch. Lb. II. Ix. contents. 

Tyjibelu, Typblu, pi., Utile lords, tredles ; 
the droppings of sheep are called sheeps 
tredles in Somerset, trattles in Suffolk, 
Sec Moor Gl. ; further. Tridlins : Craven 
Gl. Lb. I. xxxi. 4, II. lix. 6, etc. 

Tosecte'S, there are tuggings, spasms. Lb. 

1. XXV. 

Top begete, hard gotten, Lb. 1. xlv. 5. 
The expression goes to mark a Dansk 
admixture in the Lb. Cf. Torpenginn, 
hard to get, in the Laws of Magnus the 
law mender ; Nu ap Jjvi at vinno menn 
ero miijk torfengnir i hera'Si, oc allir 
vilia nil i kaupferdir fara. Kaupa B61kr.« 
23, Now since men fur labour are very 
hard to get in the country, and all will now 
go a trading. Tor, with o long, is fre- 
quent in later English, " It were tor for 
" to telle al here atyr riche," William 
and Werwolf, fol. 21 ; "It were toor for 
" to telle treuli al J>e so>e," id. fol. 75, 
with the notes. 



Tojib, a piece of duiKj, stercus conformatiun ; 
neut., Lb, L xlviii. 2 ; L Ixxii. ; III. 
xxxviii. Quad. vi. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 
24, Lacn. 
Tojinige, blear eyed, with eyes inflamed 
and full of acrid tears. Hb. xvi, 3, "ad 
" lippitudinem oculorum," Lat. Hb. 
liv. 1, "ad epiphoras oculorum," Lat., 
that is, excess of lacrymose humour. A 
compound of cyjian, and eaje, 
To'S, tooth, dens, makes dat. sing, tot'e, Lb. 
III. iv,, but reh, Exod xxi. 24, and nom. 
pi. ■ce\>, Lb. III. iv., but co>as, G'5. 34, 
SS. 141, ace. pi. ce'S, Lb. I. vi. .5. 
Tohsap, a toothpick. Lb. I. ii. 22.' Gaji is 
not a weapon originally, but alxM, some- 
thing at an acute angle, as in the Gore 
of a gown. See jajia, Cod. Dipl. 
vol. iii. 
Tpis, neut., a trough, Lb, III. xlviii. pjnxh, 
another form of the same word, is fern, 
in all the examples cited by Lye ; is 
neut. in C. D. 118, A.D. 770. Bibbenbe 
anej- lyclej- tpojej-, OT. 312, 32, Beg- 
(jing for a little boat. 
Tulge, root of tongue, Lb. I. xlii., there is 
no notion of flesh, or muscle, or hypo- 
glottis. It is Gothic, Tulgus, iSpaios, 
arepeos. Gothic, TulgiSa, fem. hxvpu^a, 
affcpaXiia, e5paiw/.La. 
Tun5il]nnpy]it:,fem.,gen. -e, white hellebore? 
Veratrum album, for it seems probable 
enough, that Tunj-ingijypt, Hb. cxl, and 
Gl. Dun., is a contraction of this older 
form. Lb. I. xlvii. 3. 
Tjiaebe, two parts in three ; Lb. III. ii, 1 . ; 

III. X., xiii., xxxix. 
Tjnmht, downy ; from T]>in byssus, Gl. Lb. 
I. xxxi. 7. 


j/sejic, masc, gen. -ej-, wark,pain. Wark, 
in compounds at least, is in most of the 
modern gl. Dansk. Wscrk, pain. Isl. 
Verkr., masc. Occurs masc. Lb. I. iv. 2 ; 
II. xlvi. 1. Also p'eojice, ^eojic, ]7]iEec. 

J7a;jic — cont. 

See Pref. vol. I. p. xcvi. Not to be con- 
founded with ^eopc, rvorh, neuter. The 
feminine article in Lb, II, xlvi. 1, for 
sidewark, is an error, it is masc. in the 
next four lines ; such errors occurred by 
attraction, for pbe is feminine, 
^sepcan, be in pain. Lb. III. xviii. 
]78ece]ibolla, masc, gen. -an, dropsy, dropsi- 
cal humour, vSpooxp vSepos, Lb. I. xxxix. 
vSepiK^I irapeyxvcns, Lb. II. xxi., OCC. 
I. xliii, 
J7aste)ipypc, fem., gen, in -e, waterivort, 
Callitriche verna. In Hb. xlviii, water- 
wort is made Callitriche, and we may 
perhaps trust our botanists in their own 
science for this herb. The figure in 
MS. V. is such that it resembles Eapha- 
uus raphanistrum stripped of leaves (H). 
" Waterwort Callitriche verna" (Nem- 
nich). Sir W, Hooker says Water star 
]78ecla,masc., gen. -an, a cloth. Lb. II. xxii. 
J7apan, wave, iactare. Lb. III. xviii. 
J7ah, in pahmela, Lb. II. Iii. fnc, ohg. 
Wahi, mhg, Waeke, subtilis, expolilus, 
venustus, kiinstlich, fem. schon. 
]7ealpypt, fem., gen. -e, tcallwort, dwarf 
elder, Samhucus ebulus, Hb. xciii, ; but 
Intuba, endive, intubus, Gl, Cleop. fol. 
53 d. 
]7ea]i, masc, boivl; Lb. II. xxi v., the same 
as )>pe]i=N'oi"se Hverr, masc. It trans- 
lates uter, a waterskin, Paris Psalter, Ps. 
cxviii. 83, 
^ea]i, masc, pi. ]'ea]ipas, a hard pimple on 
the face ; a hardened callosity ,- varus. 
" Vari parvi ac duri sunt circa facieni 
" tumores." Paul. iEgin., col. 444 A, 
Lb. I. Ixxiv. 
J7ea]i5-, p'eajihbjieebe, gen. -an, fem ?, a 
ivide spread warty eruption, Hb. ii. 18, 
" ulcus," Lat. XX. 8; " carcinoma," Lat. 
Lb. I. xxxiv. 
^ece, ivcak, debilis. Lb. II. Iii. 1 ; J7ace, 
DD. p. 425 vi. Without the final vowel, 
Gl. E. 115 ; Sc 10 b ; Boct. p. 176 a ; 
Csedm. (if Csedm.), 154, 20 MS. 



J7ebe, mad, furious, phreniticus, indeclin- 
able in Hb. i. 25, in contents see var. 
lect. ii. 21, contents iv. 10, xxxvii. 5, etc. 
Lb. I. Ixix. 

]7esb]i8ebe, fera., gen. -an, properly " way- 
" broad," but called waybread; 1. Plan- 
tago maior; 2. )-eo pupe pegbjiBebe, 
plantago media, it it hoary, hirsute, 
lib. ii.. Lb. n. Ixv., etc. 

]7en5e, j^sense, f anje, neut, gen. -an, 
cheek, Lucca; Matth. v. 39 ; Luke v. 29 ; 
Lb. L i. 8, 10 ; III. xlvii. ; Horn. IL 180. 
And him 'Sa pongan bjiice'S, S.S. 140. 

j7cnn, ]7en, a wen, masc, pi. pennas. Lb. 

I. Iviii, ; III. XXX. ; Lacn. 12. 
J7enpy]ic, fem., gen. -e ; " wenwort," is of 

sorts: — 1. cluphc, or cloved ; Lb. I. Iviii., 

II. Ii. 3. 2. cneoehce, kneed ; id. I. Ixvi. 
Wenwort must be so called from curing 
■wens ; for wens are good, says Salmon, 
" Alexander, Archangel, Asarabacca, 
" Celandine, Chickweed, Coriander, 
" Crow foot, Cresses, Darnel, Endive, 
" Figwort, Laser wort, Lentils, Melilot, 
" Purslane, Thorowwax, Turnsole, 
" Wound wort." Among these, for 1, 
Eununculus ucris, as crow foot, Eanun- 
culus Jicaria, as the lesser celandine, and 
for 2, Darnel, Lolium temulentum, are the 
most likely. 

j7ejimob, gen. -es, masc, wormwood, Arte- 
misia absinthium. Lb. II. xxii., Ixv. 5 ; 

III. iii. 2, xxxi. 

Se ]ula j'ejxmob, Anthemis coiula ? Lb. 
III. viii. 

]7ice, imjch elm, Ulmus mordana, occ. Lb. 1. 
xxxvi. Declension and gender unas- 

p'lpel, raasc, a beetle. Lb. III. xviii. 

To]ib]iij:el, Scarabaus stercorarius, 
Linn. Geotrupes, others Lb. III. xviii. It 
feeds on and lays its eggs in dung. 

}7ilbe (with final vowel), wild, silvestris- 
f ilbe apra. Gl. K. 21. (Lye inexact), 
pilbe bap. Gl. It. 20. (Lye inexact). 
]7ilbe oxa. Gl. R. 19, which has also 
pilbe cynnep hopp. 20. pilbe cyjijet. 

^ilbe — cont. 

Gl. E. 39, but pilb, 44. j7ilbe popig. 
G1.R.41. Hpicpilbepinseapb. G1.R.39. 
J7ilbe laccuce. Gl. R. 44. (Lye inexact). 
filbe neep. Gl. R. 42 and 44. (Lye 
inexact), yilbe prngejib. Gl. R. 39. 
J7ilbe pyp. Gl. R. 11. (Lye inexact). 
To some of Lyes quotations are attached 
no references. j7ilbbeo)i is a compound, 
sometimes written pilbeop, and the geni- 
tive plural is pilbbeopa. The separate 
words are found Nan pilbe beoji. Hom. 
I. 486. )>apa'S pilbe mob. S.S. 168, 
line 755, where mob is neuter. Lib. I. 
xxxvii. 2. Probably more examples of 
e dropped, than as above, may appear. 

Pylpen ? or -ne ? gen. -e, a she wolf, lupa. 
Quad. ix. 7. Germ. Wolfinn. Cf. 

]7yllec8eppe, -cyjipe, fem., gen. -an, fenu- 
greek, Trigonellafcenum grcecum, from Gl. 
Brux. Gl. Dun. 

I^mbelpcjieaji, neut., gen. -ep, windle straw, 
cynosurus cristalus. Lb. I. iii. 12. 
Jamieson. Nemnich. The expression 
" two edged " belongs perhaps to the 
spike. But Mylne (Indigenous Botany) 
did, and the author of the name, Par- 
kinson, must have understood Agrostis 
spica venti. 

j7ypm, masc, gen, -ep, any creeping thing, 
ivorm, snake, dragon, mite, insect, acarus, 
vermin. Lat. Vermis and Vermiculus. 
So multipedae are " many foot wormes," 
in Hollands Plinius. The numerous 
worms mentioned in the Saxon text are 
not all lumbrici. 

Anapyjim. See Ana. 
]'^iinb]ij]Mn, hand worm, perhaps trans- 
lating Keipiai as if from Xelp. Keipiai 
occurs as lumbrici lati in Actios, 492 e 
Lb. I. 1. " Teredo, urcius, surio, Gl. in 
Lye. Surio, or Sirio, which is the name 
of the itch mite in many European lan- 
guages, seems to me to be only Cirio 
from x^'V > ^^^ ^t the same time an 
error for Kfipia. The lumbricus latus is 
l^ania solium or Bothriocefalos latus. 



J7y]im — cont. 

In Cod. Exon. p. 427, 24, it is said to be 
" delved," whence the translation " earth 
" worm " seemed justified. 
Smoesapypm, see letter S. 
Deappypm, dew worm, in Lb. I. 1., 
infests the feet. 

Een5py)im, Ren-, ringed uiorm, a kind 
of belly worm. Alex. Trallianus divides 
the worms which infest the human body 
into three, of which this is one. TlpSnoy 
Tolvvv rifias elSevai 8e7, ws rpirrdv elpriKa- 
(Tiv oi ira\a.w\ T(hv kKjxivOoiv elSos, fv jxkv 
TO ixiKpov irdvv KoX Xiirrdv, 'o KaXelv 
tlwOaffLv aaicdpiSas, Sevnpov 5e tovtuv 
(TTpuyyvAov,] koI rp'nov aWo tc» tw>' 
■K\aTf:Lwv. Ed. Ideler, p. 315. To the 
same effect M. Psellus in the same 
vol. p. 241. The moderns have more 
sorts. Hb. Ixv. See Lb. I. xlviii. xlix. 
They seem to derive their name from 
the rings of some of them. An earth- 
worm is Anseltjncce. 

pypmpyjic, ivormwort, Seduni album or 
villosum. Wilde Prick madame. (Lyte) 
Lb. I. xxxix. ; L Ivii. ; HI. ii. 6. 
Chenopodium anthelminticum is Ameri- 

J7y]ip, gen. -e, fem., recovery, valetudo in 
melius conversa. Lb. I. iv, 5. Nu ij- 
j^ffifc bsejin cymen apsecneb to pyppe 
]>eopcum ebpea, C.E. 5, line 8, noiv is 
ihitt bairn come, raised up for the recovery 
of the Hebrews from their miseries. The 
passage is congratulatory. C.E. 336, 
line 5. 

J7y]itun5, fem., gen. -e, a preparation of 
worts. Quad. iv. 5. 

]7itmBe]iep pypc, j^ihcmasjiep pypt, " Wlht- 
" mars wort." Lb. I, ii. 13. " Britta- 
" nica Vihtmeres vyrt vel heaven hin- 
" dele," Gl. Dun. It may therefore be 
spoonwort, scurvy grass, Cochleariu 
Amjlica. See ]>8epen hybele. 

^I'Se- p'l'SojJinbe, gen. -an, fem. ?, withy- 
wind, convolvidus, both Conv. sepium and 
arvensis. Lb. I. ii. 20; I. vi. 7; I. xlix. 

J7i'Sis, masc, gen. juSiep, a withy, a willow, 
salix. Lb. I. Ixxiv. JEG. 13, line .'54. 

f onpceajra and ^a ponpceajran, Lb. II. 
xxxviii. and contents, may be taken either 
as lividness or meagreness. The passage 
of Philagrios, does not exhibit the word. 

j/jiaetcc, gen. -ep, crosswort, galitim crucia- 
tum. Lb. III. i., viii. Lacn. 12,29. Wa- 
rantia j'pet, gl. Leechd. vol. I. p. 376. 
" Vermiculum . i . parance . i . protte," 
Gl. Ilarl. 978, with " cruciata maior 
" warence," Gl. M, The Galium tribe 
were often called by names which mark 
their relationship to the Madder, thus 
Vermiculus, properly the cochineal insect 
used to get a red dye, transfers its name 
to Madder, Kubia tinctorum, and Mad- 
der gives its appellations to the Galiunis 
its relatives. " Cruciata maior . i . 
" warence . anglice madir," Gl. Harl. 

pububenb, -bmb, gen. -es, masc. ?, wood- 
bind. Hb. clxxii.; Lb. I. ii. 21 ; IIL ii. 1 ; 
III. xxxi., convolvulus, from the leaves of 
the drawing, the likeness to the caper 
plant, and modern usage ; which, besides 
convolvulus, applies the name also to tlie 

p'ubu cejiuiUe, wood chervil, cow parsley, 
Anthriscus silvestris. Ce]iuille being an 
English adaptation of Cerefolium, Xaipi- 
(pvKKov (Columella), and ]iubu being 
taken in the sense of our wild, we as- 
certain at once, that we have here the 
Chairophyllum silvestre, which Koch 
and Hooker now name Anthriscus silv. 
Ncmnich agrees, and Lytes description. 
In lib. Ixxxvi. wood chervil is made to 
be Asparagus agrestis, and the drawings 
in MSS. v., T., A. have clearly the 
characteristics of Asparagus officinalis. 
If our Saxon interpreter held his opinion 
with deliberation, he differs from the 
rest of our English world. Asparagus 
in MS. Bodl. 130, is drawn like the 
mature plant. 

J7ubu lecfcjuc, masc, wood lettuce, ivild 
sleepwort, Lactuca scariola is lib. xxxi. 



]7ui?u leccjnc — cont. 
Lactuca sylvatica. Masc. G.D. 11a. The 
gloss in H. Scariola must be accepted ; 
Sir J. E. Smith turns it Friclily Lettuce ; 
Sir W. Hooker says it is found on waste 
ground in Cambridgeshire, at Southend, 
Essex, and formerly near Islington. He 
adds that the garden lettuce, L. sativa, is 
not a native of this country. " Lactvica, 
" letuse, slepewort, idem ; domestica et 
" campestris." Also " Lactuca agrestis, 
" rostrum porcinum . mylk thistell." MS. 
Ilarl. 3388. " Lactuca silvatica idem 
" wild letys, \>\s erbe has leuys like to a 
" thystell, and they ben scharpe "t ken "t 
" hit has a floure of purpure colour, "t 
" hit groys in feldes "t in whet," MS. 
Bodl. 536, fol. 17. The word purpure 
was in early times an exact repetition 
of purpureus, which the Romans applied 
to any bright colour. The flower of 
Lactuca scariola is yellow. Lactuca sil- 
vatica has yellow rays in MS. Bodl. 130, 
but the leaves are too like sword blades. 
It is there glossed Suge J?hiftel, that is, 
sow thistle. " Scarola . endiua . tx°nna 
(?) lactuca agrestis," Gl. M. The 
drawing in MS. T is an exact representa- 
tion of i. scar?o7a, glossed Branca vrsina, 
to which there is resemblance. 

p'ubu ]io]:e, hpoje, gen. -an: 1. Affodehis 
ramosus. In lib. xxxiii., liii. Woodroffe 
is astula regia, that is hastula regia, the 
royal sceptre, and all accounts agree that 
it is a kind of onion, an asfodelaceous 
plant, with a vast number of bulbs, 
" Lxxx. simul accvvatis sa»pe bulbis," 
" Plinius, xxi. 68 ; and though it has 
" transfeiTcd its name to the daffodil, 
" yet not that plant. Narcissus pseudo- 
" narcissus, is its equivalent. The As- 
phodelus is figured in IMS. V. fol. 28 a, 
but the flower is gone ; the drawing, as 
much as remains, matches that in Fuch- 
sius, p. 121. " Asphodellus, wode houe" 
(so), MS. Harl. 3388. " Astula regia. i . 
" wode rove," MS. llawl. C. 607. " Ilas- 
" tyca regia . i . woderofe." MS. Bodl. 536. 

]7ubu )ioj:e — cont. 

" Aff'odillus vude hofe," (.so), Gl. Dun. 
So Gl. M. Euchsius makes his goldwurz, 
asfodelus luteus, Gl. R. 40. Lacn. 69. 

2. Asperula odorata, modern usage. 
In MS. Bodl. 130 ; for hastula regia is 
drawn a true Asperula, with gloss in 
14th century hand " woodrofe." "Rubea 
" minor woodroff'," MS. Bodl. 178. 

pubupoi'e, gen. -an, fern., wild rose, dog- 
rose, hedgerose, rosa canina. Lb. I. 
xxxvii. 1. 

J7ubu peaxe, gen. -an, fern ? loood wax, 
wood loaxen, Genista tinctoria. Lb. I. 

xlvii. 2 ; III. XXX. 

]7ul]es camb, masc, gen. -cs, " wolfs- 
" comb," ivild teazle, Dipsacus silvestris. 
In Hb. cliii. translates xfM"'^*''"') "which 
in clvi. is turned by jailyej* csejd ; as the 
teazing wool is combing it, this has no 
surprise. The figure in MS. V. art. xxvi. 
is a teazle, so MS. T. The equivalent 
XafxaiiXaia was misunderstood by our 
interpreter. However x'*M'*'^*'<"' i* no 
teazle at all, but a stemless thistle, the 
Carlina acaulis, see eojojihuotu, Masc. 
Lacn. 3. 

^uUian, wipe with icool, lana dclergerc. 
Quad. vii. 4. 

]7unbel ? a wound, pi. jumbela, Hb. i. 11, 
cont., iv. 10, ix. 2. ]7uubeian, DD, 417, 

]7u]ime?, fem. ?, gen. -an, woad, Isatis 
tinctoria. Somn. in Lex, has a gloss, 
" Lutimi," which is woad. Lb. II. Ixv. 4. 
j7u]ime being properly any thing having 
the power of dying, not blue, but ver- 
milion ; and representing the venniculi 
or cochineal insects. 

l^eajiy, peojiy, wanting in something, ivSe-qs, 
cut (pdd opus est, as they interpret the 
Norse harfi. Whence 1, poor. 2, un- 
leavened, of bread. 3, skimmed, of milk. 
Lb. II. lii. 1. 



peapm, gut, pi. -ma)*, (juts, intestina. But 
i> sm£El}>eapme, Lb. IL xxxi. Da'Sybhe 
ajynep hme mib limbe]ie]ibe fceaj.Te on 
■Saec fmael'Seajime, P. A. 55. a, Then 
Ahner stabbed him with the hinder end of 
his spearshaft in the small gut. Gl. R. has 
both fma;l{?ea]imaj- and smajle Jjeajimaj-, 

pepejiopn, Jjejanjjojm, niasc, gen. -ej-, 
" tufty thorn," buckthorn, Bhamnus ca- 
tharticus and H.frangula, Lb. I. Ixiv. 
"Ramni. i. J^efe'horn," GL Harl. 978. 
So Gl. Arundel, 42, Gl. Dun., Gl. M. M. 
p. 162 a, 24. 

pegian for t>isan, press, pierce, by con- 
traction Jjyn, -which see. Lb. L xvii. 1. 
pupfce seK^sebe, C.E., p. 92, line 17. 
Lacn. 114. 

pelma, masc, gen. by analogy in -an ; 
lib. I. XXXV. Fojijjylmian in the Lam- 
beth Psalter is obscurare. Foji'Son J^e 
)jeo)'tpu ne beo^' }0]i>ylmobe vel yoy\- 
j*]'0]icene to J^e : T niht )*pa j-pa dasg bi5 
onlihceb. Quia tenebraj non obscura- 
buntur a te, et nox sicut dies illumina- 
bitur, Ps. cxxxviii. 11. Ne J^eapy he 
hopian no • Jiyj^jnim fojihylmeb • \> he 
Jjonan more, Judith x. = p. 2.3, line 1 2, 
Thwaites. Combined with burning brands 
of fire in Cod. Exon. p. 217, line 23 = 
MS. fol. 60 a, line 4. Compare Aia to 
eTrt(p4p€ii' Tovs Kara Trviyfihy Kivovvovs Koi 
Kai^iv T^v (fxipvyya, Dioskor. iv. 156, with 
Hb. clxxxi. 2, last words, pelma and heat 
go together in the Lb. In Hb. cxl. 1 , I do 
not find the words the Saxon had before 
him, but translate as guided by clxxxi. 

peoh hpeojiya, masc, kneecap, Lorica, Gl. 
llarl. , ge7iusculum. So " Whirl booau, 
the round bone of the knee, the patella," 
Gl. to Tim Bobbin. The bone has 
some similarity to lumbar and caudal 

peop, the dry disease, fern., gen. -e. See 
Jjeopabl. Fem. Lb. III. xxx., contents ; 
if Jjseiie be correct. 

peojiabl, fem., the dry disease or wasting 
away. Lb. II. Ixiii. A different signifi- 

peopabl — conl. 

cation was assigned by Somner, whose 
words are " Deop, '5eo]ie, morbus qui- 
" dam,fortasse, inflammatio, phlegmone, 
" an inflammation, a blistering heat of 
" the blood or a swelling against nature 
" being hot and red." Probably this 
conjecture of Somners was founded 
partly on the etymological considerations 
which follow, peoji seems to have for 
its kindred words )>j\i dry, J'ypjT thirst, 
that is, dryness, the German dorre, dry, 
and a large number of other words, for 
which see Spoon and Sparrow, arts 478, 
592, etc. In the German Diirrsucht 
(dry sickness') atrophy, meagreness, con- 
sumption, the withering efi'ects of dry- 
ness have produced the expression. The 
Latin equivalent for these ideas would 
be Tabes, which is treated of by Celsus 
(iii. 22) as having for its species arpocpia, 
atrophy, Kaxe^ia, corrupt habit of body, 
and (pdiais, consumption, peojiabl ap- 
pearing in the feet. Lb. xlvii., is Tabes 
iu pedibus, such a wasting away of the 
feet as arises from ulceration produced 
by an over long journey on foot. That 
the disease is spoken of as local some- 
times follows from the teaching of 
Celsus : " Huic (scil. cachexiae) prater 
" tabem, illud quoque nonnunquam ac- 
" cidere solet, ut per assiduas pustulas 
" aut ulcera, simama cutis exasperetur, 
" vel aliquas corporis partes intumes- 
" cant." That worms belong to the 
disease is paralleled in German, which 
has its Diirremaden, worms which cause 
a meagre habit and atrophy. 

peo]i]'yp-, 'Syo]i]'ypr, fem., gen. -e, plough 
man's spikenard. Inula conyza, formerl}- 
called C. squarrosa. Germ. Durrwurz, 
Doorkraut ; which is as above. Lb. III. 
xxx. Lacn. 40. 

pymel, a thumbstall. Lb. I. Ixxv. Thimble 
is the same word, the material is not in 
the syllables. Cf. Gemi. Diiumling, a 
thumbstall; Dutch, Duymelinck, tegmen 
sive munimen pollicis, theca pollicts 



pymel — cont. 

(Kilian). pymel seems to have been 
originally an adjective, hence its use in 
Laws of Ine. xlix. Duymelinck in 
Kilian is also a wren, a bird as big as 
ones thumb. 

pyn, prset. j'ybe, p. part. \>yb ; squeeze, 
press, stab. Lb. IL iii. v., Quadr. vi. 15. 
Norse at Jsja. The infinitive ))yban of 
dictionaries has no existence. Gehyn, 
squeeze, Solom. and Sat. p. 150, line 34. 
Ge^-y^^ id. p. 162, line 607. See A>yn. 
It is a contraction of higan. Beda, 611, 
41. The present Ic J^i, fodio, JEG. 32, 
line 45. 

pinan, grow moist; the intransitive to 
J'senan, moisten, as Lb. I. ii. 21. 

pujre t)irrel,masc.,gen.-les; " tufty thistle," 
sow thistle, sonchus oleraceus, Bot. Also 
J>u]>i)tel, Germ. Dudistel, Lb. IIL viii. 

punoiicla)iie, fern., gen. -an ; bugle, aiuga 
reptans, if we may rely on a gl. Leech- 
doms, vol. I. p. 374. " Consolida media, 
" t-undre clouere," Gl. Harl. 978. On 
consolida media, sec Fuchsius, p. 38G. 

punojij'yjit:, fern., gen. -e, houseleek, sem- 
pervivum tectorum, so called from its 
averting thunderbolts ; Grimm. Mythol. 
clxi. : an allusion to this is found in some 
copies of Dioskorides, iv. 189. 

punpange, -I'en^e, gen. -an, neut. as j'enge, 
temple, timpus. Lb. L i. 8; IIL 1. 

punjiange — cont. 
Plural in -%e. Lb. III. xli. Gej-loh J>a 
mib anum byfcle bu^an hi)- l>unj'enj;an, 
Judges iv. 21, where, I presume, bujau 
is not for begen, but rather begeonb. 
MQ. 12, line 16. 

f'paenan, make to dwindle, minuerc, it appears 
lib. ii. 7, compai'ed with Dpman, lib. 
ii. 4. So Lb. I. xxxi. 1. This signifi- 
cation now seems too conjectural. 

2. To soften, mollire. Tiloben hi)- 
Isecai* 1 'Sone j-pile mib j'ealpum T mib 
behenum gel^jijenan polbon, Bed., 611,19, 
Curabant medici hunc adpositis pigmeii- 
iorum fomentis emollire. Done unjje- 
J'jjsejian ppyle mib 'Sygbe •) Spenbe, ibid, 
line 40, Tumorem ilium infcstum horum 
adpositione co?nprimere ac mollire curabat. 

3. Irrigate. Foja \>woa. gip "ji paeteji hi 
ne 5e]?pEenbe, 'Sonne bjiugobe hio, etc. 
Boet. p. 78, line 27. If the water had 
not irrigated her, the earth, she would 
have got dry, etc. Da abpugoban hcoii- 
tan j;e'5p8enan mib ^sem plopenban y^on 
hip lape, P. A. 14 a, Corda arenlia 
doctrines fluentis irrigare. Donne pio 
milbheoprnep ^cep lapeopep je^psen't^' 
T Selec'5 'Sa bpeofc bsep sehie]ienbep, 
P. A. 27 a, Quando hoc in aiidientis pec- 
tore pietas prcedicantis rigat. Cf J^aenan. 

l'']iepan, turn. See Se)?pe)ian. 


Achilles, Hb. xc, clxxv. 5, 

-/Elfeed, king; in communication with the 

Patriarch of Jerusalem, about healing 

drugs, Lb. II. Ixiv. 

Bald, owner of the Leechbook MS., Lb. 
p. 298. 

Chiron, Hb. xxxvi. 

CiLD, scribe of the Leechbook MS., Lb. 
p. 298. 

CoLUMBA, Saint, Vol. I. p. .39.5. 

Dun, a leech, Lb. p. 292. 

Elias or Helias II., Patriarch of Jeru- 
salem, sends medical prescriptions to 
King iElfred. For what is known of 
him see Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, 
Vol. IIL col. 302, and the Bollandist 
Acta Sanctorum for May 12, p. xxxix. 

FoRNET, in Islandic Fomjot, with the ter- 
mination, Fornjotr, gives name to an 
herb unknown, Fornets palm, or hand, 
Lb. I. Ixx., Ixxi. His sons were rulers 
of air, fire and wind (Skaldskaparmal, 
p, 67, ed. Reykjavik) : his name occurs 
in the elder Edda (Hrafegaldr, stanza 
17). He is reckoned among the Eotens 
or giants (Snorra Edda, p. Ill, ed. 
Reykjavik) ; and he was felled by Thor 
(ib. p. 61). 

" Garmund, servant of God, Vol. I. p. 385. 
Perhaps Gerraanus, bishop of Auxerre. 
See William of Malmesbury, p. 3C, and 
note, ed. Historical Society. Also Acta 
Sanctorum, July 31. Wsermund, the 
ancestor of Oifa and Penda (Sax, Chron. 
626, 775), belongs to the fifth century-, 
and was no saint. Gormimd, patriarch 
of Jerusalem about 1118, was not cano- 
nized, and could not be within the in- 
tellectual reach of the author of that 

HoMEROS, Hb. xlix., Ixvi. 

Leleloth invoked. Lb. p. 140. 

Longintjs, the soldier who pierced the 
Saviours side. Vol. I. p. 393. 

Mercurius, Hb, xlix., Ixxiii. 

On, Lb. I. xlvi. 1. See Glossary in Ana- 

OxA, a leech. Lb. I. xlvii. 

P^on, 'properly an epithet of Apollo, 
Hb. Ixvi. 

Patron invoked, Lb, p. 140, 

Plinius, Lb, I. Ixxxvii. 1. 

Telephus, Hb. xc, 

TiECON, Lb. p. 140. 

Vlixes, Hb. Ixxiii. 

WiTMiER. Lb. I. ii, 14, Glossary. 


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January 1865. 


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